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한국중세사연구 update

The Journal of Korean Medieval History

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수록범위 : 1권0호(1994)~69권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 677
한국중세사연구
69권0호(2022년 05월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 김수태 ( Kim Soo-tae )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 11-42 (32 pages)

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The present article examined in detail about the historical contexts surrounding the foundation of Anguk temple in Dangjin during the reign of King Hyeonjong of Goryeo dynasty.
The foundation of Anguk temple signifies the high interest in the Chungnam region during the reign of King Hyeonjong. This implies that the construction of temples in the Chungnam region during the reign of King Hyeonjong not only took place on the traffic routes connecting north and south but also in the direction of east and west.
Similar to the purpose of Buddhism activities in other regions at the time, Anguk Temple was founded for the sake of well-being of the country. The fact that it was based on Maitreya faith should also be noted. This shows the linkage to Maitreya faith in the Nonsan region during the early period of Goryeo dynasty.
On the other hand, another reason that Anguk Temple was built in Dangjin is closely related to the maintenance of traffic routes and the marine transportation system. This shows that socio-economic factors acted together in the foundation of Anguk Temple along with political and ideological factors.
Therefore, several Buddhist rituals were performed to promote the unity of the local community by the locals in Yeomi-Hyun of Dangjin which was called Hyangdo following the foundation of Anguk temple. These facts indicate that renewed interest is needed regarding Buddhism during the Reign of King Hyeonjong where abundant historical sources exist.

KCI등재

저자 : 이정훈 ( Lee Joung-hoon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 45-76 (32 pages)

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This paper contemplates the structure of the Military Prestige Title 武散階 in the early Goryeo period, the reason for its introduction, and what types of people were the Military Prestige Title holders specifically.
In the government posts of the early Goryeo period, various people were organized, including bureaucrats such as Munban(civil officials and Muban (military officials), 'Hojok 豪族', old soldiers, etc. In the 14th year of King Seongjong's reign when the bureaucracy was reorganized as part of the ruling system reformation, the government posts in the early Goryeo period were divided into Civil Prestige Title 文散階, Military Prestige Title, and 'Hyanjik 鄕職'(a prestige title of the Goryeo system).
The Military Prestige Title had the 29 grades and 'Yuowae grade 流外等級' (other grades outside these original grades). The 29 grades also included 'Hungye 勳階' such as 'Grand General Pyogi 驃騎大將軍', 'Grand General Boguk 輔國大將軍', and 'Grand General Jinguk 鎭國大將軍'. In addition, Military Prestige Titles were given not only to Goryeoin(Goryeo people), but also to Jurchens and Tamra people.
Those who received the Military Prestige Title as Goryeo people were the 'Jinbong hyang'ri 進奉鄕吏'(people who came to offer things) and 'Gi-in 其人'(person who came as a hostage to the center and served as an advisor to the administration of the region), craftsmen 匠人 and musicians 樂人 assigned to the central government office, old soldiers living in Gaegyeong and Seogyeong, and the holders of Technical Service Functionaries as children of musicians belonging to the central government office.
The holders of the Military Prestige Title were either those who belonged to the central government or local residents who had come to Gaegyeong to perform official duties. Accordingly, the Military Prestige Title was a hierarchy given to non-bureaucrats who were subordinated to the national public system located at Gaegyeong.
The Military Prestige Title showed the changes in its awarding subject, as the military system and the caste system were improved. As the military system was aligned, the Civil Prestige Title was awarded to the central soldiers, and 'Hyanjik' were awarded to the local soldiers. Meanwhile, the Military Prestige Titles were not awarded to soldiers, including older soldiers. As the children of musicians belonging to the central government entered the Technical Service Functionaries 雜類職, they were given the Military Prestige Titles in the meaning of promotion being limited in order to distinguish them from the general Technical Service Functionaries holders.

KCI등재

저자 : 이준 ( Lee Joon )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 77-106 (30 pages)

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The existence of eunuchs in Korean history has been found since the Silla period. However, the details of the Silla period's eunuch are unknown. More details on the composition and role of the eunuch are confirmed in the Goryeo Dynasty.
Previously Military Revolt(武臣政變), the eunuchs were kept in small numbers and played only a simple role in the palace. This is because during the reign of King Munjong, the number of eunuchs consisted of about 10 people and it was confirmed that only simple tasks were undertaken in the palace. Meanwhile, as the eunuch system was reorganized, the activity of eunuchs began to increase. The eunuch's activity was expanded through the passing of King Yejong and Injong, and eunuch was involved in political problems or exerted political influence on the king. Expecially, eunuch was able to gain favor and power by actively participating in the policy of strengthening the royal authority of King Uijong.
As Military Revolt took place, the political influence of eunuchs plummeted. This is because King Uijong was deposed and a large number of eunuchs were killed. In particular, negative perceptions of eunuchs prevailed as the actual situation of Uijong's maladministration was highlighted. In this situation, King Myeongjong kept a certain distance from eunuch. However, as Lee Eui-min came to power, eunuch again emerged as a close ally of the king. But after Choi Chung-hun's reign, the royal authority was reduced, and the activities of eunuchs declined again.
With the political change taking place under the leadership of Kim Jun, the activities of eunuchs began to increase. In particular, eunuchs became a key aide to the king as he participated in the elimination of Kim Jun. Also, thanks to Mongol military power, the royal authority was restored, increasing the power of the eunuchs and political influence.

KCI등재

저자 : 윤용혁 ( Yoon Yong-hyuk )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 107-140 (34 pages)

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Samgukyusa(三國遺事) by Ilyeon(一然, 1206~1289) is representative literature related to the ancient history of Korea. However, the fact this book was written during the Goryeo Dynasty tended to treat the book lightly.
This paper utilized references from Samgukyusa and attempted to approach the history of the war period of Mongolia in the 13th century. On the other hand, it tried to examine Ilyeon in the war period of Mongol Invasions. The literature contains relatively detailed stories about Buddhistic matter such as:the molar of Buddha lost during the transfer of the capital to Ganghwa(江華) in 1232, documents related to a visitation to Gyeongju and Hwangnyongsa(皇龍寺) in 1281, and an orb of Naksansa Temple. These references are used to specifically understand the reality of the Mongolian war.
Ilyeon, born in Gyeongsan, Gyeongsanbuk-do Province, had a rare regional experience throughout Southern Korea, except Chungcheong-do Province. These diverse experiences would have been another experience for Ilyeon to accumulate knowledge and information from a new perspective.
In this paper, the major parts of the ideas and values that Ilyeon had during the period of war in the 13th century were summarized into three categories:religious spirit, national consciousness, and equality. It was eventually considered as organized and converged categories by the experiences from the Mongol Invasions in the 13th century.

KCI등재

저자 : 이소영 ( Lee So-young )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 141-186 (46 pages)

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Park We is the progenitor of the Milseong Park clan Jeongguk faction, and his birth year is unknown. It was confirmed that Park We started his post as Udalchi at the late Goryeo, served as the chief of four regions, and served four times as a military officer in the southern provinces. He was also the person who led the construction of the fortress as an alternative solution during the period when Japanese invasions did not cease. By quickly reading the characteristics of the region and the flow of the times, he was well aware of the importance and necessity of the fortress. The fact that Park We served as the head of the Gyeongsangdo region and supervised the 4 constructions of the fortifications is the part that shows a big difference from the heads of other regions.
In 1388, when the conquest of Yodong began, Park We went to the head of Gyeongsangdo Sangweonsu, and joined the Wihwadohoe army in agreement with Lee Seong-gye. At the late Goryeothe period, the first conquest of Daema-do was carried out by Park We. The conquest of Daema-do is of great significance as it was the first active response of Goryeo in about 40 years after the invasion of the Japanese in the year of Gyeongin (1350).
After that, Park We raised King Gongyang to the throne of the dynasty and rose to a meritorious retainerthe, he was involved in the Kim Jong-yeon conspiracy and became the target of purges, and in 1390 he was exiled to Pungju. Park We's exile was a result of his political inclinations not being revealed, and it could be said that it meant a confrontation between Lee Seong-gye, who believed that he shared the same thoughts with Park We, and the forces that had no choice but to weigh Park We's political views.
After the founding of the Joseon Dynasty, in 1393, Park We was reinstated into politics, but the following year, he was sacked after being involved again in a conspiracy of the Wang clan. After that, there is no record of Park We's actions for three years. Park We, who was impeached for his involvement in political events even though he rose to a meritorious retainerthe, must have had great conflicts with his activities in politics. In 1398, Park We was reinstated to Chamchanmunhabusa and seemed to be recovering from his political activities, but he died in the first prince's rebellion in Lee Bang-won in the same year.
Park We was not a person who led a faction or actively established his position by putting his political views at the fore. It is not known whether the process of being impeached for being involved in an unsavory incident is true, but it seems certain that Lee Seong-gye and his soldiers returned from Wihwado and shared the will to establish a new dynasty. As a military officer who served as a high-ranking officer at the late Goryeo, he took the lead in the Japanese subjugation and made a major achievement, but his life came to an unfortunate end.
This thesis restores the life and activities of Park We as a whole and intends to conduct an in-depth study on the construction of fortresses and the conquest of Daema-do among the activities that were focused on as an alternative to the Japanese subjugation. In particular, by tracing and examining the background and process of the construction of the fortress, it is intended to re-evaluate his appearance as a military commander in relation to the military activities of Park We.

KCI등재

저자 : 박윤진 ( Park Yun-jin )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 187-218 (32 pages)

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At the stage of Goryeosajeolyo, the legend was first introduced, which recorded the first visit of each king and incident events as it was cumbersome to record all the events of the temple, Buddhist initiation ceremony of receiving the commandments of Buddhism, and offering donations to temples, all of which was the ordinary work of the king at the time. In Goryeosajeolyo, in addition to the actual record of the visit to temples, the sentence “[He] frequently visited the temple from this point on” was added to clearly indicate that this was the first visit, and 13 of the total 34 Kings were in such case. As Goryeosajeolyo had a system in which the year following the accession to the throne is used as the first year to calculate the year, most of the records of first visit were recorded after the first year of the King's reign, not the year of accession. The visit to the temple at this time was “the king's daily affairs at that time,” and ceremonies such as Yeondeunghoe and Palgwanhoe and the temple visit for the parents' Gisindoryang were not included. Despite the fact that the sentence that describe the first visit to the temple by King Munjong was recorded after “only one's own opinion,” even though there was a content that could be considered a visit to temple in Goryeosajeolyo during the periods of Deokjong and Jeongjong, which was right before that, there is no sentence after “only one's own opinion.” In addition, there were quite a few cases where the legend was not accurately observed, which was supposed to record the first visit in the Goryeosajeolyo. This was explained as the historians in charge of this royal dynasty did not follow the generally agreed-upon recording method despite that the legend existed. The article on the first visits of King Chungryeol and King Gongmin during the intervention period by the Yuan Dynasty confirmed the characteristics of the times where the Kings visited the temple with the princess of Yuan Dynasty, not alone. In addition, the fact that there were three types of sentences stating, “[He] frequently visited the temple from this point on,” makes it clear that each historian in charge was able to freely decide the content and method. It is also mentioned that historians in charge of each royal family can be divided into several groups based on such recording method of the first visit to temples.

KCI등재

저자 : 김보광 ( Kim Bo-kwang )

발행기관 : 한국중세사학회 간행물 : 한국중세사연구 69권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 221-250 (30 pages)

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This article is a critique of Agnes Kim's book, which examines the structure of justification of royal authority or state power in the Goryeo Dynasty through Confucian-centered rituals.
I would like to point out some significances from the author's research results. First, the author reproduced the political authority of the king, that is, the royal authority as a process of visualizing it through a consistent logic. Second, some concepts that were used a lot by researchers but had somewhat vague meanings were clearly explained. For example, the meaning of rites to heaven, and the explanation of the royal hierarchy through appointment ceremonies. Third, the author reconstructed the process of the coronation ceremony that was not clearly revealed. It logically explains the series of processes from the will of the former king to the enthronement and amnesty.
I raised several questions about the above research results. First, this book does not contain information on funerals for the royal family, including the king. Second, the author does not mention the way and space of the king's political actions. Therefore, I think that the structure or process by which the state power acquires legitimacy through rituals has become ambiguous.

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