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70권0호(2022년 08월) 수록논문
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저자 : Р.Чүлтэмсүрэн ( R. Chultemsuren ) , ИСон-а ( Lee Sun-a )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 7-30 (24 pages)

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In the Mongolian peoples, various rites related to the wedding ceremony are handed down abundantly to the people. These wedding customs are in the form of oral literature such as heroic epics such as < Jangar > and myths such as < Mongolian Secret History >, or in the manuscripts < The wedding customs of the central Khalha peoples >, Hurim-yn yorool, 婚禮 祝辭>, < Honjin devter, 헌찡(主禮)의 儀軌 >, etc. The traditional method of marriage proposal is handed down by various names and customs among Mongolian ethnic groups, and its detailed contents can be confirmed through various oral literary genres and literature materials, including Mongolian epics of heroes.
This paper outlines the naming and customs of bride proposals performed in the folklore of major Mongolian tribes such as the Khalha, Bayad, Buryat, Dorbod, Uzemchin, Chahar, and Ordos of Mongolia. In particular, in Mongolian wedding customs, we focus on 'honjing', who plays the role of a matchmaker and officiant, in the form of hymns(magtaal) or congratulatory songs(yorool) exchanged in the form of poetry. paid attention to In the Mongolian bride proposal customs, the figurative image of the bride and groom is an important factor in examining the cultural and literary characteristics of the Mongolian nomads
The custom of marriage proposals in Mongolia is a valuable legacy of Mongolian folklore, oral literature, cultural studies, and cultural anthropology, and will become an important research material that should be paid more attention in the future. As such, the discovery and succession of various cultural elements in the wedding culture of each tribe in Mongolia has great significance as a very valuable traditional cultural heritage in reflecting on today's wedding culture and further developing its spiritual value.

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저자 : D. Taya

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 31-46 (16 pages)

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Epic is one of the worldwide spread oral traditions. Current studies of epics mainly concern the origin and formation of epics influenced by studies of Homer Issue. That is to study the birth and development of epics based on its written text, taking Greek epic as a model.
As to the decline and digression of epics, scholars insist Marx's viewpoints, specifically, 'some arts, for instance epics, are accepted by everyone, in this regard, when art production appears as art production, it would not be created same as the ancient classical format which has significant of time in world history', and consider epics were created in the age of barbarism, and would decline naturally in civilized society. 'Marx and Engels said Iliad, Odyssey were created in later stage of barbarous society or earlier stage of civilized society, they never said worldwide epics were created in that stage'. For example, Mongolian epics were still prevailing until early 20th century, and some new contents were added then. Some scholars consider epics as the product of 'a people's uncivilized stage' or 'undeveloped era of art'. In fact, 'it does not exceed of hundred years since Mongol epics was recorded in scripts the first time. And some are still alive among the people, and some new epics are found till recent days. Mongols have changed and updated the epics with new awareness in various historical stages, instead of remembered the ancient version without any changes.'
While observing the research history of epics, we would find researchers have paid close attention to the origin, development and changes of epics, and paid little attention to the decline of epics. In the article, the author argues the study of decline of Jangar has theoretical and practical importance to understand the vanishing history of dead epics, to understand the necessity of cherishing and spreading existing oral tradition.

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저자 : 허우범 ( Her Woo-bum ) , 복기대 ( Bok Gi-dae )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 49-73 (25 pages)

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Joseon thought that if the Qing Dynasty declined, they would return to their original hometown, Ningguta.(寧古塔) At this time, their return route must pass through the northwestern border of Joseon, so they thought about defense against it. This 'The Rumor of Manchurian return to Ningguta' continued for over a hundred years from the time of King Sukjong. Joseon's greatest concern was that the Qing Dynasty returned to Ningguta, attacking private houses on the northwestern border of Joseon and usurping their food. Therefore, the Joseon Dynasty had to make a thorough defense against it.
The traffic route from Beijing, the capital of the Qing Dynasty, to Ningguta is the route through Sanhaiguan, Gaewon, and Jilin. A faster way is to go from Shenyang, passing between the Longgang Mountains(龍崗山脈) and the Huifahe(輝發河) area to reach Ningguta. However, if the present Yalu River is the northwestern border of Joseon, it all passes through a road far from Pyeongan-do of Joseon. In other words, it does not match the records of historical that say, “The direct road from Shenyang to Ningguta is very close to the northwestern part of Joseon.”
In another paper, I have reviewed the latitude and longitude recorded in the Cheongbuk region of Pyongan Province in 『Daedongjiji』 and argued that the northwestern part of Joseon included the present-day Liaoning and Jilin provinces in China. This northwest boundary of Joseon can be seen more clearly when compared with the Manchurian return to Ningguta. In other words, the northern border issue that Joseon had been contemplating for over a hundred years did not stem from a vague hatred for the barbarian Qing Dynasty, but because it was the northwestern boundary of Joseon including the present-day Liaoning and Jilin Provinces in China. Therefore, it was a concern about the very realistic and urgent national task that Joseon faces.

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저자 : А.Алимаа ( Alimaa Ayushjav )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 75-87 (13 pages)

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Since ancient times, Mongolian herders calculated the weather risk by observing the constellations, saving their animals and managing their migrations. For example, observing the state of the moon, especially the new moon in the first month of spring, the moon in the sky and the appearance of 6 constellations in the sky would determine the weather of the coming season. The arrival of cold weather was marked by the appearance of the constellation Pleiades. When it disappeared from the sky, the warm season officially began. In doing so, they governed their lives by observing the climatic conditions of the seasons repeated each year. One such observation is the method of calculating the winter season by dividing it into 9 days by 81 days.
According to Mongolian astrology, the winter season, Yusun yus, has 81 days. This is called the Counting of Nines. In other words, Mongolians count off this 81 days 9 times for nine days, and after that they meet spring. That is, from the date of the winter solstice, or from December 22, every nine days counts as "one" nine. For example, from December 22 to December 31 is the first "nine." Basically, this is a way of determining the coldness of winter.
On the winter solstice and is divided into three parts-nyalh gurav, idar gurav, hogshin gurav, which correspond to the main periods of human life-baby, young and old, each of which is divided into another three parts and denotes-three infants, three young and three old people. Therefore, it is possible to determine that each also corresponds to a certain period of human life.
And each such period has its own expressions in oral poetry. These oral poetic expressions, which are easy for anyone to remember, express the intensity and waning cold in harmony with changes in nature, climate, and human life. For example, In the first nine, nermel archi-Mongolian milk vodka will be frozen.
In the second nine, chorz archi-Mongolian milk vodka with a higher degree will be frozen.
In the third nine-horns of a three-year-old bull will be frozen and broken.
In the fourth nine-the horns of a 4-year-old bull will be frozen and broken.
In the fifth nine-boiled rice will not be frozen, that is, spring is near.
In the sixth nine-clear roads appear, meaning snow is melting.
In the seventh nine-the tops of the hills are thawing.
In the eighth nine-"nyal shal bolno"-"thawing" occurs.
In the ninth nine-the usual warmth comes.
"Yusun yus" (nine) have many variations, and the traditional form to some extent reflects local and ethnic characteristics. But in the new time poems, composed with fun and humor, are not only a sample of modern folklore, but also a reflection of the direction of social criticism.
The article also examined and compared the calendar divisions of the 24 minor seasons of Korea and the Mongols. For example, Koreans already had a seasonal agricultural calendar during the Three Kingdoms period where the year was divided not only into four seasons but also into 24 seasons (isbsa cholgi). This number of seasons was based on observing the position of the Sun on the ecliptic.
It is interesting that some names of small seasons coincide in Mongols and Koreans such as white dew and frost fall from the beginning of September (khanno, sangangan), frost come-small and big cold (sohan, tehan), and also winter characteristics such as winter solstice (December 22), a weak cold snap (January 6) and a strong cold snap (January 21). Such agricultural seasonal calendars of the four-seasonal countries of Asia, each with its own unique account. And the Mongols had a yearly (lunar) small seasons calendar associated with the seasons of the economic year of the nomadic cattleman. The origins of the agricultural calendar of Koreans and Mongols go back to antiquity.

KCI등재

저자 : 정성권 ( Jeong Seong-kwon )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 89-127 (39 pages)

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Dolhareubang are stone statues that have become leading symbols of Jeju and an iconic part of the island's culture. They were originally placed outside the gates of Jeju's three walled towns; 47 of the original 48 statues created in the pre-modern era have survived to the present day.
This study begins by revealing the strong credibility of documents stating that the Dolhareubang originally located at the walled town of Jeju, the island's center of administration, were created under the orders of Kim Mong-Gyu in 1754 during his term in office as the island's magistrate. The town walls of Daejeong-hyeon and Jeongui-hyeon were constructed in the early Joseon Dynasty period, and Dolhareubang were placed outside their gates. However, one of the Dolhareubang in Daejeong-hyeon, #2-34, has features that are foreign to Jeju but highly characteristic of stone statues that are widespread in regions that were controlled and influenced by the Turkish khanates.
This study contains a comparative analysis of statues from those areas and the Dolhareubang statues in Daejeong-hyeon. This analysis leads to the conclusion that it is highly likely that four of the Daejeong-hyeon Dolhareubang, which are relatively large and carved with a high degree of skill, were created between the latter half of the 13th century and the first half of the 14th century by hachi(herdsmen) originating from the Kipchak Khanate, part of the Mongol Empire, during the Mongol occupation of Jeju. These Dolhareubang seem to have been moved from their original locations to the entrance gates of the walled town of Daejeong-hyeon in the first half of the 15th century, where they took on the role of guardians of the town gates. The Dolhareubang at Jeongui-hyeon are thought by scholars to have been sculpted soon after this, towards the end of the early 15th century. The facial expressions of the Dolhareubang at the town of Jeju bear a close resemblance to sacheonwang(four devas) statues at temples first built during the 17th century.
Jeju's Dolhareubang can be considered as representative examples of Asian stone statues, which were built due to an exchange of culture between Korea and the Eurasian continent.

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저자 : 박상후 ( Park Sanghu )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 129-145 (17 pages)

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This paper studied on the discovery and restoration of 5-string yatag (Gonghu) found in the western Mongolian region in 2008. According to the archeologists, 5-string yatag (Gonghu) was found out to be the instrument from Turkic VI-VIII periods. In response, this paper examined the characteristics and common features found in the 5-string yatag restored by the ancient musical instrument archeologists at University of Bonn, Germany, and 5-string 6-string yatag restored by the Mongolian researchers in the Mongolian ways of thinking. This paper also tried to observe the similarities between Altai yatag and Eurasian 5-string vertical yatag serially found at Altai Mountains.
The altai yatag(алтай ятга) and Sarmatian yatag(сармат ятга) share the common symbolic expressions with the same animal-shaped figures and sculptures. While the German researchers found “5-String Vertical yatag(өнцөгт босоо ятга)” at Jargalant Khairkhan (жаргалант хайрхан) and made a yatag with vertical head part for tightening the strings, Mongolian researchers refuted the yatag that German researchers made and claimed that “Altai yatag” is a 5-string and 6-string instrument with goat head-shaped part.
The “Altai Yatag” made by Mongolian researchers restored the ancient writing written on the back of the excavated music instrument as well as the various drawings such as deer, goat, dog, and hunter shooting an arrow on the bottom of the excavated music instrument.
Considering that large numbers of the Mongolian yatag records were found in historical literature data, oral literature, and foreign traveler's records from 13th century, it is assumed that yatag already settled down as a complete instrument around that time. 5-string yatag excavated at Mongolia in 2008 is the evidence that supports such fact. The evidence of 5-string yatag showed that the Mongolian music history and yatag history already existed in 7th century earlier than the previously known 13th century.

KCI등재

저자 : 한국몽골학회

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 70권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 149-182 (34 pages)

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