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대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원> 제한동의학술원논문집

제한동의학술원논문집 update

The Journal of Jeahan Oriental Medical Academy

  • : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원
  • : 의약학분야  >  기초한의학
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  • : 연속간행물
  • : 연간
  • : 2005-2324
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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1995)~19권1호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 233
제한동의학술원논문집
19권1호(2021년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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저자 : 한은희 ( Eun Hee Han ) , 이형곤 ( Hyeong Gon Lee ) , 이상남 ( Sang Nam Lee )

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-16 (16 pages)

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Objectives : This study is a narrative research to predict factors affecting the turnover intentions and service quality of home-based care workers and to investigate the mediating effect and the moderating effect of the occupational identity against organizational support perceptions, the turnover intentions and service quality.
Methods : 582 people were surveyed by the method of convenience sampling in Daegu, Daejeon, and Yeosu from 28 June to 14 August 2017. The collected data analyzed by regression, multiple regression, and hierarchical regression using the SPSS/PC program. has been concluded as follow.
Results : First, organizational support perceptions were significant predictors of the occupational identity(β=0.541), the turnover intentions(β=-0.576), and service quality(β=0.613). As a result of regression with independent variables based on sub-variables of organizational support perception to derive more detailed analysis, the occupational identity is relevant to facility support perceptions(β=0.504) and coworker support perceptions(β=0.098), the turnover intention is relevant to facility support perceptions(β=-0.466) and coworker support perceptions(β=-0.172), service quality is relevant to facility support perceptions(β=0.617).
Second, the occupational identity was significant predictors of the turnover intentions(β=-0.355) and service quality (β=0.614). Another regression with independent variables based on sub-variables of occupational identity explained that the turnover intentions is relevant to professionality(β=-0.401), service quality is relevant to occupational view(β=0.235), professionality(β=0.490) and sense of calling(β=0.083).
Conclusions : when home-based care workers perceive that they are well supported by the organization, their occupational identity is high, service quality is improved and turnover intentions can be eased. Also, research has found out that the service quality can be improved when the occupational identity is high. Therefore, the home-based facility managers need to support the work of home-based care workers through the systematic management program so that they would provide quality services with pride as home-based care workers. In addition to the efforts of the facility, it is necessary for the government to identify the work of the home-based facility in a realistic manner and support it.

저자 : 김주익 ( Joo-ik Kim ) , 송창현 ( Chang-hyun Song ) , 박수진 ( Soo-jin Park ) , 최성훈 ( Seong-hun Choi ) , 구세광 ( Sae-kwang Ku )

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 17-39 (23 pages)

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Objectives : The objective of this study was to obtain acute (single) oral dose toxicity information of Bojungikki-tang (BJIKT), prepared and standardized by Aribio Ltd. (Seungnam, Korea), in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats as a process to develop of natural origin medicinal ingredient or food itself.
Materials and methods : In order to investigate the toxicity and identify target organs, BJIKT were once orally administered to female and male Sprague-Dawley rats at dose levels of 2000, 1000, 500 and 0 (vehicle control) mg/kg (body weights) in a volume of 10 ml/kg, dissolved in distilled water, and the mortality and changes on the body weight and clinical signs were monitored during 14 days after treatment with gross observation, changes on the organ weights and histopathology of principle organs based on the recommendation of Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) Guideline 423 based Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) Guideline (2015-082, 2015), as compared with those of equal genders of vehicle control rats. Because there are no available toxicological data after oral treatment in female and male rats of BJIKT, the highest dosage used in the present study were selected as 2,000 mg/kg in a volume of 10 ml of distilled water - the limited dosages of rodents, and 1,000 and 500 mg/kg were selected as middle and lower dosage groups according to OECD Guideline 423 based KFDA Guidelines (Notification No. 2015-082, 2015). In addition each female and male vehicle controls were added in this experiment.
Principal organs for weighing : Lung, Heart, Thymus, Liver, Left Kidney, Left Adrenal Gland, Spleen, Left Testis/Ovary, Splenic lobe of Pancreas, Brain, Urinary bladder, Left Epididymis/total Uterus, Prostate and Left Submandibular Lymph node [Total 16 organs]
Specific target organs for histopathology : Brain (Cerebrum, Cerebellum and Medulla oblongata), Heart, Thymus, Lung, Testis, Epididymis (head parts), Uterus, Ovary, Left-kidney, Left-adrenal glands, Spleen, Liver-left lateral lobe, Pancreas-splenic part, Digestive tracts (Esophagus, Fundus, Pylorus, Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Cecum, Colon and Rectum), Left-submandibular lymph nodes, Urinary bladder and Prostate [Total 27 organs].
Results : As the results of single oral treatment of BJIKT on the female and male Sprague-Dawley rats, no treatment related mortalities were observed within 14 days after end of treatment up to 2,000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in the both genders, and also no BJIKT treatment related changes on the body and organ weights, clinical signs, necropsy and histopathological findings were detected, in this experiment.
Conclusion : The results obtained in this study suggest that the BJIKT, prepared and standardized by Aribio Ltd. (Seungnam, Korea), is non-toxic in rats and is therefore, likely to be safe for clinical use. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) and approximate LD in rats after single oral dose of BJIKT were considered over 2,000 mg/kg, the limited dosage of rodents in both female and male Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. In addition, no specific target or clinical sings were detected in the present study.

저자 : Kang Seok-beom

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 41-42 (2 pages)

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Objectives : This study is to investigate the effects and mechanisms of Imyo-san (IMS) on the obese mice model induced by high-fat diet.
Methods : Antioxidative capacity was measured by in vitro method. C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned into 5 groups (n=7). Normal group was fed general diet (Normal). The other 4 groups were fed high fat diet (HFD) with water (Control), with Garcinia gummi-gutta (GG, Garcinia gummi-gutta 200 ㎎/㎏), with low-dose IMS (IMSL, Imyo-san 0.54 g/㎏) and with high-dose IMS (IMSH, Imyo-san 1.08 g/㎏).
Results : IMS showed high radical scavenging activity. After 6 week experiment, body weight, food intake, food efficiency ratio(FER), epididymal fat and liver weight, triglyceride(TG), total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein(LDL) cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein(VLDL) cholesterol, SREBP-1, p-ACC, FAS, SCD-1, SREBP-2, HMGCR, p-LKBI, p-AMPK, PPARα, PGC-1α, UCP-2, CPT-1A, and histology of liver and epididymal fat were measured and analysed. Body weight gain, FER, liver and epididymal fat weight of IMS groups were significantly decreased. There were significant improvements in blood lipids with less TG, TC, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and more HDL-cholesterol. Proteins associated with lipid synthesis (SREBP-1, p-ACC, FAS, SCD-1) and cholesterol (SREBP-2, HMGCR) was improved. Factors regulating lipid synthesis and lipid catabolism (p-LKBI, p-AMPK, PPARα, PGC-1α, UCP-2, CPT-1A) were increased. In histological examinations, IMS group had smaller fat droplets than control group. All results increased depending on concentration.
Conclusions : It can be suggested that IMS has anti-obesity effects with improving lipid metabolism.

저자 : Park Seok-man

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 43-43 (1 pages)

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The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (AM) in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis (UC) mice model. To provoke UC, mice were treated with 5% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. Mice were divided into four groups (n=8): Group I-normal group, Group II-DSS control group, Group III-DSS + AM (100 mg/kg), Group IV-DSS + AM (200 mg/kg). Colonic histopathological changes were analyzed using hematoxylin/eosin staining. AM treatment showed noticeable effectiveness in counteracting the ulcerative colitis, as assessed by i) decrease of body weight loss, ii) the improvement of liver function iii) reinforcement in antioxidant defenses, iv) inhibition of inflammatory proteins and cytokines v) promotion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and vi) improvement of crypt morphology. Therefore, AM modulated UC through the regulation of several key genes related to inflammation of colon tissue. We demonstrated that the AM treatment alleviated the DSS-induced UC in mice. Based on our research, AM may be a promising candidate for UC. However, and the underlying mechanism of AM needs further research.

저자 : Oh Min Hyuck

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 44-44 (1 pages)

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This study examined the protective effect of the water extract from Artemisiae Argyi Folium (AF) on mice with acute liver injury (ALI) induced by thioacetamide (TAA) and its underlying mechanism. ALI was induced by intraperitoneal injection with TAA for 3 days and the mice were administered AF (100 or 200 mg/kg) 1 h 30 min prior to TAA treatment. Liver function was assessed using serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in liver tissue, as markers related to oxidative stress. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, antioxidant, inflammation-related proteins, and PPARγ were investigated using western blot analysis. Histological examination was further confirmed through haematoxylin and eosin staining. The AF treatment reduced liver function markers such as AST and ALT. Moreover, the elevated MDA level in the TAA-induced group was reduced by AF treatment. AF improves antioxidant properties and inhibits NADPH oxidase and inflammation-related proteins through the regulation of PPARγ. In addition, AF treatment also improved histological alterations. Taken together, these results show that AF can not only enhance antioxidant properties through activation of PPARγ but also alleviate ALI by inhibiting NADPH oxidase and inflammation-related proteins.

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Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are caused by drugs, inflammation, and external stimuli, starting with digestive and absorption dysfunction of the digestive system, including both stomach and intestines. Other factors include alcohol, acid reflux, smoking, stress, and eating habits. GI diseases, including gastritis and colitis, start with mild symptoms and cause intractable or severe symptoms. Since the treatment of these gastrointestinal diseases requires a long period of time, side effects due to long-term use of the therapeutic agent are a problem. Recently, as an alternative to minimize these side effects, the focus is on the development of natural therapeutics. Therefore, in this study, we tried to verify the effect of Citrus unshiu Peel water extract (CP) on acute gastritis (AG) and ulcerative colitis (UC) mice. First, in order to investigate the antioxidant capacity of CP, total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-enzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity were analyzed. After confirming the antioxidant activity of CP, animal experiments were conducted. The effect of CP on gastric mucosal damage was analyzed in the AG model, and the effect of CP on changes in body weight and colon length was analyzed in the UC model. In addition, the levels of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO), an inflammatory biomarker, were confirmed using the serum. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), which are oxidative stress index analysis, were identified in serum and tissue, respectively. As a result, the CP administration reduced the levels of GOT, GPT, MPO, and ROS in the serum and MDA in tissue. Furthermore, CP treatment reduced NADPH oxidase proteins that produce ROS. In addition, the expression of MAPK induced by c-Fos and c-Jun transcription factors and the expression of inflammatory mediators and pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by NF-κBp65 activation was significantly reduced through inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Besides, CP administration inhibited the apoptotic proteins Bax and caspase-3 in DSS-induced ulcerative colitis mice, while increasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. Taken together, these results suggest that CP administration can alleviate acute gastritis and ulcerative colitis by regulating the expression of inflammatory proteins through the inactivation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

저자 : Moon-yeol Choi

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 47-47 (1 pages)

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As interest in appearance increases in modern society, hair has become psychologically and socially important meaning and role. Accordingly, many studies have been conducted on therapeutic agents for alopecia and gray hair using natural substances with relatively few side effects. This study investigated the effect of essential oil extracted from Korean medicinal herb with hexane on hair growth and graying. We determined effect of herbal essential oil (OS) on hair growth compared with minoxidil (MNXD) in human hair dermal papilla cells (HDPCs). Also, effect of essential oil on melanogenesis was monitored in the mouse melanoma cells (B16F10) using α-MSH (alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) as a positive control. In addition, cell proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and cell cycle from flow cytometry in HDPCs. And expressions of hair growth-related gene (IGF-1, Wnt3a, Akt, ERK) were monitored by western blot. We assessed melanogenesis by measuring melanin contents and tyrosinase activity. As the results, cellular protein expression intensities of IGF-1, Wnt3a, Akt, ERK were increased in OS-treated group and MNXD group, compared to DW group, respectively. Also G1 phase and S phase increased in OS-treated group compared to DW group. But melanogenesis didn't increase significantly in OS-treated group compared to DW group. These results suggest that OS from Korean medicinal herb has promotes hair growth. Therefore, it might be potential hair-promoting material to use for prevention and improvement of alopecia.

저자 : Kang Hyun-gu

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 48-51 (4 pages)

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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE : Since control of postprandial hyperglycemia and inhibition of oxidative stress are suggested to be important in the treatment of diabetes, many efforts had been made to search for effective and safe α-glucosidase inhibitors and antioxidants from natural materials to develop a physiological functional food or lead compounds for curing diabetes. On these facts, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory potential mediated anti-diabetic activities and related complications including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and obese refinement effects of WC - Water Chestnut (Fruit of Trapa japonica Flerov.) extracts have been suggested, and therefore, we hypothesized that WC can be selectable as candidate for further develop as ingredient for alternative medicinal drug or medicinal food to control metabolic syndrome including obese, in future. In the present study, we intended to confirm the dose-dependent beneficial potentials of WC on mild diabetic obese mice “the 45%Kcal HFD Supplied Mice”, compared with those of metformin, a representative anti-obese and anti-diabetic drugs for type II diabetes, at a dose level of 250 mg/kg, as a process for developing the potent alternative anti-obese agent or functional food.
MATERIALS AND METHODS : In this study, adapt animals to HFD were selected after 1 week of adapt periods among eighty-five prepared mice as 6 groups (Table 2) (Ten mice in each group, total 50 HFD supplied mice and 10 normal fat diet (NFD) supplied mice), and used in this experiment. After end of 12 weeks of continuous oral administrations of test samples - metformin 250 mg/kg, WC 200, 100 and 50 mg/kg, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, nephroprotective and anti-obesity effects were observed. The hypoglycemic activities were observed based on the changes of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood glucose and insulin levels, histopathological-immunohistochemistrical analysis of the pancreas - insulin/glucagon cells, and pancreas weights. The hepatoprotective activities were monitored based on the liver weight, histopathology of liver, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level changes, and nephroprotective effects were considered using the changes of the kidney histopathology, weights, serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. In addition, hypolipidemic activities were observed based on the changes of serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, and the changes of body weight, total and abdominal body fat masses, mean food consumption, histopathology of the ovarian and abdominal wall adipocytes and periovarian fat weights were used as anti-obese efficacy criteria index, in the present study. In addition, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents based liver lipid peroxidation, and hepatic antioxidant defense systems - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and the glutathione (GSH) contents were measured additionally with lipid metabolism-related genes expressions - AMPKα1, AMPKα2 and hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), adipose tissue leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)α, mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), PPARγ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)α, adiponectin, C/EBPβ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)1c and fatty acid synthase (FAS) mRNA expressions by realtime RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction) as relative to control/Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) mRNA expressions, and hepatic glucoseregulating enzyme activities -glucose-6-phosphatase (G6pase), glucokinase (GK) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for action mechanism. The results in WC were compared with those of metformin, a representative anti-obese and anti-diabetic drugs for type II diabetes, at a dose level of 250 mg/kg, in this experiment.
Experimental groups (Six groups, 10 mice in each group)
Intact control = Vehicle (distilled water) 10 ml/kg orally administered mice with NFD supply
HFD (vehicle) control = Vehicle (distilled water) 10 ml/kg orally administered mice with HFD supply
Metformin = 250 mg/kg of metformin oral administered mice with HFD supply
WC200 = WC 200 mg/kg orally administered mice with HFD supply
WC100 = WC 100 mg/kg orally administered mice with HFD supply
WC50 = WC 50 mg/kg orally administered mice with HFD supply
Total eighty-five female SPF/VAF CrljOri:CD1(ICR) mice were supplied by OrientBio (Seungnam, Korea). Adapt animals to HFD were selected at 1 week of adapt periods as six groups (10 mice in each groups, total 50 HFD supplied mice and 10 NFD supplied mice) based on the body weights (intact control: mean 30.65 ± 1.84 g, ranged in 28.00~32.80 g; HFD supplied group: mean 33.66 ± 1.56 g, ranged in 31.10 ~ 38.80 g), and used in this experiment. Appropriated amounts of WC were directly dissolved in distilled water as 20, 10 and 5 mg/ml concentrations, and orally administered in a volume 10 ml/kg, as equivalence 200, 100 and 50 mg/kg, once a day for 84 days using a stainless zonde attached to 1 ml syringe, from 1 week after HFD supply. In addition, metformin was also dissolved in distilled water as 25 mg/ml concentrations and also orally administered in a volume of 10 ml/kg, as equivalence to 250 mg/kg, once a day for 84 days from 1 week after initial HFD supply. In intact and HFD vehicle control mice, equal volumes of distilled water were also orally administered, instead of test substances to provide same restrain stresses from gastric gavages, respectively.
RESULTS : As results of 91 days of continuous HFD supply, HFD control mice showed noticeable increases of body weights and gains, body and abdominal fat densities, periovarian and abdominal wall deposited fat pad weights, blood glucose, insulin, HbA1c, AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, GGT, total cholesterol, LDL, TG, BUN and creatinine levels with decreases in serum HDL levels. In addition, increases of periovarian and dorsal abdominal deposited fat pad thicknesses, adipocyte hypertrophy, steatohepatitis regions, hepatocyte hypertrophy, lipid droplet deposit related renal tubular vacuolation degenerative lesions were detected with marked expansion and hyperplasia of pancreatic islets, increases of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells, insulin/glucagon cell ratios in endocrine pancreas, while diminish of zymogen contents at histopathological observation, and also increases of hepatic lipid peroxidation, and deterioration of endogenous antioxidant defense system - the decreases of liver GSH contents, CAT and SOD activities were monitored in HFD control mice with decreases of glucose utilization related hepatic GK activities and increases of hepatic gluconeogenesis related G6pase and PEPCK activities, and increases of hepatic ACC1 mRNA expressions, decreases of hepatic AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 mRNA expressions, increases of periovarian adipose tissue leptin, C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, FAS, SREBP1c and PPARγ mRNA expressions, decreases of adipose tissue UCP2, adiponectin and PPARα mRNA expressions, suggesting HFD supplement-induced AMPK down-regulation dependent dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism related obese insulin resistant type II diabetes, and oxidative stress related diabetic hepatopathy (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD), nephropathy and hyperlipidemia in the present study. However, all of these diabetes and related complications including NAFLD and obese were significantly inhibited by 84 days of continuous oral treatment of WC 200 and 100 mg/kg, dose-dependently, and also metformin 250 mg/kg, respectively. Especially, WC 100 mg/kg constantly showed favorable inhibitory activities against HFD-induced diabetes and related complications - obese, NAFLD, nephropathy and hyperlipidemia as comparable to metformin 250 mg/kg, but no significant anti-diabetic and related complication refinement effects were observed in WC 50 mg/kg administered mice as compared to those of HFD control mice, at least in a condition of the current experiment.
CONCLUSION : By assessing the key parameters for anti-diabetic activities and related complications including NAFLD and obese refinement effects on the HFD-induced mild diabetic obese mice, the present work demonstrated that WC has favorable anti-diabetic and related complications - obese, NAFLD, nephropathy and hyperlipidemia refinement effects through the AMPK upregulation related hepatic glucose enzyme activity and lipid metabolism-related genes expression, antioxidant defense system and pancreatic lipid digestion enzyme modulatory activities, as comparable to metformin 250 mg/kg in WC 100 mg/kg, in HFD mice, at least in a condition of the present experiment. It, therefore, appropriate oral dosage of WC will be promising as a new potent herbal formulation for refinement agent or medicinal food to control type II diabetes and related various complications, in future through clinical and more detail animal studies.

저자 : Keum Yu-jeong

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 52-53 (2 pages)

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In the field of medical history, studies on the late Joseon Dynasty were relatively scarce. This study intends to examine the aspect of korean medicine that was popular in the late Joseon Dynasty through a comprehensive study of the Saipyeongbang, which is a book of literature in the late Joseon Dynasty.
The contents of Saipyeongbang were restored, and the contents were divided into detailed contents, and each national translation and explanation were carried out. The bibliographical information of Saipyeongbang was revealed, and the author's thoughts and treatment principles were considered through the contents of the prescription. In addition, by using reference books with similar contents, the differences between organization and content were revealed and the characteristics of this book were considered.
It is difficult for Saipyeongbang to identify the author, and it is presumed that the copyist was not a professional physician. The original copy of Saipyeongbang is estimated to have been published in the late 19th century, and it is estimated that Saipyeongbang was written in 1934. Saipyeongbang uses Samul-tang, Yijin-tang, Pyeongwi-san as the main prescriptions, and uses the method of adding or subtracting herbs to increase the utilization of prescriptions, while also actively utilizing simple prescriptions for convenience.
Although SaiPyeongbang followed the table of contents of Donguibogam, it did not follow it completely. Compared to Donguibogam, there is a difference in the order or name of the table of contents, because Saipyeongbang is a practical medical book mainly composed of prescriptions or conditions that are frequently used. The table of contents of the reference books are completely the same or almost similar to each other, but there is a slight difference from the table of contents of Saipyeongbang.
By comparing the contents of Saipyeongbang and the reference books, it can be inferred that Saipyeongbang and the reference books were written based on the same model. The model had a vast amount of prescriptions and 'table of contents', and reference books copied the table of contents from the model as it was, and the author of Saipyeongbang reconstructed some of the table of contents. At that time, prescriptions centered on Samul-tang, Yijin-tang, Pyeongwi-san were widely used in clinical practice, so the prescriptions centered on Samul-tang, Yijin-tang, Pyeongwi-san were extracted from the writing process of Saipyeongbang and reference books. In Saipyeongbang, there is a a rhymes of prescription(方劑歌賦) and rhymes of herbal medicine(藥性歌), which are characteristic of Saipyeongbang only, not in the reference books. These characteristics also show that Saipyeongbang is a medical book that pursues practicality.
In conclusion, Saipyeongbang is a medical book that is both effective and systematic in clinical along with the author's original medical theory. Through the study of Saipyeongbang, it was possible to examine the cross-section of traditional medicine in the late Joseon Dynasty, which pursued practical medicine.

저자 : Shin You-bin

발행기관 : 대구한의대학교 제한동의학술원 간행물 : 제한동의학술원논문집 19권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 54-55 (2 pages)

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Objectives : This study was designed to investigate the effects of Sunbanghwalmyung-eum gamibang (SHG) on Monosodium iodoacetate(MIA)-induced osteoarthritis(OA) rats.
Methods : Fourty Sprague-Dawley(SD) rats were divided into 5 groups, each consisting of 8 rats. OA was induced by the injection of MIA(2 ㎎/50 ㎕) into the left knee joint cavity of SD rats except for the Normal group. : Normal group(Normal) comprised rats with normal saline injected into the left knee joint instead of MIA, and administrated orally distilled water(2 ㎖), Control group(OA) comprised MIA-induced OA rats, and administrated orally distilled water(2 ㎖), Positive comparison group(Indomethacin) comprised rats MIA-induced OA rats, and administrated orally indomethacin (2 ㎎/㎏), SHG low concentration group(SHG(2)) comprised MIA-induced OA rats, and administrated orally 2.000 ㎎/㎏ of SHG(2 ㎖), and SHG high concentration group (SHG(4)) comprised MIA-induced OA rats, and administrated orally 4.000 ㎎/㎏ of SHG(2 ㎖). Medicines were administered for 4 weeks after the injection of MIA. Hematoxylin-Eosin staining and Safranin-O staining were used to evaluate the extent of lesions in the knee cartilage. Tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-6(IL-6), which are inflammatory cytokines, were analyzed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of SHG. Matrix metalloproteinase-13(MMP-13) related to bone destruction, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1(TIMP-1) and glycosaminoglycans(GAGs) related to bone protection, were also analyzed. In addition, reactive oxygen species(ROS) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2(Nrf-2) were analyzed to investigate the anti-oxidative effect of SHG. Also, blood samples were taken from the rats for hematological test, biochemical test, and liver and kidney tissue from the rats were analyzed to check the safety of SHG.
Results : SHG groups(2 and 4) inhibited the matrix destruction and damage of the knee joint cartilage in SD rat model, and significantly prevented the reduction in cartilage thickness. Also, in SHG groups, the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and MMP-13 were significantly decreased, and the expressions of TIMP-1, GAGs were significantly increased compared with OA group. Moreover, the expression of ROS was significantly decreased in SHG groups, and the expression of Nrf-2 was significantly increased in Indomethacin and SHG(4) groups. But, Nrf-2 of SHG(2) group had no significant difference compared with OA group. The safety indicators(hematological test, biochemical test, liver and kidney tissue) had no significant differences among five groups.
Conclusion : These results show that SHG has cartilage protection capacity, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect. Especially, high concentration of SHG increases the expression of Nrf-2(related to anti-oxidative effect, also) for MIA-induced OA rats.

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