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Korea Journal of Chinese Linguistics

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1991)~99권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 1,480
중국언어연구
99권0호(2022년 04월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1한어병음자모 'iu'의 음운 재고

저자 : 심소희 ( Shim Sohee ) , 董聰 ( Dong Cong )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-32 (32 pages)

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漢語拼音字母是在“廢除漢字”的前提下設為漢字的替代文字, 因此設計字母時優先考慮了“文字功能和效率的文字學原則”。但是, 由於中國政府語言文字政策的變動, 將“漢語拼音字母”改為補充漢字功能的輔助文字。不顧最初設定的字母的設計原則, 將“漢語拼音字母”識別為“漢語拼音符號”, 也給今天的漢語教育帶來了不少的弊端。本文通過漢語拼音字母'iu'集中介紹了“字母”和“符號”的差異。
漢語拼音字母'iu'單從字面上看是字母i和u結合的“復元音”,而實際發音是[iəʊ], 是“韻頭+韻腹+韻尾”結構的“中響復元音”。在≪漢語拼音方案≫≪韻母表≫中有這樣一個備註: “如果iou前面沒有聲母, 標記為 'iou;如果iou前面有聲母, 寫成'-iu' ”。這種規定可以在趙元任的≪國語羅馬字的研究≫中找到依據。趙元任說: “字要優先考慮'形狀'”, 提出“文字尙形”原則. 另外, 他還明確表示: “於分辨上無妨礙處, 字形要求短”, 盡可能考慮短的字形。也就是說, 趙元任沒有按照字母發音的原理, 而是優先考慮字母的視覺效果, 設計了字母。因此, “零聲母+iou、聲母+iu”的規則完全是標記上的原則, 並不是與實際發音相結合而設定的。


The Chinese Phonetic Alphabet was designed to offer a reasonable substitute to the complexity and inaccessibility of Chinese Characters. Some scholars have even suggested the “abolishment” of Chinese Characters during the design of letters in favor of phonetic markers that prioritize character function and efficiency. However, the Chinese government amended its policy in regards to recommended language acquisition techniques. It suggested educators utilize symbolic, auxiliary characters that complement the function of Chinese characters in place of the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet. Unfortunately, ignoring the original design principle of letters and changing “Chinese Pinyin letters” into “Chinese Pinyin symbols” also brings many disadvantages to modern Chinese teaching methodologies. This paper evaluates the differences between “letters” and “symbols” through the use of the Chinese phonetic alphabet 'iu.'
The Chinese phonetic alphabet 'iu'- literal, is a compound vowel consisting of the letters i and u. The actual pronunciation is [iəʊ], which is a middle-sounding triphthong / compound vowel of the structure of “Medial+Nucleus+Coda”. In the initial documentation for the “Scheme for the Chinese Phonetic Alphabet,” a note was included stating “If there is no initial consonant before iou, mark it as' iou; If iou is preceded by an initial consonant, it is written as' -iu”, such as “cow (niú)”. This provision can be found in Yuen Ren Chao's ≪Study of Chinese Roman Characters≫. Yuen Ren Chao stated that “the shape of characters should be given priority, and the shape of characters should be the principal basis.” Moreso, he highlighted the importance of pictographs and noted that “short glyphs should be considered as much as possible.” That is to say, Yuen Ren Chao did not uphold the principle of letter pronunciation, but rather prioritized the visual effect of both traditional letters and newly designed letters. Therefore, the rule of “zero consonant / silent initial +iou ; initial +iu” is ultimately a marking principle, and is not set in reference to the actual pronunciation.

KCI등재

2한중 'falling(떨어지다)'류 동사 어휘유형론 연구

저자 : 고은미 ( Ko Eunmi )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 33-64 (32 pages)

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This study compared the falling verbs in Korean and Chinese based on the theoretical system of Moscow lexical typology.
The falling semantic domain consists of three frames: 'falling', 'collapsing', and 'separating'. 'falling' frame and 'separating' frame in Korean are co-lexicalized by the verb 'tteol-eo-ji-' and 'collapsing' frame is expressed using other words 'neom-eo-ji' and 'sseu-leo-ji'. On the other hand, In Chinese 'falling' frame and 'separating' frame are co-lexicalized by the verb 'diao(掉)', 'separating' frame and 'collapsing' frame are co-lexicalized by 'dao(倒)', 'shuang(摔)', 'zai(栽)' partially co-lexicalized 'falling' frame and 'separating' frame.
The extended meaning of the falling verb in Korean and Chinese is generally consistent with the cross-linguistic extended meaning.
In Korean, 'tteol-eo-ji-' refers to the extended meaning of 'decline', 'reduction', 'fall behind', while 'neom-eo-ji' and 'sseu-leo-ji' refer to 'unexpected situations and events'. Another word 'ppa-ci-' represents an 'uncontrollable state' such as emotion, addiction, etc. The Korean falling verb has no extended meaning related to 'change of direction'. On the other hand, 'diao(掉)' and 'luo(落)' in Chinese represent the extended meaning of 'reduction and decline', 'change of direction', 'transformation', 'exchange', 'separating' frame in Chinese represents 'a change of direction'.

KCI등재

3“V到”和“V出”结果义产生机制及指向对比研究

저자 : 徐晓锐 ( Xu Xiaorui ) , 刘柳 ( Liu Liu )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-92 (28 pages)

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现代汉语“V到”和“V出”都可以表达结果义, 并且在一定条件下可以互换。但二者对动词和宾语、副词的选择又存在一些差异。“V到”和“V出”都经历了从位移义到结果义的语法化过程, 本文主要从二者不同的语法化机制入手, 探讨它们表达结果义的本质区别。“V到”的结果义是从表位移的结构直接进行整体发展而来, 伴随着V与“到”的关系变化, “到”指向V的内部, 所以“V到”的结果义也指向V;而“V出”的结果义是趋向动词“出”语义不断引申的结果, 是“出”语义逐渐虚化而派生出的“结果”义, “V出”的结果义更倾向于指向N。不同的语法化机制也导致二者结果义内涵的差异。“V到”的结果义是指V到达“极量”, 使得未发生的发生, 未实现的实现, 事态发生质的改变。“V出”的结果义则与“出”语义的引申息息相关, 表达“从无到有, 从隐到显”的结果。最后, 文章探讨了二者在语义上的这种区别如何限定结构对V和宾语、副词的选择。


In the Modern Chinese language, both 'v. Dao' and 'v. Chu' has the meaning of result and they can be used alternatively. Whereas their collocations between verbs, objects, and adjectives are different in some ways. Both 'v. Dao' and 'v. Chu' is grammaticalized with the change of meaning, which is from displacement to result. Based on the different grammaticalization mechanisms of these two structures, this paper aims to study on how they express the meaning of result in two fundamentally different ways. The result of 'v. Dao' is developed from the whole structure of displacement directedly. Along with the change of the relation between v. and “Dao”, 'Dao' directs to v. internally, thus the result of 'v. Dao' also directs to v.. On the other side, the result of 'v. Chu' is developed from the semantic extension of the directional verb 'Chu', as the meaning of 'Chu' kept bleaching and then derive the meaning of result. Therefore, the result of 'v. Chu' tends more to direct to n.. Different mechanisms of grammaticalization lead to different connotations of the two structures' meaning of result. The result of 'v. Dao' refers to something happening or achieving when v. is maximized and then leads to qualitative change. The consequence of 'v. Chu' is closely connected to the semantic extension of 'Chu' and refers to the result which 'develops from nothing'. At last, this paper explores how the semantic differences of the two structures limit their choice of objectives and adjectives for v.

KCI등재

4현대 중국어 'VV', 'V一V', 'V一하(下)'의 기능 비교 분석

저자 : 유수경 ( Yu Sukyong )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 93-121 (29 pages)

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In Chinese, the meaning of 'VV', 'V一V', and 'V一下' is very similar. Many scholars think that 'VV' was formed by dropping '一' from 'V一V'. This is the same origin as the 'V一下' structure. Because of this, it is natural that the functions of the three structures appear similar in modern Chinese. However there are some differences in the meaning expansion process.
'V一下' has been expanded from action(once) to time(short time) through a metaphorical mechanism, so it retains the meaning of one action until now. 'V (一)V' is different in that it explicitly expresses repetition due to its reduplication form. Compared to the 'V一V' and 'V一下', 'VV' has a higher degree of grammaticalization, so it can express habitual, repetitive and even discourse functions. 'V一V' shows intermediate characteristics between 'VV' and 'V一下'.
All three structures have the meaning of 'small amount' in common. It was projected as a lightness of action through a metaphor. Also, in irrealis mood, it developed into the meaning of 'tentative'. In modern Chinese, such a 'tentative' and 'lightness' have become the main functions of the three structures.
The functions of the 'VV', 'V一V', and 'V一下' structures are similar, but have significant differences. This is evaluated as an important phenomenon to understand the grammaticalization and functional expansion of language components expressing the quantification of motion and time in modern Chinese.

KCI등재

5“无A无B”与“没X没Y”的比较研究

저자 : 孟春玲 ( Meng Chunling )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 123-154 (32 pages)

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This article takes “Wu A Wu B” and “Mei X Mei Y” two structures as the object, and analyzes the characteristics of the constituent elements of these two structures. First it analyzes the lexicographic meaning of the invariant “Wu” and “Mei”, then it analyzes the parts of speech of variables, the number of syllables and the number of variables. This article also analyzes the format characteristics of these two structures from three aspects: In terms of syntax, it mainly examines the distribution of syntactic positions. In terms of semantics, it mainly examines the format meaning of the two structures,and in terms of pragmatics it mainly examines the stylistic colors of these two structures and their economical and productive features. Finally, the article puts forward three suggestions for teaching Chinese as a foreign language based on the historical development trends of the two structures:
The first suggestion is to strengthen the teaching of Chinese expressions corresponding to the Korean language “A도 없고 B도 없다”; The second is to strengthen the teaching of related structures such as “You~You~”―“You~Wu~/You~Mei~”; Thirdly, when designing teaching content, make effective use of the many grammatical features of the two structures.
The analysis in this article is based on real language materials, so the descriptions of many characteristics of the two structures can more objectively reflect their true use in real life. Based on this, the teaching suggestions should be able to serve as a reference in teaching Chinese as a foreign language.

KCI등재

6“無害”詞性、詞義以及相關問題探究

저자 : 金鐘讚 ( Kim Jongchan )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 155-170 (16 pages)

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動詞可以分析爲及物動詞和不及物動詞。“無害”義爲“沒有危害或害處”時不能帶賓語, 可見它不是及物動詞;“無害”也沒有動作、行爲性, 這證明它也不是不及物動詞, 因此, “無害”動詞說是値得商榷的。
另外, 有的“無害”在句中與“無害於”具有聚合關係, 這種“無害”的意思實際上與“無害於”相同。因此, 我們推測“無害”可能有兩種不同的意思及詞性。
我們的結論如下:
1. ≪當代≫、≪規範≫等詞典都認爲“無害”是動詞, 而動詞可以再細分爲及物動詞與不及物動詞。“無害”具有“沒有危害或害處”的釋義時, 它不能帶賓語, 故它不是及物動詞, 形容詞與不及物動詞都能充當述語, 它們之間的主要差異是不及物動詞具有動作、行爲性而形容詞沒有這種特徵。“無害”不具有動作、行爲性, 故它這時也不是不及物動詞。
2. “有/無+抽象名詞”結構都具有形容、描寫事物或事情的性質、狀態的功能, 故它具有形容詞性, 實際使用中“無害”與形容詞發生並列關係的例子很多, 且與形容詞“有害”構成反義詞關係。可見“無害”此義下是述賓式形容詞。
3. “無害”除了形容詞的詞性之外還有及物動詞的詞性, 這時裏面隱含着“於”, 相當於“對無害”或“無害於”。其釋義是“對……沒有危害或害處”。
4. 一般認爲“無害”與“有害”之間有反義詞關係。依據我們的硏究, “有害”是形容詞與及物動詞的兼類詞, “無害”也是形容詞和動詞的兼類詞。嚴格來講, 形容詞“有害”與形容詞“無害”之間有反義詞關係, 而及物動詞“有害”與及物動詞“無害”之間有反義詞關係。


Dangdai Hanyu Cidian, Xiandai Hanyu Guifan Cidian, and others argue that “Wuhai” is a verb and has the meaning of “Meiyou Weihai huo Haochu”, but l do not agree with them.
Xing Fuyi insists that it is very useful to study verbs if we divide them into intransitive verbs and transitive verbs. When the term “Wuhai” has the meaning of “Meiyou Weihai huo Haochu”, it does not take objects at all, Therefore l argue that “Wuhai” is not a transitive verb.
When it comes to intransitive verbs, Gao Gengsheng, Tan Dezi, Wang Liting claim that intransitive verbs are only words that are related to descriptions of behavior or action. That is to say, all intransitive verbs are related with action or behavior. However, “Wuhai” is not related with either action nor behavior. Consequently, l argue that it is not an intransitive verb.
On the other hand, “Wuhai” seems to only just describe things or events while simultaneously standing side by side with adjectives. As a result, l argue that “Wuhai” is an adjective.
lnterestingly enough, “Wuhai” can also take objects. This means that it can function in the role of a transitive verb. However, when it does this, it does not have the meaning of “Meiyou Weihai huo Haochu” but the meaning of “Dui..........Meiyou Weihai huo Haochu”

KCI등재

7“有”與“把”字結構和“被”字結構結合分析

저자 : 陳換常 ( Chen Huanchang )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 171-191 (21 pages)

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本文主要探討了“有”跟“把”字結構和“被”字結構的結合問題。首先, “有”的句法位置來看, 它只能位於“把”和“被”字前, 不能出現在“VP”前, “有”在句中擔當重要句法功能, 不能隨意刪除。其次, “有”跟“把”字結構結合時, “VP”不能爲光杆動詞, 它強制要求附帶補語等其他成分, 而跟“被”字句結合時, “VP”偶爾可以光杆形式出現。第三, “有”用於“把”字句和“被”字句中, 基本上都可以變換成句末的“了₂”句式, 而且保持語義一致。但是當“有”跟“被”字結構結合時, 經常會出現經驗體“過”, 此時不能變換爲“了₂”句式。總體來說, “有”表示的含義仍然是“存在”義, 而非完成體功能, 它強調的是“把”字結構和“被”字結構所描述的事件的存在, 可以看成是一個表存在義的助動詞。


This paper mainly discusses the combination of the structure of “有” and “把” and the structure of “被”. First of all, in terms of the syntactic position of “有”, it can only be located before “把” and “被”, and cannot appear before VP. “有” plays an important syntactic function in a sentence and cannot be deleted at will. Secondly, when “有” is combined with the word “把”, VP cannot be a bare verb, it is mandatory to attach other components such as complement, and when combined with the word “被”, VP can occasionally appear as a bare verb. Thirdly, when “有” is used in “把” and “被” sentences, it can basically be transformed into the “了₂” sentence pattern at the end of the sentence, and the semantics are consistent. However, when the structure of “有” and “被” is combined, the experience body “過” often appears, which cannot be transformed into the sentence pattern of “了₂”. Generally speaking, the meaning of “有”is still the meaning of “existence”, rather than the perfect function. It emphasizes the existence of events described by the structure of “把” and “被” which can be regarded as an Auxiliary verb expressing a sense of existence of event

KCI등재

8小议“会”类惯常句的必要条件及惯常特性

저자 : 姜梦 ( Meng Jiang ) , 郭兴燕 ( Guo Xingyan ) , 刘亚菲 ( Liu Yafei )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 193-205 (13 pages)

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In Mandarin the modal verb 'hui' has several functions: expresses agent-oriented dynamin modality, future tense, speaker-oriented epistemic modality, and subjunctive mood. Besides these usages, 'hui' can also mark the habitual aspect. When its explanation is the habitual aspect marker, the situation that the whole sentence describes should be the plural events or states. Habitual sentences that are marked with 'hui' may be divided into two types: without any other marker or with dominant conditional constructions. Compared with another habitual marker 'rongyi', 'hui' can't express habitual aspect without proper context. It is because 'hui' itself doesn't have the property of repeatability and express the habitual aspect isn't its inherent meaning. The habitual reading only can be inferred from the context-absorption and coexist with other basic usages.

KCI등재

9중국어 '是…的' 구문의 상황유형에 따른 시간 표현 공기 제약 연구

저자 : 이은경 ( Lee Eungyeong )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 207-245 (39 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between the past or non-past temporal expressions in 'Shi(是)…De(的)' form and the cleft sentence in the co-occurrence phenomenon. In the process of analysis, the relationship between aspectual properties of verb and focus type with the formation of cleft sentence, as well as the relationship between nominalized sentence and the cleft sentence were observed.
The State situation type verbs cannot appear in the cleft sentence in 'Shi (是)…De(的)' form with temporal expressions. However, they can appear in the 'O+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form in few cases where the T is past or present temporal expression, and is considered to be nominalized sentence. Activity situation type verbs are effected by the duration. Activity situation type verbs with strong durative property generally cannot appear in 'Shi(是)…De(的)' form, but in a small number of verb cases can appear in temporal expression in 'S+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form and form a cleft sentence. Furthermore, a small number of activity situation type with strong durative property can appear in the 'O+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form, in which case they will be interpreted as either cleft sentence or nominalized sentence. Semelfactive situation type can be used in both 'S+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' and 'O+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form, but only if the T is in the past temporal expression, and in such case both forms can function as cleft sentence with the T being the argument focus. Activity situation type with less durative property were observed to be a halfway point between the activity situation type with strong durative property and the semelfactive situation type. Activity situation type with less durative property can only appear in 'S+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form where the T is the past temporal expression, in which can it will be the argument focus. In case of co-occurrence with non-past temporal expressions, the 'O+Shi(是)+T+VP+De(的)' form will be recognized as nominalized sentence. Achievement and accomplishment situation type verbs can appear in 'S+Shi(是)+T+VPDe(的)' and O+Shi(是)+T+VPDe(的)' form when the T is past temporal expression, and form a cleft sentence. These verbs cannot appear in 'Shi(是)…De(的)' form with non past temporal expressions.
When 'Shi(是)…De(的)' form functions as a cleft sentence with information structure having presupposition and argument focus, it is generally in case of co-occurrence with past temporal expression, but never in co-occurrence with non-past temporal expression. It is believed that this is due to the fact that proposition, which expresses the past event, is more appropriate to contain the presupposition and the argument focus. There are many contextual limitations in cases of non-past temporal expression, which requires that the event must either be on-going or expected because it does not express a completed event.

KCI등재

10베이징 올림픽 외교적 보이콧에 맞선 환구시보 사설 비판적 담화분석 ― 나르시시즘·체면·대국심리 프레이밍

저자 : 최태훈 ( Choi Tae-hoon )

발행기관 : 한국중국언어학회 간행물 : 중국언어연구 99권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 247-275 (29 pages)

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This research using critical discourse analysis(CDA) examines in what ways the Global Times editorials have constructed counter-hegemonic ideologies against diplomatic boycott strategies of the 2022 Beijing Winter Olympics. First, the analysis of text description indicates that the focal editorial of Dec. 07, 2021 titled “Note to Washington: Running naked is not art” produces an American narcissism frame by foregrounding contrastive trigger words including “streaking” and “bubbles floating on a Chinese hot pot” part of language tactics such as salience and metaphor. These two metaphors evoke source domains that help readers to mitigate the shock caused by the boycotts. While “streaking” refers to the American boycott triggering the image of an insane narcissistic streaker in the Western sports culture, “bubbles floating on a Chinese hot pot” enables Chinese people to consider the boycott strategies as something trivial and thus ignore them. Second, intertextuality built around a keyword, “face” in the four editorials reveals that multiple meanings of “face” are constructed in two contrastive ways: face of the U.S and the West vs. face of China. As many Western media report the Beijing Olympics boycotts decided by the leaders of Five Eyes as a slap in the face to China, Global Times redifines the meanings of face from “reputation” argued by the West to refer to the threatened Chinese face to “favor and superficial attacks, superficiality” which downgrade the meaning of face to provide justification for China because they do not need to lose such face that has a negative meaning. Then, the editorials reconstruct the true meaning of Chinese face as “grace and awe” that upgrade the meaning of face for China. Third, the editorials reconstruct ideologies aimed at recovering Chinese victimized face by propagating maturing “major power mentality” through the Olympics, and consequently consolidating Xi Jinping's third term of power and continuing to pursue his desire as a world hegemony. In conclusion, propagating “major power mentality” can be interpreted as representation of Chinese vulnerable narcissism in comparison with American grandiose narcissism. Thus the ideology reconstruction based on the abstract notions such as narcissism, face, major power mentality can be said to be a trinity.

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