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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(2001)~1권2호(2001) |수록논문 수 : 22
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1권2호(2001년 08월) 수록논문
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KCI후보

1T cell costimulation by CD28 , CTLA - 4 , and ICOS

저자 : Kyung Mi Lee

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 95-103 (9 pages)

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T cells play a central role in the initiation and regulation of the immune response to foreign antigens. Full activation of T cells requires the engagement of T cell receptor complex (TCR) and the binding of a second costimulatory receptor to its ligand expressed on antigen presenting cells (APC). Among the molecules known to provide costimulatory function, CD28 has been the most dominant and potent costimulatory molecule. However, the function of CD28 is becoming more complex due to the recent discovery of its structural homologue, CTLA-4 and ICOS. This review summarizes the biology and physiologic function of each of these receptors, and further focuses on the biochemical mechanism underlying the function of these receptors. Complete understanding of the CD28/CTLA-4/ICOS costimulatory pathway will provide the basis for developing new therapeutic approaches for immunological dieseases.

KCI후보

2노화의 기전과 예방

저자 : 김재식(Jay Sik Kim)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 104-108 (5 pages)

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Aging is a senescence and defined as a normal physiologic and structural alterations in almost all organ systems with age. As Leonard Hayflick, one of the first gerontologist s to propose a theory of biologic aging, indicated that a theory of aging or longevity satisfies the changes of above conditions to be universal, progressive, intrinsic and deleterious. Although a number of theories have been proposed, it is now clear that cell aging (cell senescence) is multifactorial . No single mechanism can account for the many varied manifestations of biological aging. Many theories have been proposed in attempt to understand and explain the process of aging. Aging is effected in individual by genetic factors, diet, social conditions, and the occurrence of age-related diseases as diabetes, hypertension, and arthritis. It involves an endogenous molecular program of cellular senescence as well as continuous exposure throughout life to adverse exogenous influences, leading to progressive infringement on the cell`s survivability so called wear and tear. So we could say the basic mechanism of aging depends on the irreversible and universal processes at cellular and molecular level. The immediate cause of these changes is probably an interference in the function of cell`s macromolecules-DNA, RNA, and cell proteins-and in the flow of information between these macromolecules. The crucial questions, unanswered at present , concerns what causes these changes in truth. Common theories of aging are able to classify as followings for the easy comprehension. 1. Biological, 1) molecular theories - a. error theory, b . Programmed aging theory, c. somatic mutation theory, d. transcription theory, e. run-out -of program theory, 2) cellular theories - a. wear and tear theory, b . Cross-link theory, c. clinker theory, d. free radical theory, e. waste product theory, 3) system level theory-a. immunologic/autoimmune theory, 4) others - a. telomere theory, b . Rate of living theory, c. stress theory, etc. Prevention of aging is theoretically depending on the cause or theory of aging. However no single theory is available and no definite method of delaying the aging process is possible by this moment . The most popular action is anti-oxidant therapy using vitamin E and C, melatonin and DHEA, etc. Another proposal for the reverse of life-span is TCP-17 and IL- 16 administration from the mouse bone marrow B cell line study for the immunoglobulin VDJ rearrangement with RAG- 1 and RAG-2. Recently conclusional suggestion for the extending of maximum life-span thought to be the calory restriction.

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3Interferon consensus sequence binding protein : Not essential for interferon α - mediated antiviral response to vesicular - stomatitis virus infection in HL - 60 cells

저자 : 박병규(Byung Kiu Park)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 109-115 (7 pages)

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Background: The role of the interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), a member of interferon regulatory factor family, in protecting against a vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) infection has not been firmly elucidated. Thus, it was investigated utilizing the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells which do not express ICSBP. Methods: HL-60 cells were stably transfected with plasmid containing cDNA for either ICSBP or DNA binding domain (DBD) and tested for their VSV-susceptibilities. The susceptibility of each transfectant group to a VSV infection was determined by a plaque assay at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h post-infection in the presence (500 IU/ml) or absence of interferon α(IFN α). Result s: In the absence of IFN α, the three groups showed similar sensitivities to a VSV infection. However, when pre-treated with IFN, the viral titers in both the ICSBP and control clones steadily decreased over 48 h of incubation, indicating the existence of IFN α-mediated protection against VSV infection. The IFN α-treated ICSBP clones appeared to be more resistant to infection compared with the control clones, although the difference was not great . On the contrary, the viral titers in the IFN α-treated DBD clones increased at 24 h then decreased by 48 h. Conclusion: The expression of truncated ICSBP (DBD) does not appear to underlie the impaired protection against a VSV infection in the DBD clones, since even the control clones lacking ICSBP were protected from a VSV infection. This suggests that ICSBP does not play a critical role in the IFN α- mediated anti-VSV response of HL-60 cells, although it appears to confer some resistance to a VSV infection.

KCI후보

4Nitric oxide - induced immune switching in experimental inflammatory autoimmune diseases

저자 : Hyun Jeong Kwak , Hyung Jin Kim , Jae Sung Park , Chang Duk Jun , Mun Young Lee , Tae Kyun Shin , Hun Taeg Chung

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 116-125 (10 pages)

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Background: Nitric oxide (NO) production has been described as a double-edged sword eliciting both proand anti-inflammatory effect s in different immune reactions. This work was undertaken to investigate the immunoregulatory role of NO in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) and experimental allergic uveitis (EAU). Method: We examined whether molsidomine (MSDM), a NO donor, administration to the myelin basic protein (MBP)- or interphotoreceptor retinoid binding protein (IRBP)-immunized rat s could suppress EAE development by shifting toward the Th2 cytokine response. In the EAE experiment s, the rat s were treated orally with MSDM (10 mg/kg/day) at the early stage (-1 ∼4 days) or throughout the experimental period (-1 ∼15 days). Result s: This resulted in significant amelioration of the disease and mild clinical symptoms, while MBP-immunization without MSDM administration showed severe EAE development . A marked reduction in inflammation was also observed in the spinal cord, indicating the crucial role of NO in the pathogenesis of EAE in in vivo. In the EAU experiments, a 24 h pre-treatment with MSDM prior to IRBP immunization resulted in significant inhibition of the disease. Furthermore, MSDM administration for 2 1 days completely reduced the incidence and severity of EAU. To investigate whether MSDM could modulate cytokine switching from Th 1 to Th2, culture supernatants of MBP- or IRBP-stimulated inguinal lymphocytes were analyzed. MSDM treatment enhanced IL- 10 secretion but decreased IFN-γ. IL-4 was undetectable in all groups. In contrast , the MBP-or IRBP-immunized rat s without MSDM secreted high concentrations of IFN-γ, but low concentrations of IL- 10. Conclusion: In conclusion, NO administation suppresses EAE and EAU by modulating the Th 1/Th2 balance during inflammatory immune responses. This work further suggest s that NO may be useful in the therapeutic control of autoimmune disease.

KCI후보

5백작약 조다당분획에 의한 B 세포 증식의 특성

저자 : 박혜란(Hae Ran Park) , 함연호(Yeon Ho Ham) , 이성태(Sung Tae Yee) , 백상기(Sang Gi Paik) , 조성기(Sung Kee Jo)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 126-134 (9 pages)

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Background : Paeonia japonica Miyabe is a medicinal plant which has been widely used as a component of blood-building decoctions (Chinese medicinal concept : Bu-Xie). The immunopharmacological characteristics of the extract of Paeonia j ap onica (PJ) were investigated. Methods : The effects of fractions of PJ extract on lymphocyte proliferation were measured by H3 -thymidine incorporation assay . The proliferated lymphocyte subsets were analyzed in flow cytometry . The subset cell populations of spleen cells were separated by magnetic cell separation system, and their proliferation by the extract were investigated. The effect of the extract on antibody production was determined in mice challenged with sheep red blood cells (SRBC) using hemolytic plaque forming cell assay. Results : Spleen cells were proliferated by water extract of PJ. Polysaccharide fraction (PJ-P) of the extract was most active in the proliferation. It was found in flow cytometry that the lymphocyte subset proliferated by PJ-P was B cell population. Among the separated subset cell populations, T cell-depleted cell population and macrophage-depleted cell population were most proliferated by PJ-P. However, positively selected populations of B cells and T cells were not proliferated by PJ-P. These result s indicate that B cell proliferation by PJ-P may require the assistance of macrophages or T cells. These result s suggest that firstly PJ-P may stimulate macrophages or T cells, and then B cells are activated. The number of antibody-secreting cells was increased by administration of PJ-P in mice immunized with SRBC as a T-dependent antigen. Conclusion : These result s suggest that macrophages and accessory cells are directly activated by PJ-P and then helper T cells and B cells are indirectly activated. As the results, immune responses might be coordinately improved. In conclusion, PJ-P, a polysaccharide of P. j ap onica, may be a characteristic immunostimulator, which is analogous to polysaccharides such as lentinan, PSK and ginsan.

KCI후보

6HIV 감염과 MICA ( MHC class I chain - related A ) 대립 유전자의 연관성

저자 : 강문원(Moon Won Kang) , 위성헌(Seong Heon Wie) , 김양리(Yang Ree Kim) , 이주실(Joo Shil Lee) , 표철우(Chul Woo Pyo) , 한훈(Hoon Han) , 김태규(Tai Gyu Kim)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 135-142 (8 pages)

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Background: A large number of diseases occur in association with specific HLA-B or-C alleles. Recently a new gene, termed maj or histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A (MICA), has been identified in close proximity to HLA-B. The function of this gene is still unknown. However, it is structurally similar to HLA class I genes. MICA gene is polymorphic and is potentially associated with several diseases. Methods: To evaluate the association of MICA gene in Korean patient s with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV- 1) infections, Polymerase chain reaction-Sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) was done for MICA alleles in the extracellular exons, and a microsatellite analysis for GCT repeat polymorphisms in the TM exon was also completed. Results: In 199 Korean healthy controls, 7 alleles were observed and the frequencies for each allele were MICA008 (44.7%), MICA0 10 (34.2%), MICA002 (31.7%), MICA004 (23.6%), MICA0 12 (2 1.6%), MICA009 ( 19.6%), and MICA007 (6.5%). When 65 HIV seropositive patients were analyzed, MICA007 allele frequency was significantly higher than in controls ( 15.4% vs 6.5 %, RR=2.6, p<0.04). In contrast, the frequencies of other MICA alleles and microsatellite alleles in the transmembrane region of MICA gene were not significantly different between HIV seropositive patients and controls. The tight linkage between MICA alleles in the extracellular exons and GCT repeat polymorphisms in the TM exon was observed as follows; MICA002/A9, MICA004/A6, MICA007/A4, MICA008/A5. 1, MICA0 10/A5, and MICA0 12/A4 in both groups. No significant difference between patient s and controls was observed in the haplotype frequencies of MICA alleles in the extracellular exons and GCT repeat polymorphisms in the TM exon. Conclusion: The data suggest that immune functions related with MICA gene may affect a HIV infections.

KCI후보

7종양 표지 인자로서 혈장 Transforming Growth Factor - β1 에 대한 연구

저자 : 신훈(Hoon Shin) , 임창기(Chang Ki Lim) , 최인영(In Young Choi) , 이두연(Doo Yun Lee) , 노동영(Dong Yong Noh) , 류민희(Min Hee Ryu) , 이효석(Hyo Suk Lee) , 방영주(Yung Jue Bang) , 박종섭(Jong Sup Park) , 진승원(Seung Won Jin)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 143-150 (8 pages)

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Background : Many investigators have found transforming growth factor- 1 (TGF- 1) to be elevated in tumors. Changes in responsiveness to TGF- 1 have been linked to malignant transformation, tumor progression and tumor regression. Many malignant cell lines of epithelial or hematopoietic origin are refractory to the antiproliferative effects of TGF- 1. However, a little is known about the association of TGF- 1 with progression of malignant tumor. Methods : In this study, we measured the plasma level of TGF- 1 in various cancer patients and evaluated the utility of plasma TGF- 1 as a possible tumor marker. Plasma TGF- 1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in cancer patients and normal controls. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) as tumor marker were compared with TGF- 1 in the aspects of sensitivity and specificity . Result s : The mean of plasma TGF- 1 levels was 1.2 19 ± 0.834 ng/ml in normal controls, 5.491 ± 3.598 ng/ml in breast cancer, 12.670 ± 10.386 ng/ml in lung cancer, 5.747 ± 3.228 ng/ml in hepatocellular carcinoma and 10.854 ± 7.996 ng/ml in cervical cancer. In comparison with CEA and AFP, TGF- 1 is more sensitive. Conclusion : We conclude that the high levels of TGF- 1 are common in the plasma of cancer patients. These result s suggest that the plasma TGF- 1 level can be a potent tumor marker in various cancer patients.

KCI후보

8한국인의 대장암 세포주에서 p53 돌연변이의 발견과 발현에 관한 연구

저자 : 정지현(Ji Yeon Jung) , 오상진(Sang Jin Oh)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 151-161 (11 pages)

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Background: Inactivation in p53 tumor suppressor gene through a point mutation and deletion is one of the most frequent genetic changes found in human cancer, with 50% of an incidence. This high rate of mutation mostly suggests that the gene plays a central role in the development of cancer and the mutations detected so far were found in exons 5 to 8. Mutation of p53 locus produced accumulation of abnormal p53 protein, and negative regulation of cell proliferation and transcriptional activation as a suppressor of transformation were lost . In addition, inhibition of its normal cellular function of wild-type by mutant is an important step in tumorigenesis. Method: 4 colon cancer cell lines (SNU C1, C2A, C4, C5) were examined for mutation in exons 5 to 8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene by PCR-SSCP analysis and expression pattern by western blotting and immunoprecipitation. p53-mediated transactivation ability were examined by CAT assay and base substitution of p53 in SNU C2A cell were detected by DNA sequencing. Result s: 1) SNU C2A cell and SNU C5 cell were detected mobility shifts each in exon 5 and exon 7 of p53 gene by the PCR-SSCP method, implicating being of p53 mutation. 2) 3 colon cancer cell lines (SNU C1, SNU C2A, SNU C5) expressed wild type and mutant type p53 protein. 3) In northern blot experiment, SNU C2A and SNU C5 cell expressed high level of p53 mRNA. 4) Result s of p53-mediated transactivation in colon cancer cell lines by CAT assay represented only SNU C2A cell has transcriptional activity. 5) DNA sequencing in SNU C2A cell showed missense mutation in codon 179 of one allele, histidine to arginine and wild type p53 in the other allele. Conclusion: Colon cancer cell lines showed correlation with mutation in p53 gene and accumulation of abnormal p53 protein. Colon cancer cell SNU C2A retained p53-mediated transactivation as heterozygous p53 with one mutant allele in 179 codon and the other wild-type allele.

KCI후보

9표적세포의 Nitric oxide 합성이 LAK 세포의 세포독성에 대한 예민도에 미치는 영향

저자 : 박성일(Sung Il Park) , 박주형(Ju Hyung Park) , 이치국(Chi Khg Lee) , 김신재(Shin Chae Kim) , 최보금(Bo Geum Choi) , 곽재용(Jae Yong Kwak) , 임창열(Chang Yeol Yim)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 162-169 (8 pages)

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Background: Nitric oxide (NO), a cytotoxic molecule is produced in various tissues including tumor cells during interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy . Lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells are induced during IL-2 therapy, and have cytotoxic activity against tumor cells. The current study investigated the effects of NO synthesized in target cells or exposure of target cells to NO on the sensitivity of target cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity. Methods: Cytotoxicity was measured using 4 h chromium release assays. LAK cells which were induced by a 4 day incubation of BALB/c mouse splenocytes with IL-2 (6,000 IU/mL) were employed as effector cells. RD-995 skin tumor cells originated from a C3H/HeN mouse were employed as target cells. NO synthesis in target cells was induced by a 24 h incubation of RD-995 cells with IFN (25 U/mL), TNF (50 U/mL) and IL- 1 (20 U/mL). S-nitrosyl acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an NO donor, was used to expose target cells to NO. NG -monomethyl-L-arginine (MLA) and carboxy-PTIO were added during cytotoxicity assays to inhibit NO synthesis, and to scavenge NO produced by target cells, respectively . Results: Sensitivity of NO-producing RD-995 cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity was decreased by addition of MLA and carboxy-PTIO during cytotoxicity assays. However, the two reagents had no effect on the sensitivity of non-NO-producing RD-995 cells. Pretreatment of RD-995 target cells with SNAP increased the sensitivity in comparison with untreated cells. Conclusions: Sensitivity of target cells to LAK cell cytotoxicity is increased by target cell NO synthesis or exposure to NO. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether these in vitro results have relevance to in vivo phenomena.

KCI후보

10Macrophages 로부터 IL - 1β 분비 및 전사에 있어서 한국산 겨우살이 추출물 M11C ( non - lectin components ) 의 효과

저자 : 이성태(Sung Tae Yee) , 장성호(Sung Ho Chang) , 전명하(Myung Ha Jun) , 강태봉(Tae Bong Kang) , 문세환(Se Hwan Mun) , 이준호(Jun Ho Lee) , 성낙술(Nak Sul Seong) , 김종배(Jong Bae Kim) , 허억(Erk Her)

발행기관 : 대한면역학회 간행물 : Immune Network 1권 2호 발행 연도 : 2001 페이지 : pp. 170-178 (9 pages)

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Background: Korean mistletoe (Viscum album) extract has been found to posses immunostimulatory activity. In this study, Korean mistletoe extract , M11C (non-lectin components), was used to know whether this extract might activate mouse peritoneal macrophages to produce interleukin 1 β(IL- 1 β). Methods: Hemagglutination assay was carried out to examine whether M11C contained a lectin or not . To know the effect of M11C on the production of IL- 1 β, the macrophages were treated by the M11C, and then collected the supernatant (M11C stimulated macrophages-conditioned media; MMCM). MMCM was analyzed for the IL- 1 βquantification and mRNA expression by means of ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively . Result s: Maximum effective dose and time of M11C on IL- 1 βproduction from macrophages were 20 ㎍/㎖ and 8 hours, respectively . This ELISA data was reconfirmed by immunoblotting assay . Indicating that M11C is a good candidate for an immunomodulator. The dose and time dependent effect s of M11C on the expression of IL- 1 βmRNA from macrophages was also shown
in expression of mRNA detected by RT-PCR. Treatment dose and time for the maximum expression of IL-1 βmRNA were 20 ㎍/㎖and 4 hours, respectively . Maximum gene expression of IL- 1 βwas much earlier than maximum production of it . Conclusion: As result s, Korean mistletoe extract , M11C, may be used for an immunomodulator. This will be able to make up for and solve the problems caused by existent immunoagent with many adverse effects through many other studies in future including one molecule extraction.

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