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LINGUISTIC RESEARCH

  • : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1979)~39권3호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 639
언어연구
39권3호(2022년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Margarita Dimitrova

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 405-429 (25 pages)

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The goal of the present work is to discuss the properties of negative yes-no questions capitalising on data from Bulgarian. Negative yes-no questions have traditionally been considered a case of expletive or pleonastic negation, i.e. the negation marker is void of negative content and does not contribute to the negative interpretation of the structure. In view of this property, given languages, like Bulgarian and other Slavic and Balkan languages, display an intriguing blocking of Negative Concord in yes-no questions (Dimitrova 2020a) which prevents the co-occurrence of the negation marker and n-words (Laka 1990). Rather, the negation marker is only compatible with positive indefinites underlying the speaker's bias towards the positive value of the proposition (Ladd 1981). Considering the data from Bulgarian and building on some intriguing patterns between negative yes-no questions and given types of subjunctive main and embedded clauses (Giannakidou 2016; Dimitrova 2020b), we propose that the negation marker is not expletive but rather contributes to the expression of the speaker's evaluations and kind of attitude, displaying a relation to the domain of nonveridicality (Giannakidou 1998; Yoon 2011). (Center of Linguistics of the University of Lisbon)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Jinwoo Jo , Bilge Palaz

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 431-465 (35 pages)

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This paper discusses pseudo-incorporation in Turkish. We show that Turkish allows not only a theme but also an agent, a goal, or more than one nominal to be pseudo-incorporated in a single clause. The possibilities of non-theme and multi-nominal pseudo-incorporation in Turkish pose non-trivial problems for the previous analyses of pseudo-incorporation which presuppose that pseudo-incorporation occurs only between a lexical verb and its complement. We propose the correct generalization instead is that pseudo-incorporation may take place between a nominal and any predicate, either lexical or structural, that has not been saturated in the event domain with which the predicate is associated. Building on Chung and Ladusaw (2004), we formalize the generalization as an LF condition which constrains the non-saturating mode of semantic composition, predicate restriction, to apply in a certain structural environment. The LF condition not only accounts for agent, goal, and multi-nominal pseudo-incorporation in Turkish, but it also offers an explanation for the impossibility of agent pseudo-incorporation in certain environments in the language. The proposed analysis is also shown to properly capture the patterns of scrambling facts in the pseudo-incorporation constructions in Turkish. (Chosun University · University of Delaware)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Yong-hun Lee , Ji-hye Kim

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 467-497 (31 pages)

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The study investigated two types of subjecthood diagnostics in Korean using two different kinds of approaches. Based on the previous studies on subjecthood diagnostics in Korean, this paper examined the two subjecthood diagnostics: Honorific Agreement (HA) and Plural Copying (PC). For the experimental analysis, this study adopted the analysis results of Kim et al. (2017). For the deep learning analysis, this paper employed the KR-BERT for the deep learning model and three sources of data sets: the Korean version of the Corpus of Linguistic Acceptability (K-CoLA), the Sejong Morphologically-Analyzed Corpus, and the extended target sentences of Kim et al. (2017). Two separate experiments were conducted in the deep learning analysis. In the first experiment, the KR-BERT was trained only with the K-CoLA, and the target sentences were analyzed. In the second experiment, the KR-BERT was trained with the K-CoLA and the sentences from the Sejong corpus, and the acceptability scores of the target sentences were measured. The acceptability scores were measured with the numeric scores using the algorithms in Lee (2021). After the experiments with the deep learning models, the scores were normalized and were statistically analyzed with Generalized Linear Models (GLMs). Through the two experiments, the following fact was observed: both HA and PC did not show similar tendencies of experimental results with human participants in the first experiment, but they did in the second experiment. The analysis results demonstrated that both HA and PC could be used as subjecthood diagnostics but that they played significant roles only when native speakers were exposed to enough examples. (Chungnam National University · Korea National University of Education)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Michael Barrie , Heeryun Chung , Duk-ho An

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 499-518 (20 pages)

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This paper discusses the structure of numeral classifiers in two types of Korean -ki nominalizations. In the first type (NOM-ki), the object is a full KP, and the properties of numeral classifiers are identical to those of any full KP nominal. In the second type (GEN-ki), the object is a bare nP, and is missing the functional structure necessary for hosting numeral classifiers. As such, the numeral classifier simply adjoins to nP and gives rise to idiosyncratic or culturally relevant readings only. We argue that the Div head is part of the functional spine in Korean. Div is responsible for making the nP countable and able to semantically compose with the numeral classifier. In a full KP object (in NOM-ki), Div is present, and the numeral classifier composes Div+nP, giving rise to standard counting semantics. In a bare nP object (in GEN-ki), Div is absent. The numeral classifier cannot semantically compose with nP. We argue, following Harley (2009), that a non-compositional meaning can arise akin to compounds. (Sogang University · Konkuk University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Seung Han Lee

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 519-546 (28 pages)

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This study proposes that relative clause extraposition (hearafter RCE) is employed to produce stronger focus effect (i.e., pitch increase) on main predicate, thus delivering speaker′s illocutionary acts more remarkably. At first glance, data of relevance here drawn from BYU-BNC, COCA, and Buckeye Speech Corpus provide us with a principal finding that not only is the heaviest weight of relative clause likely to be one trigger for extraposition, but discourse-based RCE is also classified into four types under the assumption of extraposed relativizer as cohesive device. More to the point, we highlight the duration of silent pause occurring in the hitatus between main predicate and extraposed relative pronoun in order to prove discontinuous structure of RCE. Unexpectedly, the length of silent pause decreases when the information on extraposed relative clause loads more than thirteen words. This idiosyncratic behavior leads us to assume that focus effect determiners are hierarchically ordered and also their combinations are ranked according to different degrees of focus effect. It is thus no coincidence that extraposition of relative clause is highly favored over its canonical construction, thereby rendering focus effect more salient. We go a step further in claiming that focus cohesion principle provides a plausible explanation for the decreasing pause duration of RCE with the help of one questionnaire survey. Suffice to say, focused main predicate of RCE hauls its neighboring constituent, thereby leading to collapse of grammatical device, decrease of pause duration, and even misunderstanding of utterance. (Chodang University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Young-kook Kwon , Jong-bok Kim

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 547-566 (20 pages)

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The expression let alone, starting to be used as an NPI (negative polarity item) in the 1760s, displays peculiar syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic properties that are quite unpredictable from general grammar rules. This paper investigates these grammatical properties further while referring to the attested data extracted from corpora like COCA (Corpus of Contemporary American English). It also discusses several challenges to the postulation of clausal sources and application of move-and-delete operations. The paper then sketches a discourse-oriented construction approach that could offer a more feasible account for its general as well as idiomatic properties. In particular, it shows how the construction in question is interrelated with other related constructions such as parenthetical subordinating clauses modifying a nonveridical situation as well as ellipsis constructions that require a parallelism condition between an ellipsis clause and its antecedent clause. (Dongduk Women's University · Kyung Hee University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Kyungmin Lee , Ok Joo Lee

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 567-601 (35 pages)

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The present study examined how native Mandarin listeners and native Korean listeners of L2 Mandarin perceive the Mandarin level tones (i.e., Tone 1 and Tone 3) and how the Mandarin tone identification interacts with the Korean lenis-fortis stop perception in native Korean listeners. Two perception experiments, namely Mandarin Tone 1-Tone 3 Identification Experiment and Korean Lenis-Fortis Identification Experiment, were conducted. Results showed that native Mandarin listeners identified the monosyllabic level tones mostly as Tone 1, whereas the level tones on the first syllable in disyllabic expressions were distinguished as either Tone 1 or Tone 3 in a categorical manner. It was also found that the proficiency of L2 Mandarin has a strong influence on non-native tone perception, in that the responses of native Korean listeners of advanced L2 Mandarin largely conformed with those of native Mandarin listeners in both monosyllabic and disyllabic conditions. By contrast, less proficient listeners' tone judgments in monosyllabic conditions considerably correlate with the pitch height change, while a tendency to categorically distinguish Tone 1 and Tone 3 emerged in disyllabic conditions, though with less well defined perceptual boundary. The present study further revealed that L2 tones play a role in the perception of L1 stops. Despite the fact that Mandarin stops resemble Korean fortis in VOT, native Korean listeners of proficient L2 Mandarin appeared to distinguish the lenis and fortis stops in a categorical fashion in the initial position of disyllabic expressions. A great deal of similarity found between the lenis-fortis identification and the Tone 1-Tone 3 identification indicates that F0 cues are facilitated for the lenis-fortis identification of native Korean listeners. Findings of this study, therefore, demonstrate the perceptual reorganization that VOT cues are overridden by F0 was particularly notable in native Korean listeners of proficient L2 Mandarin, while the perceptual cue weighting shift did not seem to occur in less proficient L2 listeners. (Seoul National University)

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Suwon Yoon , James Yae

발행기관 : 경희대학교 언어정보연구소 간행물 : 언어연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 603-629 (27 pages)

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The current study investigates emotional attitudes of temperature terms in English via corpus analysis and sentiment AI analysis. First, based on the collocation patterns that are extracted from corpora in English (Corpus of Contemporary American English and iWEB), we attempt to specify a potential emotive feature for each temperature term. Second, we compare the results of corpus-based analysis in English with what a Sentiment Artificial Intelligence (Sentiment AI) model predicts. These results reveal how the meaning of temperature terms can be multidimensional: (a) a literal or figurative meaning in the semantic descriptive dimension; and (b) a speaker's positive or negative emotional attitude in the evaluative dimension. Theoretical implications of the current study include the following: For one thing, we identify temperature terms as another clear case of sentiment-encoded words in English. Further, the current corpus analysis suggests adding to sentiment dictionary the newfound positive or negative connotational differences of temperature terms as a potential feature. Finally, our findings further support the notion of multidimensionality in meaning. (University of Seoul · University of Houston)

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