Purpose: This study presents the results of the analysis on space utilization of kidney dialysis units in regional public hospitals, which plays a key role in local public medical services. The result aims to achieve safety from infection, allow comfort for the dialysis environment, and stability for medical support. The purpose of this study is to present fundamental data for architectural plans for the kidney dialysis unit, as well as to alleviate potential infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Methods: For research purposes, the investigation and analysis of space utilization were based on architectural floor plans, research papers and literature, related legal systems, and public statistics. Of the main 35 regional public hospitals, in regards to data accessibility, 15 facilities were selected to conduct the survey and analysis for the objective. Results: The space composition by area research results of kidney dialysis units in public hospitals are as follows: Firstly, most targets do not have required rooms in the access and support area, except for the hemodialysis beds in the treatment section. Secondly, the access area requires necessary room and space design that took into consideration of convenience and accessibility for patients. Thirdly, in regards to infection prevention and control, proper circulation and room plan is essential for storage and disposal of contaminated products and linen after use. For the treatment area, the arrangement plan needs to establish a visual connection between the isolation room, the nursing station, and the bed area. Additionally, consideration of circulation in the preparation, treatment, observation, examination, and all other rooms in the facility is required. Lastly, for the support area, the room is designed to consider adequate working and meeting spaces for the medical staff, consultation space for patients or guardians, separate storage and disposal of clean and contaminated items, and the storage of various equipment for dialysis. Implications: In preparation for the increase in chronic kidney failure patients and the spread of infectious diseases, such as COVID-19, the researched data demonstrates the basic guidelines for space composition of kidney dialysis units and the significant role of regional public hospitals.