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The Linguistic Association of Korea Journal

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1993)~30권1호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 1,100
언어학
30권1호(2022년 03월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1외국어로서의 한국어 학습자 발음 발달 종단 연구

저자 : 강석한 ( Kang Seokhan )

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-21 (21 pages)

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This study investigated the role of academic level when foreign learners of Korean study its pronunciation for six months. The subjects were classified into three groups according to their academic levels (high school graduates, undergraduate students, graduate students). The four constructs of Korean pronunciation - holistic evaluation, fluency, comprehensibility, and intelligibility - were applied to the 26 subjects' pronunciation. Five professional Korean raters assessed Korean language learners' oral performance both in the 1st month and the 7th month of their Korean language training. The results are as follows: (1) holistic ratings were closely related with those of fluency and comprehensibility, (2) the groups of university students showed the fastest development, especially of fluency, (3) the more they used Korean outside of the classroom, the higher their target language pronunciation scores they achieved. Also face-to-face contact between natives and non-natives exerts a positive effect on the acquisition of a fluent Korean pronunciation. The result supports evidence that the Korean raters evaluation correlated strongly with fluency level but weakly with intelligibility level. This implies that Korean language education should focus more on explicit learning and teaching.

KCI등재

2관계절 부착 선호와 중의성 인식에 나타난 한국인 EFL 학습자들의 영어 중의적 관계절 해석 양상

저자 : 박지원 ( Park Jiwon ) , 김지혜 ( Kim Ji-hye )

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 23-44 (22 pages)

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This study investigated how Korean EFL learners interpret English relative clauses in two distinct tasks - an attachment preference task and an ambiguity perception task. The study also examined how different lexical-semantic factors such as preposition type (i.e., 'of' and 'with') and the animacy conditions of noun phrases (NPs) that might affect interpretations of English relative clauses. Thirty-one third grade middle school students participated in the experiment testing interpretations of ambiguous English relative clauses. A total of 28 test items were used to examine possible interpretations and indicate preferred interpretations of English relative clauses with different types of prepositions and animacy conditions. The overall results demonstrated the following: i) In the attachment preference task, Korean EFL students in middle school showed a preference toward high attachment (HA) interpretation for ambiguous English relative clauses. ii) On the other hand, in the ambiguity perception task, EFL students did not always realize that the relative clauses could be interpreted ambiguously. iii) As for lexical-semantic factors, relative clause interpretations were influenced by both preposition type and the animacy conditions of NPs, but only in preference attachment, not in ambiguity perception.

KCI등재

3적대적 사례에 기반한 언어 모형의 한국어 격 교체 이해 능력 평가

저자 : 송상헌 ( Song Sanghoun ) , 노강산 ( Noh Kang San ) , 박권식 ( Park Kwonsik ) , 신운섭 ( Shin Un-sub ) , 황동진 ( Hwang Dongjin )

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 45-72 (28 pages)

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In the field of deep learning-based language understanding, adversarial examples refer to deliberately constructed examples of data, slightly different from original examples. The contrasts between the original and adversarial examples are less perceivable to human readers, but the disruption has a notorious effect on the performance of machines. Thus, adversarial examples facilitate assessing whether and how a specific deep learning architecture (e.g., a language model) robustly works. Out of the multiple layers of linguistic structures, this study lays focus on a morpho-syntactic phenomenon in Korean, namely, case alternation. We created a set of adversarial examples regarding case alternation, and then tested the morpho-syntactic ability of neural language models. We extracted the instances of case alternation from the Sejong Electronic Dictionary, and made use of mBERT and KR-BERT as the language models. The results (measured by means of surprisal) indicate that the language models are unexpectedly good at discerning case alternation in Korean. In addition, it turns out that the Korean-specific language model performs better than the multilingual model. These imply that an in-depth knowledge of linguistics is essential for creating adversarial examples in Korean.

KCI등재

4중세영어 개음절 장모음화에 대한 최적성이론 분석

저자 : 오영일 ( Oh Young-il )

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 73-92 (20 pages)

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This study provides an analysis of Open Syllable Lengthening in Middle English (ME) within the framework of Optimality Theory. Unlike previous constraint-based studies (Sohn, 2005a, 2005b, among others), this study introduces constraint reranking and shows a gradual process of Middle English Open Syllable Lengthening (MEOSL). The data dealt with are ME nāme /na:mə/, ME god /god/, ME alfe /alfə/, and ME fugeles /fugeləs/, and the constraints used are Max-Seg, FtBin, Dep-μ, and NonFin. The constraint hierarchy for pre-MEOSL is Max-Seg 》FtBin 》Dep-μ 》 NonFin, and the hierarchy for post-MEOSL is Max-Seg 》FtBin 》NonFin 》Dep-μ. For MEOSL in progress, the unranking process occurs between Dep-μ and NonFin, and the hierarchy is Max-Seg 》FtBin 》Dep-μ, NonFin. With these hierarchies, this paper offers a consistent explanation for both examples of and exceptions to MEOSL and properly represents a gradual process of diachronic sound change.

KCI등재

5한국어 연결어미 “-고”의 무표성: “문 닫고 나가”를 중심으로

저자 : 정인기 ( Chung Inkie ) , 김지영 ( Kim Jiyoung )

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 93-112 (20 pages)

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Native speakers of Korean have no problem understanding the intended meaning of the utterance Mun tat-ko na-ka. In fact, the expression may seem to carry semantic absurdity as it literally means 'Close the door, and go out!' Thus, studies have tried to analyze its meaning focusing on its pragmatic function, the semantic features of -ko, and the meaning span of the verb na-ka 'Go out!' However, no studies have tried to focus on its syntactic structure and the pragmatic role of the two conjuncts. In this paper, we show that the first conjunct mun tat-ko 'close the door' carries the principal meaning of Mun tat-ko na-ka and the whole utterance is syntactically designed to make a request of the second conjunct na-ka 'go out.' Also, we propose to attribute the interpretability of Mun tat-ko na-ka to the unmarkedness of the suffix -ko because it does not seem to add any meaning while connecting two clauses in seemingly reverse order. This proposition is testified by analyzing sentences with other semantic exceptionality. Finally, we demonstrate why -ko corresponds to the characteristics of the unmarked member of a certain linguistic category, as proposed by Jakobson (1932/1984) and Greenberg (1966). Compared to other Korean suffixes with similar meanings, -ko is the most frequently used suffix with the most versatile functions and is the one children acquire first.

KCI등재

6Numeral Classifiers in Eastern Tamang

저자 : Michael Jonathan Mathew Barrie , Jaehyun Jun

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 113-131 (19 pages)

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In this paper, we examine numeral classifiers and number marking in one dialect of Eastern Tamang. As Tamang is a relatively understudied dialect continuum, we give a basic description of the empirical facts. We then employ various diagnostics from the literature and one we created ourselves to determine whether classifiers compose with nouns or with numerals. We conclude that since the classifier composes with numerals, the numeral classifier is a constituent that composes with the NP. We also examine number marking and observe that the plural marker is obligatory in some environments for animate nouns, but not for inanimate nouns. We conclude by making some tentative remarks that this dialect of Eastern Tamang might be undergoing a transition from a classifier language to a number language.

KCI등재

7A Case Study of Korean EFL Learners' Interlanguage in Verb Morphology

저자 : Mun-hong Choe

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 133-155 (23 pages)

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This study investigated a Korean child's interim knowledge and use of English verb inflections in the context where acquisition is based mostly on written input with limited opportunities for oral production and interaction. The emergence and development of the child's interlanguage were closely examined by analyzing the occurrences and frequency changes of (non-)finite verb forms and their appropriateness in context. Data were collected for about a year from the child's uninstructed spontaneous compositions and analyzed across four time periods. Error classification systems were developed to classify accurate, inaccurate, and formally accurate but functionally inappropriate forms. Overall, the findings indicate that errors in the child's developing language are restricted to only a few types which are also observed in English L1 acquisition, and that the child's L1 does not mediate her acquisition of L2 morphosyntactic features to a significant degree. These seem to imply that child acquisition of L2 grammaticality is driven by sufficient input even when it lacks the qualities of social scaffolding and interactive communication.

KCI등재

8A Comparative Error Analysis of Neural Machine Translation Output: Based on Film Corpus

저자 : Sungran Koh

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 157-177 (21 pages)

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This study aims to analyze translation from Korean to English in three mainstream machine translation (MT) systems in Korea and to classify the major error problems of the MT systems. To do this, first, the Korean script of the film Minari (2021) was collected and translated by three major machine translators (Google Translate, Papago, and Kakao i). Then, the translation output of the three mainstream online translation systems was manually evaluated by humans. Next, MT errors in Korean to English were classified into four categories: missing words, word order, incorrect words, and unknown words. The 'incorrect words' were subcategorized into 'sense', 'incorrect form', and 'extra words'. The most frequent type of incorrect word error was 'incorrect disambiguation (subject)' and 'wrong lexical choice' in terms of 'sense'. Based on these findings, some suggestions are to use more developed machine translation for both MT system developers and Korean English as a Foreign Language(EFL) learners. This study sheds light on the quality of current MT systems based on the error analysis of this data and offers EFL learners insights into using MT systems better.

KCI등재

9Lexical Effects in Island Constraints: A Deep Learning Approach

저자 : Yong-hun Lee

발행기관 : 대한언어학회 간행물 : 언어학 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 179-201 (23 pages)

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This paper examined the lexical effects (a kind of random effect) of each experimental item in English island constraints. For this purpose, this paper adopted (i) the experimental design and dataset in Lee and Park (2018) and (ii) the deep learning model (the BERTLARGE model) in Lee (2021). After the BERTLARGE model was pretrained with the CoLA dataset, the acceptability scores were calculated for all the sentences in the dataset. As in Lee (2021), the acceptability scores in the BERTLARGE model were measured with the numerical values (neither TRUE/FALSE nor Likert scale), which was similar to the magnitude estimation in experimental syntax. After all the acceptability scores were collected, they were normalized into the z-scores and statistically analyzed. In this paper, a mixed-effects model was used where both fixed and random effects could be analyzed, but this paper focused on the random effects which were related to the lexicalization of experimental items. Through the analysis, the following was observed: (i) deep learning models could provide some help to make the experimental designs of syntax more sophisticated and fine-grained, (ii) it was possible to examine and control the lexical effects of experimental items with a deep learning model and a mixed-effects model, and (iii) in the case of island sentences, lexical variability was more crucially affected by the factor Island than Location.

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