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수록범위 : 1권1호(1991)~31권8호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 5,699
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
31권8호(2021년 08월) 수록논문
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1Bacterial Exopolysaccharides: Insight into Their Role in Plant Abiotic Stress Tolerance

저자 : Neeta Bhagat , Meenu Raghav , Sonali Dubey , Namita Bedi

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1045-1059 (15 pages)

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Various abiotic stressors like drought, salinity, temperature, and heavy metals are major environmental stresses that affect agricultural productivity and crop yields all over the world. Continuous changes in climatic conditions put selective pressure on the microbial ecosystem to produce exopolysaccharides. Apart from soil aggregation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production also helps in increasing water permeability, nutrient uptake by roots, soil stability, soil fertility, plant biomass, chlorophyll content, root and shoot length, and surface area of leaves while also helping maintain metabolic and physiological activities during drought stress. EPS-producing microbes can impart salt tolerance to plants by binding to sodium ions in the soil and preventing these ions from reaching the stem, thereby decreasing sodium absorption from the soil and increasing nutrient uptake by the roots. Biofilm formation in high-salinity soils increases cell viability, enhances soil fertility, and promotes plant growth and development. The third environmental stressor is presence of heavy metals in the soil due to improper industrial waste disposal practices that are toxic for plants. EPS production by soil bacteria can result in the biomineralization of metal ions, thereby imparting metal stress tolerance to plants. Finally, high temperatures can also affect agricultural productivity by decreasing plant metabolism, seedling growth, and seed germination. The present review discusses the role of exopolysaccharide-producing plant growth-promoting bacteria in modulating plant growth and development in plants and alleviating extreme abiotic stress condition. The review suggests exploring the potential of EPS-producing bacteria for multiple abiotic stress management strategies.

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2Comparative Study of the Difference in Behavior of the Accessory Gene Regulator (Agr) in USA300 and USA400 Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA)

저자 : Hye Soo Lee , Hun-suk Song , Hong-ju Lee , Sang Hyun Kim , Min Ju Suh , Jang Yeon Cho , Sion Ham , Yun-gon Kim , Hwang-soo Joo , Wooseong Kim , Sang Ho Lee , Dongwon Yoo , Shashi Kant Bhatia , Yung-hun

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1060-1068 (9 pages)

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Community-associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is notorious as a leading cause of soft tissue infections. Despite several studies on the Agr regulator, the mechanisms of action of Agr on the virulence factors in different strains are still unknown. To reveal the role of Agr in different CA-MRSA, we investigated the LACΔagr mutant and the MW2Δagr mutant by comparing LAC (USA300), MW2 (USA400), and Δagr mutants. The changes of Δagr mutants in sensitivity to oxacillin and several virulence factors such as biofilm formation, pigmentation, motility, and membrane properties were monitored. LACΔagr and MW2Δagr mutants showed different oxacillin sensitivity and biofilm formation compared to the LAC and MW2 strains. Regardless of the strain, the motility was reduced in Δagr mutants. And there was an increase in the long chain fatty acid in phospholipid fatty acid composition of Δagr mutants. Other properties such as biofilm formation, pigmentation, motility, and membrane properties were different in both Δagr mutants. The Agr regulator may have a common role like the control of motility and strain-dependent roles such as antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, change of membrane, and pigment production. It does not seem easy to control all MRSA by targeting the Agr regulator only as it showed strain-dependent behaviors.

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3Sevoflurane Postconditioning Reduces Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Injury in Cardiomyocytes via Upregulation of Heat Shock Protein 70

저자 : Jun Zhang , Haiyan Wang , Xizhi Sun

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1069-1078 (10 pages)

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Sevoflurane postconditioning (SPostC) has been proved effective in cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. It was also reported that heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) could be induced by sevoflurane, which played a crucial role in hypoxic/reoxygenation (HR) injury of cardiomyocytes. However, the mechanism by which sevoflurane protects cardiomyocytes via HSP70 is still not understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the related mechanisms of SPostC inducing HSP70 expression to reduce the HR injury of cardiomyocytes. After the HR cardiomyocytes model was established, the cells transfected with siRNA for HSP70 (siHSP70) or not were treated with sevoflurane during reoxygenation. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was detected by colorimetry while cell viability and apoptosis were detected by MTT and flow cytometry. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting were used to detect HSP70, apoptosis-, cell cycle-associated factors, iNOS, and Cox-2 expressions. Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). SPostC decreased apoptosis, cell injury, oxidative stress and inflammation and increased viability of HR-induced cardiomyocytes. In addition, SPostC downregulated Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels, while SPostC upregulated Bcl-2, CDK-4, Cyclin D1, and HSP70 levels. SiHSP70 had the opposite effect that SPostC had on HR-induced cardiomyocytes. Moreover, siHSP70 further reversed the effect of SPostC on apoptosis, cell injury, oxidative stress, inflammation, viability and the expressions of HSP70, apoptosis-, and cell cycle-associated factors in HR-induced cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that SPostC can reduce the HR injury of cardiomyocytes by inducing HSP70 expression.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

4Modulation of Inflammatory Pathways and Adipogenesis by the Action of Gentisic Acid in RAW 264.7 and 3T3-L1 Cell Lines

저자 : Min-jae Kang , Woosuk Choi , Seung Hyun Yoo , Soo-wan Nam , Pyung-gyun Shin , Keun Ki Kim , Gun-do Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1079-1087 (9 pages)

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Gentisic acid (GA), a benzoic acid derivative present in various food ingredients, has been shown to have diverse pharmaceutical activities such as anti-carcinogenic, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we used a co-culture system to investigate the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic effects of GA on macrophages and adipocytes, respectively, as well as its effect on obesity-related chronic inflammation. We found that GA effectively suppressed lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses by controlling the production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulating inflammation-related protein pathways. GA treatment also inhibited lipid accumulation in adipocytes by modulating the expression of major adipogenic transcription factors and their upstream protein pathways. Furthermore, in the macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system, GA decreased the production of obesity-related cytokines. These results indicate that GA possesses effective anti-inflammatory and anti-adipogenic activities and may be used in developing treatments for the management of obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases.

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5Developing a Virus-Binding Bacterium Expressing Mx Protein on the Bacterial Surface to Prevent Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus Infection

저자 : Chia-hua Lin , Jun-jie Chen , Chiu-min Cheng

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1088-1097 (10 pages)

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Grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) infection causes mass grouper mortality, leading to substantial economic loss in Taiwan. Traditional methods of controlling GNNV infections involve the challenge of controlling disinfectant doses; low doses are ineffective, whereas high doses may cause environmental damage. Identifying potential methods to safely control GNNV infection to prevent viral outbreaks is essential. We engineered a virus-binding bacterium expressing a myxovirus resistance (Mx) protein on its surface for GNNV removal from phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), thus increasing the survival of grouper fin (GF-1) cells. We fused the grouper Mx protein (which recognizes and binds to the coat protein of GNNV) to the C-terminus of outer membrane lipoprotein A (lpp-Mx) and to the N-terminus of a bacterial autotransporter adhesin (Mx-AIDA); these constructs were expressed on the surfaces of Escherichia coli BL21 (BL21/lpp-Mx and BL21/Mx-AIDA). We examined bacterial surface expression capacity and GNNV binding activity through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; we also evaluated the GNNV removal efficacy of the bacteria and viral cytotoxicity after bacterial adsorption treatment. Although both constructs were successfully expressed, only BL21/lpp-Mx exhibited GNNV binding activity; BL21/lpp-Mx cells removed GNNV and protected GF-1 cells from GNNV infection more efficiently. Moreover, salinity affected the GNNV removal efficacy of BL21/lpp-Mx. Thus, our GNNV-binding bacterium is an efficient microparticle for removing GNNV from 10‰ brackish water and for preventing GNNV infection in groupers.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

6LINC00174 Facilitates Proliferation and Migration of Colorectal Cancer Cells via MiR-3127-5p/ E2F7 Axis

저자 : Yuhong Ma , Yuzhen Li , Yuanyuan Tang , Ning Tang , Dengke Wang , Xiaofei Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1098-1108 (11 pages)

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The literature indicates that LINC00174 promotes the growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, but its research needs to be enriched. We tried to explore the function and mechanism of LINC00174 in CRC cell proliferation and migration. Bioinformatics analysis predicted the binding relationship and expressions of lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA. Clinical study analyzes the relationship between LINC00174 and clinical data characteristics of CRC patients. The expressions of LINC00174, miR-3127-5p and E2F7 were verified by RT-qPCR, and the combination of the two was verified by dual luciferase analysis and RNA immunoprecipitation as needed. Western blot was used to detect the expression of EMT-related protein and E2F7 protein. Functional experiments were used to evaluate the function of the target gene on CRC cells. LINC00174 was up-regulated in CRC clinical samples and cells and was related to the clinical characteristics of CRC patients. High-expression of LINC00174, contrary to the effect of siLINC00174, promoted cell viability, proliferation, migration and invasion, up-regulated the expressions of N-Cadherin, Vimentin, E2F7, and inhibited the expression of E-Cadherin. MiR-3127-5p was one of the targeted miRNAs of LINC00174 and was down-regulated in CRC samples. In addition, miR-3127-5p mimic partially reversed the malignant phenotype of CRC cells induced by LINC00174. Besides, E2F7 was a target gene of miR-3127-5p, and LINC00174 repressed miR-3127-5p to regulate E2F7. Our research reveals that LINC00174 affected the biological characteristics of CRC cells through regulated miR-3127-5p/ E2F7 axis.

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7Role of Interleukin-4 (IL-4) in Respiratory Infection and Allergy Caused by Early-Life Chlamydia Infection

저자 : Shujun Li , Lijuan Wang , Yulong Zhang , Long Ma , Jing Zhang , Jianbing Zu , Xuecheng Wu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1109-1114 (6 pages)

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Chlamydia pneumoniae is a type of pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that causes various respiratory tract infections including asthma. Chlamydia species infect humans and cause respiratory infection by rupturing the lining of the respiratory which includes the throat, lungs and windpipe. Meanwhile, the function of interleukin-4 (IL-4) in Ch. pneumoniae respiratory infection and its association with the development of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in adulthood and causing allergic airway disease (AAD) are not understood properly. We therefore investigated the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. In this study, Ch. pneumonia strain was propagated and cultured in HEp-2 cells according to standard protocol and infant C57BL/6 mice around 3-4 weeks old were infected to study the role of IL-4 in respiratory infection and allergy caused by early life Chlamydia infection. We observed that IL-4 is linked with Chlamydia respiratory infection and its absence lowers respiratory infection. IL-4R α2 is also responsible for controlling the IL-4 signaling pathway and averts the progression of infection and inflammation. Furthermore, the IL-4 signaling pathway also influences infection-induced AHR and aids in increasing AAD severity. STAT6 also promotes respiratory infection caused by Ch. pneumoniae and further enhanced its downstream process. Our study concluded that IL-4 is a potential target for preventing infection-induced AHR and severe asthma.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

8Valeriana jatamansi Jones Inhibits Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea via Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B Signaling Pathway

저자 : Bin Zhang , Yan Wang , Chunmao Jiang , Caihong Wu , Guangfu Guo , Xiaolan Chen , Shulei Qiu

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1115-1122 (8 pages)

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Rotavirus (RV), as the main cause of diarrhea in children under 5 years, contributes to various childhood diseases. Valeriana jatamansi Jones is a traditional Chinese herb and possesses antiviral effects. In this study we investigated the potential mechanisms of V. jatamansi Jones in RV-induced diarrhea. MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell proliferation and the diarrhea mice model was constructed using SA11 infection. Mice were administered V. jatamansi Jones and ribavirin. Diarrhea score was used to evaluate the treatment effect. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to detect the level of cytokines. Western blot and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR were used to determine protein and mRNA levels, respectively. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was applied to detect the pathological change of the small intestine. TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling was conducted to determine the apoptosis rate. The results showed V. jatamansi Jones promoted MA104 proliferation. V. jatamansi Jones downregulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase B (AKT) in protein level, which was consistent with the immunohistochemistry results. Moreover, V. jatamansi Jones combined with ribavirin regulated interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interferon γ, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α, and IL-10, and suppressed secretory immunoglobulin A secretion to remove viruses and inhibit dehydration. V. jatamansi Jones + ribavirin facilitated the apoptosis of small intestine cells. In conclusion, V. jatamansi Jones may inhibit RV-induced diarrhea through PI3K/AKT signaling pathway, and could therefore be a potential therapy for diarrhea.

KCI등재 SCI SCOPUS

9Metagenomic Insight into Lignocellulose Degradation of the Thermophilic Microbial Consortium TMC7

저자 : Yi Wang , Chen Wang , Yonglun Chen , Beibei Chen , Peng Guo , Zongjun Cui

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1123-1133 (11 pages)

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Biodegradation is the key process involved in natural lignocellulose biotransformation and utilization. Microbial consortia represent promising candidates for applications in lignocellulose conversion strategies for biofuel production; however, cooperation among the enzymes and the labor division of microbes in the microbial consortia remains unclear. In this study, metagenomic analysis was performed to reveal the community structure and extremozyme systems of a lignocellulolytic microbial consortium, TMC7. The taxonomic affiliation of TMC7 metagenome included members of the genera Ruminiclostridium (42.85%), Thermoanaerobacterium (18.41%), Geobacillus (10.44%), unclassified_f__Bacillaceae (7.48%), Aeribacillus (2.65%), Symbiobacterium (2.47%), Desulfotomaculum (2.33%), Caldibacillus (1.56%), Clostridium (1.26%), and others (10.55%). The carbohydrate-active enzyme annotation revealed that TMC7 encoded a broad array of enzymes responsible for cellulose and hemicellulose degradation. Ten glycoside hydrolases (GHs) endoglucanase, 4 GHs exoglucanase, and 6 GHs β-glucosidase were identified for cellulose degradation; 6 GHs endo-β-1,4-xylanase, 9 GHs β-xylosidase, and 3 GHs β-mannanase were identified for degradation of the hemicellulose main chain; 6 GHs arabinofuranosidase, 2 GHs α-mannosidase, 11 GHs galactosidase, 3 GHs α-rhamnosidase, and 4 GHs α-fucosidase were identified as xylan debranching enzymes. Furthermore, by introducing a factor named as the contribution coefficient, we found that Ruminiclostridium and Thermoanaerobacterium may be the dominant contributors, whereas Symbiobacterium and Desulfotomaculum may serve as “sugar cheaters” in lignocellulose degradation by TMC7. Our findings provide mechanistic profiles of an array of enzymes that degrade complex lignocellulosic biomass in the microbial consortium TMC7 and provide a promising approach for studying the potential contribution of microbes in microbial consortia.

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10Heat-Killed and Live Enterococcus faecalis Attenuates Enlarged Prostate in an Animal Model of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

저자 : Young-jin Choi , Meiqi Fan , Yujiao Tang , Masahiro Iwasa , Kwon-il Han , Hongchan Lee , Ji-young Hwang , Bokyung Lee , Eun-kyung Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 8호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1134-1143 (10 pages)

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In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) and live E. faecalis on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The BPH rat model was established by administering male rats with testosterone propionate (TP, 5 mg/kg, in corn oil) via subcutaneous injections daily for four weeks after castration. The rats were divided into five groups: Con, corn oil-injected (s.c.) + DW administration; BPH, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + DW administration; BPH+K_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + heat-killed E. faecalis (7.5 × 1012 CFU/g, 2.21 mg/kg) administration; BPH+L_EF, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + live E. faecalis (1 × 1011 CFU/g, 166 mg/kg) administration; BPH+Fi, TP (5 mg/kg, s.c.) + finasteride (1 mg/kg) administration. In both of BPH+K_EF and BPH+L_EF groups, the prostate weight decreased and histological changes due to TP treatment recovered to the level of the Con group. Both of these groups also showed regulation of androgen-signaling factors, growth factors, and apoptosis-related factors in prostate tissue. E. faecalis exhibited an inhibitory effect on benign prostatic hyperplasia, and even heat-killed E. faecalis showed similar efficacy on the live cells in the BPH rat model. As the first investigation into the effect of heat-killed and live E. faecalis on BPH, our study suggests that heat-killed E. faecalis might be a food additive candidate for use in various foods, regardless of heat processing.

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