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LINGUISTIC RESEARCH

  • : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소
  • : 어문학분야  >  언어학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
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  • : 1229-1374
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1979)~38권2호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 599
언어연구
38권2호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1NPI licensing and the logic of the syntax-semantics interface

저자 : Yusuke Kubota , Robert Levine

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 151-205 (55 pages)

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In this paper, we propose an explicit syntax-semantics interface of NPI licensing in Hybrid TLG. Hybrid TLG is a version of categorial grammar that inherits properties of both lexicalist and derivational variants of generative grammar, and it has been shown in our previous research (summarized in Kubota and Levine 2020) that it offers elegant analyses for a number of complex phenomena at the interface of syntax and semantics (especially in the domains of coordination and ellipsis) that turn out to be highly problematic for other grammatical theories. In the present paper, we extend our work to NPI licensing and report on some initial results suggesting that the flexible and systematic architecture of Hybrid TLG turns out to be successful in this domain too. Specifically, our approach captures interactions between NPI licensing (or polarity sensitivity) and other complex phenomena at the syntax-semantics interface including the scopal properties of modal auxiliaries, Gapping, and VP fronting. (National Institute for Japanese Language and Linguistics · Ohio State University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2In Defense of DP (or KP)

저자 : Michael Jonathan Mathew Barrie , Audrey Li , Martina Wiltschko , Jong Un Park

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 207-238 (32 pages)

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Bruening et al. (2018) present a reanalysis of the DP Hypothesis, arguing that nominal phrases are NPs and that functional elements such as number and determiners appear in the specifier of NP. We take issue with a number of their claims, arguing that the DP Hypothesis (re-named here as the DP/KP Hypothesis) is in fact not in jeopardy. We review their discussion and present our counter arguments. First, we address their discussion of the development of the DP Hypothesis, and include several critical references they did not include in their overview. Their claim that the DP Hypothesis largely rests on an architectural parallel with the extended verbal projection ignores a large body of literature in which morphological, syntactic, and semantic evidence is adduced for an articulated nominal structure. They discuss several lines of evidence based on selection in support of their claim that nominal phrases are headed by N. We show that their claims fail for empirical and theoretical reasons. Specifically, once the assumption of another layer of structure above DP (namely KP) is acknowledged, their arguments against the functional architecture in nominal phrases no longer hold. We conclude that the DP/KP Hypothesis is still the best explanation for the cross-linguistic facts on nominal phrases. (Sogang University · University of Southern California · ICREA/UPF · Hansung University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Question particles ça and donc in French: A corpus study

저자 : Anastasiia Smirnova , Anne Abeillé

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 239-269 (31 pages)

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We study two question particles (donc and ça) in a large French corpus. We show that they are specialized for direct questions, and that wh-ça is possible both in situ and in fronted position, contrary to previous literature (Cheng and Rooryck 2001). We also show that ellipsis is the most common use of wh-ça, with sluicing (Ross 1969) and a new construction that we call wh-stripping, while fronting is the most common use of wh-donc. In many examples, a non-elliptical question would be impossible or quite different, which seem to cast doubt on a deletion under identity approach of sluices (Ross 1969) and to favor a Direct Interpretation approach (Ginzburg and Sag 2000). Looking at the preceding context, in about half of wh-ça and wh-donc sluices, the wh-word has a correlate, and in the majority of cases, the correlate is definite. We suggest that the particle ça favors elliptical reprise questions, compared to bare wh-words, while the particle donc favors biased questions. (LLF, Université de Paris)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4An experimental investigation of why-stripping in Korean

저자 : Jeong-seok Kim , Hye Jin Lee , Su-hyuk Yoon , Jin Hyung Lee , Jee Young Lee , Soohyun Kwon

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-299 (29 pages)

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The present study uses an acceptability judgment experiment designed to investigate whether the acceptability of Korean why-stripping is affected by (i) the polarity difference of the antecedent clause, (ii) the marker ani 'not' immediately preceding why, or (iii) the type (i.e., short-form or long-form) of negation in the antecedent clause. We propose that way 'why' in Korean why-stripping originates in CP and the non-wh remnant is a focus phrase associated with way 'why', following Yoshida et al.'s (2015) clausal ellipsis analysis of English why-stripping. Based on the experimental findings, we show that Korean why-stripping favors affirmative antecedent contexts over negative antecedent contexts, as expected from the processing perspective (Fischler et al. 1983; Herbert and Kübler 2011). We also show that the pre-why (i.e., clause-initial) ani 'not' in Korean why-stripping is not a negative marker but a discourse marker of conveying elements of surprise or disbelief (cf. Koo 2008). We further show that the type (i.e., short-form or long-form) of negation in the antecedent clause does not matter in why-stripping. In sum, we defend a grammar-plus-processing analysis of Korean why-stripping. (Korea University · Seoul National University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Temporal mismatches and the acceptability of tenseless coordinate constructions in Korean

저자 : Sang-hee Park , Jungsoo Kim

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 301-327 (27 pages)

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In Korean, non-final conjuncts in coordinate constructions may appear without the tensed verb - as in Right Peripheral Ellipsis - or without the tense morpheme alone - as in bare ko-coordination. This paper presents a formal acceptability judgment study that explored whether and to what extent Korean speakers accept mismatches of temporal information between the conjuncts in these constructions. The study examined the factors whose effects have been controversial in previous theoretical studies: temporal reference (i.e., whether the conjuncts match in tense) and temporal organization (i.e., whether the conjuncts are ordered sequentially or reversed) across three coordinate structures (i.e., Right Peripheral Ellipsis, bare ko-coordination, and full coordination). The results show evidence of the effects of these factors on bare ko-coordination and evidence of the effect of temporal reference on Right Peripheral Ellipsis. They also reveal that Korean speakers exhibit a great deal of inter-speaker variation in their assessment of temporal mismatches in these constructions. We discuss the implications of the results for both theoretical and psycholinguistic research. (Duksung Women's University · Kyung Hee University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6Distribution of the Mandarin vowels in typological perspective

저자 : Ok Joo Lee , Yan Xiong

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 329-363 (35 pages)

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The present study is designed to examine the distribution of the Mandarin vowels from a typological perspective. Despite little research on this topic, earlier literature has reported that Mandarin is an exceptional language which contains a larger number of uncommon marked vowels (e.g., Crothers 1978). The purpose of the present study is twofold. The primary aim is to achieve a better understanding of the typological features of the Mandarin vowel system by analyzing the frequency distribution of the Mandarin vowels and the relation between markedness and distribution. Another goal is to examine the vowel distribution differences between two types of language data, namely, lexicon and natural speech. Results of quantitative analyses reveal that with the most unmarked peripheral vowels /a/, /i/, and /u/ being the most frequently occurring ones, the overall vowel distribution patterns in Mandarin lexicon conform to the cross-linguistic tendencies of vowel distribution and markedness. While the tendency of most vowels favoring Tone 4 is found, the relative percentage of Tone 1 and Tone 3 occurrences appears to be higher in the low vowels than the high and mid vowels in lexicon. However, different distribution patterns emerge when comparing lexicon and natural speech, in that the mid vowels (i.e., /ə/, /ɤ/, /o/) and apical vowel (i.e., /ʅ/) appear at significantly higher frequencies in natural speech. The differences can be explained by the fact that these vowels occur in some high frequency words (e.g., 'de', 'wǒ', 'shì'). Findings of this study suggest that different claims in previous studies of phonological typology are in part attributed to the nature of the language data examined (e.g., phonemic inventory, lexicon, natural speech). (Seoul National University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7Overt subject NPs as a contrast marker in Korean discourse

저자 : Narah Lee

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 365-393 (29 pages)

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Contrast has been regarded as one of the major functions for the understanding of the overt subject in pro-drop languages like Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, and Spanish, in which null subject is more frequent than overt subject in discourse. The literature in Korean linguistics commonly addresses contrast as a significant aspect of an expressed subject, but the research can be further developed with empirical data analysis and re-definition of the notion of contrast. The present study, analysing TV drama scripts, claims how contrast may be differently identified in relation to the recognition of contrastive candidates in discourse. I find that contrast in the data is in various types and that overt subject NPs are used in marking contrast either in a single utterance or over several utterances as the discourse develops. By providing an extended analysis of overt subject NPs as a contrast marker, this study seeks to broaden the understanding of subject expression in Korean discourse. (The University of Queensland)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8Deep learning can contrast the minimal pairs of syntactic data

저자 : Kwonsik Park , Myung-kwan Park , Sanghoun Song

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 395-424 (30 pages)

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The present work aims to assess the feasibility of using deep learning as a useful tool to investigate syntactic phenomena. To this end, the present study concerns three research questions: (i) whether deep learning can detect syntactically inappropriate constructions, (ii) whether deep learning's acceptability judgments are accountable, and (iii) whether deep learning's aspects of acceptability judgments are similar to human judgments. As a proxy for a deep learning language model, this study chooses BERT. The current paper comprises syntactically contrasted pairs of English sentences which come from the three test suites already available. The first one is 196 grammatical -ungrammatical minimal pairs from DeKeyser (2000). The second one is examples in four published syntax textbooks excerpted from Warstadt et al. (2019). The last one is extracted from Sprouse et al. (2013), which collects the examples reported in a theoretical linguistics journal, Linguistic Inquiry. The BERT models, base BERT and large BERT, are assessed by judging acceptability of items in the test suites with an evaluation metric, surprisal, which is used to measure how 'surprised' a model is when encountering a word in a sequence of words, i.e., a sentence. The results are analyzed in the two frameworks: directionality and repulsion. The results of directionality reveals that the two versions of BERT are overall competent at distinguishing ungrammatical sentences from grammatical ones. The statistical results of both repulsion and directionality also reveal that the two variants of BERT do not differ significantly. Regarding repulsion, correct judgments and incorrect ones are significantly different. Additionally, the repulsion of the first test suite, which is excerpted from the items for testing learners' grammaticality judgments, is higher than the other test suites, which are excerpted from the syntax textbooks and published literature. This study compares BERT's acceptability judgments with magnitude estimation results reported in Sprouse et al. (2013) in order to examine if deep learning's syntactic knowledge is akin to human knowledge. The error analyses on incorrectly judged items reveal that there are some syntactic constructions that the two BERTs have trouble learning, which indicates that BERT's acceptability judgments are distributed not randomly. (Korea University · Dongguk University)

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