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연극교육연구 update

Jounal of Korean Theatre Education

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1997)~38권0호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 353
연극교육연구
38권0호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1'이동형 사운드 공연' 《1933, 3개의 집》에 나타난 수행성 연구

저자 : 김찬 ( Kim Chan )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 5-35 (31 pages)

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The development of innovative science and technology today and the globalization of culture have broken the boundaries of art, and it has also broken the definition of the “formation of the existing traditional theater that has been consecrated and solidified since then in Aristotle's 『Poetics』. The audience who uniformly embraced the fictional world reproduced in the proscenium theater with rational thinking gained the initiative of the audience as a subjective listener after Richard Schechner's “Environmental Theater”. The actor, who aimed only at “the perfect transfer of roles” in the realist theater, regained the presence of the “sacred actor” that Jerzy Grotowski advocated.
The diversification aspect of today's theater originated from the avant-garde theatrical flow formed by the reaction to the traditional theater in the late 19th century. German theater scholar Hans-This Lehmann in his book Post-Dramatic Theater (1999), means the dissolution of “reduction of writer-centered texts in the late 20th century” and “representative relationship between text and stage production”. The aspect of the theater was named 'Post-Dramatic Theater'. The theater of the present era is no longer a replica of the real world, but the aesthetics of “preformation,” a process of action in the real world. As an extension of that, various theatrical styles such as Dance-Theatre, Documentary Theater, Multi-Media Theater, and Theater of Image appeared.
In Korea, academic research and artistic practice are being actively conducted on the 'Post-Dramatic Theater' in the 21st century. However, it shows a diversified aspect of the theater that expands indiscriminately and competitively. This also implies that art is accompanied by extreme warnings that the external force is taken as a standard or that it self-autonomously dissolves into non-artistic ones at the final stage of its autonomy. Regarding this indiscreet transformation of contemporary art, Hans Sedlmayr in his book 『(Die) Revolution der modernen Kunst』(1976) says that 'modern art' subordinates himself to such powers outside of art. It was also noted that when people abandon the human side for aesthetic (no longer artistic) power, it is no longer art.
This thesis started with the boundaries of non-artistic outcomes that can be brought to an extreme by actions practiced in the diversification aspect of the play under the name of 'Post-Dramatic Theater'. Thus, the researcher presents concerns and alternatives for the 'Post-Dramatic Theater' in Korea that appears radically. Introducing the practical results of 'Portable Sound Performance' 《Three Houses, 1933》, in which the researcher participated as a performer, and to study and report the connaissance empirique of the performance aesthetics implied in the act.
This study is meaningful in presenting an example of the reality of the “Post-Dramatic Theater” radically conducted in Korea today. It is valuable as a practical thesis on the practical outcome of performance aesthetics. Through this, various follow-up studies on 'Post-Dramatic Theater' in Korea are expected.

KCI등재

2연기교육의 디지털적 가시화 모형에 대한 연구

저자 : 안재범 ( Ahn Jae-beom )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 37-75 (39 pages)

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The development of visualization model of acting education in terms of digital is researched in accordance with contemporary theory of acting based on engineering concept in this study. In order that, a formalization which substitutes acting mechanism to symbol and algorithm on the concept of number is attempted on the one hand and seeks about encoding convert the act which is an element of acting to data in this study on the other hand. 
The aim of this study is to recognize the difference of 'hearing' type and 'showing' type in acting education and to establish theoretical system of visualization model supplementing both in digital point of view based on above. It is not only because visualization type based on digital, that is, concept of number can be the alternative supplements the misunderstanding and distortion, etc. caused by hearing type acting education but also it can be advantageous education type on performance learning such as acting in terms of several type such as long-term memory, etc.
 In order that, the necessity and basis of visualization education model which is the premise of discussion is examined in this study at first. And then, the type to formalize the acting on the concept of number based on digital characteristic is seeking and the type encoding the 'act' composing the acting is discussed in sequence. Based on it, the theoretical basis for the going hearing type and showing type in acting education side by side, seeking of new theory of acting based on digital point of view, movement of study focus in the theory of study from contents to type is established in this study.

KCI등재

3팬데믹과 극장 지원 정책에 관한 메카니즘 설계

저자 : 우석훈 ( Woo Suk-hoon )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 77-103 (27 pages)

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The outbreak of Corona Virus Disease (COVID) 19 gives us a serious disaster globally. The optimism of the early days of the pandemic disappeared, and it is uncertain that it will be completely finished this year in Korea, even though vaccination has already begun.
Pandemic, compared to the other disasters like typhoon or earthquake, has some special characteristics : high uncertainty of prediction and very long period of damage. Main damages of other disasters are concentrated in the early stage. In Korea, the social distancing is still maintained in control level 2. In France, third lockdown has just begun due to increasing corona cases, even though vaccination is going on.
The policy to the corona pandemic, which has extremely high uncertainty not only about the scale but also the duration, as a disaster, can be divided into two parts: ths virus control to overcome the pandemic and the economic policy to reduce economic losses. There is still a lot of controversy to the effectiveness of Korean Government's virus control. Any way, Korea is better than Japan in COVID 19 control. However, the economic expenditure of Korean government is only 22% compared to the Japan. The Korean government pandemic expenditure is not enough to absorb the damages caused by COVID 19. We do not have enough experiences about the pandemic policies. Moreover, the measurement of the economic impact can not be made in real time, and is inevitably incomplete due to many indirect effects such as global value chain and inter-industrial effects.
Culture and arts are the fields that are directly affected by the physical impact of social distancing during the pandemic session, but their role in economic system is often under-estimated. It seems that many damaged sector by pandemic feel that the government supports are insufficient. There is not exact scheme or method to evaluate the economic damage in times of pandemic and the lack of experiences make solutions much difficult. However, it seems even more difficult in the field of culture. The government's subsidy through the supplementary government budget has already been executed four times in 2020, and the first supplementary budget plan in 2021 was passed by National Assembly in March. If the number of cases per day, which is currently about 500, augments more, the virus control authorities may raise the control level. Naturally, the level of social distancing will be higher than now, and the 6th supplementary government expenditure plan may be prepared. In that case, will the support policy for the culture sector be increased more to cope with the pandemic damage? In reality, it culture sector is not main field during pandemic period, even though social distancing touched severely theaters which is the core of culture economy. Support for the cultural sector by economic authorities was too passive and limited.
In Korea, five pandemic supplementary budget plans have been made at the central government level so far, event though the total amount is largely inferior compared to that of the other OECD countries. Among them, support for culture was mainly focused on employment and freelance support, mainly actors, writers and staffs. In addition, there was subsidy for theater ticking and management support in the culture field, but it is insufficient compared to the size of the pandemic economic damage. We need to take more attention to develop the policy support scheme for the theaters, which is under-estimated in economic policy. Is it impossible to design a direct support mechanism for theaters that suffered significant economic losses due to social distancing?
Estimated by 2020 ticket sales score, the amount of damage of theaters in the field of performing arts such as theater or dance is 258.9 billion won. If we do the same type of work for the movie market, the damage from movie theater sales in 2021 is about 1.4 trillion won. Based on this economic damage of theaters, we can design a theater support mechanism caused by the social distancing of pandemic.
In the control level 2 of the pandemic, the social distancing of theater is to sit space by space. In this case, only 50% of the total audience can enter in the full level. In the case of performing arts such as theater, in general, 70% of audience is usually considered as the break-even point. The gap between the full seat level in social distancing 50% and the break-even point 70% is 20%. Subsidy to this gap is the simplest mechanism to help theaters during the pandemic social distancing. In control level 2.5, the seat distance is doubled. Only 30-40% of audiences can enter depending on the seats placement of each theater. We can design the theater support policy in a similar way. In control level 3, theaters will be closed. In this case, support mechanism could be designed based on production cost, such as labor and fixed costs, rather than ticket sales.
In the same way, you can also design theater support for movie market, which becomes much more complicated than the theater performed in only one theater. In the case of independent films and artistic films, the support rate can be augmented in favor of artistic efforts. If one movie occupies too many theaters, the support rate may be lowered.
Compared to the other OECD countries, Korea used relatively low govermental budget for pandemic economic support. We could say that there is still a room for the additional financial expenditure. And there is not meaningful policy in the cultural sector, especially in the theater support, because social consensus and discussions are not sufficient in this field. If we think the special characteristics of culture sector in national economy, more discussion will be needed to the theater support.

KCI등재

42015 개정 교육과정과 고등학교 『연극 감상과 비평』 교과서 연계 분석 - 성취기준을 중심으로

저자 : 이연심 ( Lee Yeon Sim )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 105-167 (63 pages)

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As a follow-up study of advanced study, this study, having interest in the process of didactic transposition that occurs while realizing curriculum in school settings, aims to make a sequential analysis on the 『Appreciation and Criticism of Theatre』 textbook focusing on the achievement standards of 2015 Revised National Curriculum, and obtain implications for development and modification of textbook as well as revision of future curriculum.
To achieve such purposes, this study established analysis standards based on the 'Appreciation and Criticism of Theatre' curriculum and curriculum research and development report 『Research and Development of Draft for 2015 Revised National Curriculum Ⅱ-High School Art Subject Curriculum』 from the 2015 Revised National Curriculum. To analyze connectivity between achievement standards and establishment of units, this study examined large, medium and small units to identify in what units each of 23 achievement standards is being realized. With respect to learning objectives, this study set 'Is learning objective established suitably for realizing achievement standards?' as a standard of analysis, and for learning activity, this study generated and 90 elements for analysis of learning activity by achievement standards (26 content learning elements, 49 aimed learning elements, 15 application learning elements) and set the elements as analysis standards.
Analysis results can be summarized as follows. While borrowing the principle of textbook model focusing on the core achievement standard as a formality, 『Appreciation and Criticism of Theatre textbook is reconstructed』 focusing on the eyes of recipients, not of producer in terms of contents, and most of achievement standards are being distributed and realized in a multiple number of units after being integrated between and within the areas excepting 'Understanding of Appreciation and Criticism', and this study confirmed that achievement standard [Yearbook 12-02-02] is omitted in the aforementioned process. Total 58 learning objective are suggested by small units and 21 of which are considered appropriate to realize each achievement standard, whereas 37 need to be improved for realizing achievement standards. Aspects of learning objectives that need to be improved are① learning objective that analysis-integration is necessary due to repetition or excessive segmentation, ② learning objective that needs to be reestablished due to duplication of learning contents, ③learning objective that needs to be expanded for lack of learning content. As for learning activity, 86 out of 90 elements for analysis of learning activity by achievement standards are being realized in a variety of textbook elements, but content or activity is omitted in 1 content learning element and 3 aimed learning elements respectively. With respect to learning activity, this study discovered problems such as learning activity without consideration to the amount of learning, learning activity that duplication of contents is worried, learning activity that learning contents are uncertain or there is a leap of learning process, learning activity that advance learning is required etc. Implications of this study include this study reconstructed curriculum in a creative way by looking 'Appreciation and Criticism of Theatre' subject from the perspectives of the audience, this study organized to enable students to learn appreciation and criticism based on the elements of theatre and appreciation such as production, acting and stage instead of learning appreciation and criticism based on the type and style of theatre. Based on the result of analysis, this study suggested ①organization of textbook units based on the thorough analysis of curriculum, ②segmentation of learning objectives through analysis of curriculum, ③reexamination of the segmentation levels of curriculum achievement standards, ④construction of communication system between textbook and curriculum developers, ⑤construction of communication system between textbook developers by subject, ⑥secure of performing and film materials as textbooks, ⑦case study of the use of textbook etc. for future development of curriculum and revision of textbook. This study is expected to make a contribution to the qualitative development of textbook and formation of discourse about theatre curriculum and theatre textbook for the future.

KCI등재

5≪환도열차≫에서 나타난 극중극과 몽타주 고찰

저자 : 장경순 ( Jang Gyeng-soon )

발행기관 : 한국연극교육학회 간행물 : 연극교육연구 38권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-202 (34 pages)

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This study aims to analyze the theoretical concept of a play within the play and montage as a playwright technique, focusing on the actual production process of A Moebius Train in connection with the choices in the actual production process. It is known that a play within the play appeared from the early 16th century, and as it proceeds by putting a small structured play that reflects on the play, by reminding the audience that 'this is a play', it is also in contact with the epic theater trend often seen in modern theater after Brecht. In contrast, a montage is a term borrowed from movies, and as it has been used by Piscator and Brecht since the 1930s to arrange text or sequence of stages in various ways according to intention, it is mainly related to the spectacular characteristics of contemporary plays that dazzlingly change visual spaces.
In the modern theater where various expression methods are possible with the development of technology, as for the methods mobilized to express various visual spaces, tasks that creators need to consider more closely are emerging. This phenomenon appears as a question of how the creators of the performance will shape it when the 'speaker's statement' gets momentarily 'being frozen' and the action statement becomes an 'interweave' with other visual spaces, as in the subject text of this study, A Moebius Train. Therefore, this study examines the creative process of A Moebius Train from the perspective of a play within the play and a montage, and tries to make meaningful suggestions. And further subdividing it, this study examines the 'ludic (or gestural) space' in conjunction with a play within the play, and simultaneously explores the 'theatrical chronotope' as a concept of transformation between theatrical visual spaces linked to a montage. Through this, we attempt to add to what the creators, who have the desire to expand the limits of time and space represented in recent performances, should consider basically, the individual case, A Moebius Train, obtained through a review of a play within the play and a montage.

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