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수록정보
80권0호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 11
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81권0호(2022년 07월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 임송자 ( Yim Song Ja )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-31 (31 pages)

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This paper looked into surrender of islanders in the Jeju April 3rd Incident. One of the most notable phenomena from March 1, 1947 to the Jeju April 3rd Incident in 1948 was the very surrender. These phenomena were sluggish in the early stage of the incident, but later they escalated more in the suppression. The number of people who surrendered increased more and more as pacification maneuver was reinforced. It was especially pronounced in 1949.
The state power pronounced that 'Sansaram'(Mountain People), denoted as armed bands should be banished permanently from the territory of the Republic of Korea. Families and those connected or even might be connected to the armed bands were treated as they had to be excluded from the nation of the Republic of Korea. As pacification and submission maneuvers were unfolded with this idea, promises by the military and the police, agency of the state power, to treat defectors tolerantly were not kept. Most defectors were sent to prisons on the mainland after perfunctory trial. Inmates who were left in rehabilitation camps were released only when they submitted to the 'anti-communist' ideology of the government of Syngman Rhee.
Those released from camp confinement were not free. They were mobilized into pro-government actions or forced to support the military and the police for pacification maneuvers. Additionally, they were watched in poor collective village and forced to adapt themselves to the ultra-right anti-communism system.

KCI등재

저자 : 최재호 ( Choi Jae Ho )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 33-64 (32 pages)

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This study deals with the “re-education” policy carried out during the period of the U.S. Military Government in Germany between 1945 and 1948 and the effect that this policy trend had on West German's incorporation into the Cold War system after 1949. It is known that the United States' reeducation policy was usually related to denazification. However, reeducation consisted of more than simply eliminating Nazi ideology and creating a new consciousness; it also related to the concept of Americanization. Moreover, this not only occurred during the American occupation but continued to influence German society even after the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the 1950s and 1960s, the consciousness and lifestyle of the young generation in West Germany changed significantly. Eventually, the so-called impaired nations and states were corrected through the reeducation policy and an Americanization plan, and American values and culture were transplanted.

KCI등재

저자 : 권은혜 ( Kwon Eun-hye )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-94 (30 pages)

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This article explores how Grace Lee Boggs participated in radical black political movements in Cold War America as a Chinese American woman. Her marriage to an African American labor activist, James Boggs, and her activist career in radical Black politics provides a good example of Afro-Asian political alliance in the United States. Grace continuously sought for the meaning of her American citizenship by being a part of the Black community and the Black power movement. Despite or because of being a race and gender minority in the radical black politics, Grace could raise criticism of its male-centered politics.

KCI등재

저자 : 박초롱 ( Park Cho-rong )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 95-122 (28 pages)

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This study explores the impact on the operation of the Jongmyo system in Silla after its reorganization in the reign of King Aejang, which consisted of “establishing two separate shrines for King Muyeol and King Munmu(別立二廟)” and “composed of five shrines(五廟) with four direct ancestors of the present king and the progenitor.”
According to the Jongmyo system of King Aejang, instead of moving King Wonseong from Jongmyo Shrine, King Gyeongmun repaired the tomb of King Wonseong and rebuilt Sungboksa Temple.
The reorganization of the Jongmyo system in the reign of King Aejang played a decisive role in establishing the late royal family(the lineage of King Wonseong) by enshrining the four direct ancestors of the present king in Jongmyo. However, the expulsion of King Wonseong from Jongmyo, which in turn weakened the status of Jongmyo in Silla as the backbone of the late royal family and the national ancestral rites.

KCI등재

저자 : 이경록 ( Lee Kyung-rok )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 123-151 (29 pages)

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In this study, I restored the reality of civil health care through various cases of Koryo Period. In particular, this article has focused on the response patterns to diseases in the private sector.
Looking at the treatment means of the Koryo Period, it was used in a variety of ways from boiled medicine to therapeutic divination. Buddha and stars were also given the absolute power to treat the disease, and ghosts were also recognized as having an effect on disease treatment. The treatments based on Buddhism, Taoism, Shamanism, and East Asian Medicine show well that various etiologies coexisted in the Koryo Period.
And during the Koryo Period, the response to the disease was different depending on the status and economic differences of the royal family, aristocratic officials, ordinary people, and servants. In general, patients with higher status and more economic power had a wider choice of response to the disease. On the other hand, when analyzing the competition among different methods of response, East Asian Medicine had emerged as a mainstream medicine as treatment had been prioritized.

KCI등재

저자 : 김우진 ( Kim Woo Jin )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 153-180 (28 pages)

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In the late 17th century, having obtained information on the battles between Russia, the Mongols, and the Qing, the court of Joseon predicted the defeat of the Qing and the resulting security crisis in the northern frontier region of Joseon. In response, King Sukjong tried to reinforce Namhan and Bukhan Mountain fortresses and Ganghwa Island, and promote the training of military officers through Royal Military Inspection (Yeolmu) and Royal Military Examination (Guanmujae). During the reign of King Sukjong, these special military inspections and military examinations attended by the king were concentrated during the wars between Russia, the Mongols and the Qing. King Sukjong attempted to increase the military readiness and enhance the bond and loyalty of the army through direct contact with military officers. Yeolmu and Guanmujae were effective ways to increase King Sukjong's dignity by reaffirming his command while building trust between the king and his military officers.

KCI등재

저자 : 김윤희 ( Kim Yun-hee )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-214 (34 pages)

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Existing currency research looked at the efforts and failure process to establish a single currency system based on the gold standard. Recent research is moving toward exploring the characteristics of monetary management, but still maintains the view that the establishment of a single currency system based on the gold standard is the basis of industrialization, and no research has been conducted on the characteristics of monetary management and the effect of the single currency system.
Silver, which was outside the control of the state, was included in the state-managed currency system, thereby establishing a dual currency of white coins(白銅貨) and coins(葉錢). Although the volatility of high value-added currencies and inflation have deepened, the relative stability of the currency has led to the effect of blocking this volatility in the local market. At the same time, however, the multi-layered hierarchical structure of the trade market and the domestic regional market had a dual effect that contributed to capital expansion. The operation of a dual currency system through the legislation of a single currency has contributed to accelerating capitalization on the premise of a multi-layered hierarchical structure of value.

KCI등재

저자 : 김영수 ( Kim Young Soo )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 215-250 (36 pages)

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At that time, diplomatic and personal records mainly focused on Dae-Won-Gun and Lee Jun-Yong, who were behind the assassination of Kim Hak-Woo in 1894. Most of the records of people who served as bureaucrats after the Gabo Reform(Kim Hong-Jib Cabinet) and diplomatic records of foreign missions in Korea were initially recorded as being the planners of Lee Jun-Yong and the masterminds of Dae-Won-Gun. However, as time passed, both the planners and the masterminds behind the Kim Hak-Woo assassination were identified as Dae-Won-Gun. In the end, Dae-Won-Gun planned the assassination of Deputy Minister of Justice Kim Hak-Woo in order to cover up Lee Jun-Yong's rebellion.
In the course of a special court trial in April 1895, Minister of Justice Seo Gwang-Beom attempted to remove Lee Jun-Yong with extreme punishment. The Japanese minister in Seoul Inoue suspected the Ministry of Interior Park Young-Hyo and Queen Min. This means that Queen Min intervened behind her and instigated Lee Jun-Yong to be punished with extreme punishment.
There is something peculiar about the judgment of the special court in April 1895. The first is the fact that no relationship can be found between Lee Jun-Yong and Dae-Won-Gun. The special court substantiated the charges against Lee Jun-Yong, but made no mention of any connection with Dae-Won-Gun. Second, Lee Jun-Yong did not intend to assassinate Queen Min. In the end, the special court deliberately concealed Lee Jun-Yong's assassination of Queen Min and Dae-Won-Gun's indirect intervention.
Before and after the Gabo Reform, Dae-Won-Gun chose Lee Jun-Yong as the successor of King Gojong and tried to make his grandson the heir to the throne. The cases that prove this were the assassination of Kim Hak-Woo and the rebellion of Lee Jun-Yong. In this situation, King Gojong judged that Lee Jun-Yong was a threat to his throne and continued to check it. After that, Dae-Won-Gun planned Lee Jun-Yong's trip to Japan under the pretext of studying abroad. As a result, Lee Jun-Yong left Seoul on December 25, 1895 and fled to Japan.

KCI등재

저자 : 양지혜 ( Yang Ji-hye )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 251-281 (31 pages)

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A pioneer village refers to a village located in farmland established through a development of forest or wasteland. The development of the pioneer villages on the Korean Peninsula had continued in different goals for each era. Such a development after modernization, in particular, requires attention in that it was fully implemented with national goals, such as implementation of total war and population management. This article intends to look into the history of the establishment of the pioneer villages and its failure focusing on a change in the northern region of Korea where large-scale establishment of the villages was made under the Japanese colonial rule. Through this, It will examine why such a huge plan attempting to relocate tens of thousands of people in the Japanese Empire to an unexplored area in the northern part of Korea, as with pioneer immigration to Manchuria, ended up as an armchair talk.

KCI등재

저자 : 장미현 ( Jang Mihyun )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 81권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 283-312 (30 pages)

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This article notes what technical manpower training policies were established and developed at the government, schools, and industrial sites in the 1950s after the liberation. After the liberation, the military and the Ministry of Commerce and Industry sought to develop and pursue a short-term training-oriented technical training plan to increase the operating rate of the production sector. Due to the lack of technical manpower, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry first operated mechanical technology and mining technical training centers. Second, the Industrial Technician test was conducted for a short period of time when there were no other certificates except for educational diplomas. After the Korean War, in order for the corporate technical personnels to lead the provision of practical training and retraining for technical personnel in industrial sites. The aid authorities attempted ① the strengthening of the practice for vocational education ② the retraining of workers in the nearby area ③ the retraining of teachers in vocational schools. This was for the purposes of enhancing the effectiveness of aid and economic reconstruction. However, it was not easy to settle this technical training system under high unemployment and people's aspirations to go to universities. It was difficult to change the atmosphere of Korean society in a short period of time, preferring to go to university over finding a job.
The goal of vocational education and training was not for the higher education but to get employed. Hence, it was necessary to 'grow' the industry in order to set a firm footing in the vocational education and training institution. Without the growth of the industry, it was difficult for technical skills to immediately lead to employment. Technical skills were harder to be recognized than university diplomas in the labor market due to the industrial structure, which was challenging to become skilled, get hired, and move up the social ladder after getting technical training and technician certificates. Attempts to change the technical training system intended by the aid authorities in the 1950s seemed to have failed. As a result, since the 1960s, technical manpower training policy has been transformed from educational to labor policy in character.

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KCI등재

저자 : 윤경진 ( Yoon¸ Kyeong Jin )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-35 (35 pages)

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Attempted in this article is an analysis of the tale of “Godly Mother 'Shinmo' of the Seondo-san Mountain(仙桃山 神母),” documented in Samgukyusa(三國遺事)'s Seondo Seongmo Suhi Bulsa(仙桃聖母隨喜佛事) chapter. My analysis is based upon two basic observations: (1) There was a fundamental difference between concepts of 'Godly Mother(神母)' and 'Holy Mother(聖母)' in terms of their very nature, and (2) A tale that has displayed multiple versions in the past should never be viewed as one with a single origin or narrative. In addition, it should be noted that a motif of a 'Holy Mother' (who should have given birth to a 'Holy Son'[聖子]) has never appeared within the context of the tale.
This Godly Mother, who was also a mountain deity(Sanshin, 山神), was also once described as a Female Taoist Hermit(Yeoseon, 女仙) in the Myth of Faith that involved the Anheung-sa(安興寺) monastery. This shows that she was once viewed as a Taoist deity. The Buddhist event at Anheung-sa is recorded as an event that took place during Shilla king Jinpyeong's reign, but the situation surrounding the event rather fits the reality of the ending years of Shilla (and beginning of Goryeo) more.
“Seo'ak”(西岳, the Seondo-san mountain) is a Chinese translation of “Seosul(西述),” which means 'the Western peak.' This particular concept does not need to be perceived as one of the Five Mountain ranges(O'ak, 五岳). The O'ak system was embraced and employed during the Shilla dynasty's overhaul of its administrative institutions in the dynasty's later days. They(the Five mountain ranges) were regarded as beings superior to the original Three Mountains(Samsan, 三山), only to switch superiority with them later on.
The Tale of Saso(娑蘇) follows the Chinese Imperial princess(“Saso”)' visit to the East, and her settling down in Mt. Seondo. This was a tale based on a mountain with the name “Seoyeon(西鳶).” The region described as her destination, “Haedong(海東),” was the united realm of Shilla, so we can see the tale was formed after the 9th century.
Reference to Mt. Seondo being one of the Three Regions that received Dynastic services(Samsa, 三祀) since the dynasty's beginning seems to have been made with the original Three mountains in mind. The fact that Mt. Seondo was only provided[封爵] with the status of 'Grand King[Daewang, 大王]' during the reign of King Gyeongmyeong shows us that before then there was no dynastic memorial service reserved for it, and that fact does seem to have something to do with Seosul(西述)'s being acknowledged and recorded accordingly[追錄] at the time as well. Another fact, of King Gyeongmyeong hailing from the Park line within the Shilla royal family, lets us know that Mt. Seondo did not really have any connection to the so-called First Ancestral Mother(Shijomo, 始祖母) till the very end of the Shilla dynasty.

KCI등재

저자 : 임혜련 ( Lim¸ Hye-ryun )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 37-67 (31 pages)

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The 'Regency Ceremony'('垂簾聽政儀') is the congratulatory greetings to the great queen who acts as regent. This was done at the Ceremony of Enthronementy of the king. It receives the will and the Royal seal of the former king and ascend to the throne. After that, he went to the palace office(便殿) for the 'Regency Ceremony'. And 'Regency Ceremony was held here. After the announcement of the document, the ceremony ends. It was first implemented when Sunjo ascended to the throne in 1800.
The location of the Enthronement ceremony of the king who performed the 'Regency Ceremony has been changed. The new king ascended to the throne at the main gate of the palace where the former king's Funeral Hall(殯殿) was located.
Jeongjo's funeral hall was in Changdeokgung's Hwangyeongjeon Hall(歡慶殿). But Sunjo did not ascend to the throne at the main gate of Changgyeonggung Palace. He moved to Injeongmun Gate of Changdeokgung Palace and took the throne.
Afterwards, he went to Huijeongdang Hall(熙政堂) in Changdeokgung Palace and held a 'Regency Ceremony'. The kings who ascended the throne after Sunjo followed this. 'Regency Ceremony' was to formalize regent. And the 'Regency Ceremony' was closely related to the coronation ceremony.

KCI등재

저자 : 이상동 , 양줄리안

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 69-99 (31 pages)

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This study examines the range of religious, cultural, and political circumstances that influenced the historical shaping of inauguration/ coronation ceremonies in different medieval societies. After the Carolingian dynasty of the Frankish Kingdom in the mid-eighth century, the so-called Latin-Catholic tradition heavily influenced the inauguration/coronation ceremony and its tradition in western Europe. However, different forms of ceremonial traditions were structured and embraced by the inhabitants of the outside world. To investigate this often overlooked issue further, this study examines the Gaelic Irish inauguration ceremony and the coronation of the Byzantine Empire. In the latter medieval world, Byzantium still retained and upheld its traditional identity as the cultural successor of the ancient Roman Empire and embraced the Eastern Orthodox faith, not Roman Catholicism. Thus, Gaelic Ireland and Byzantium still kept their pagan or Greco-Roman cultural tradition of the past; in other words, they stood on the margins of the mainstream hemisphere of the Latin-Catholic medieval European world. This study examines and analyzes these marginalized societies' inauguration/coronation ceremonies as their historical development and embedded symbolic messages represent different religious, cultural, and political landscape of their home society.

KCI등재

저자 : 박윤선 ( Park¸ Younsun )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 101-134 (34 pages)

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The official title of a Koguryeo monarch was systemized into three components - the Ho, the last name, and the Hwi(Myung). The monarch's Wangho would be decided posthumously. The first three kings of the dynasty had no separate procedure to decide this Wangho after death, and used their Hwi(Myung) as a posthumous Wangho.
After this period, they titled the deceased monarchs with the name of the area they were buried in. This was not a formal procedure to decide the posthumous Wangho, but the fact that they were given a new name that didn't include their title during the time they were living shows a development in the legislation of Wangho. The following accomplishment (or characteristic) Wangho was created through a establishment procedure of examining and discussing the former king's accomplishments, completing the legislation of Wangho.
The accomplishment Wangho not only contained words showing the characteristics or achievements of the king but also included the Hwi and the name of the burial area. The former tradition had lived on in the Wangho. According to this tradition, when they failed to denominate a new Wangho, they would use the name of the burial area or the Hwi.
The recording of the royal surname being “Hae” for not only the Koguryeo royal family but also that of Buyeo and Baekje likely comes from “Hae”, an indigenous word of Koguryeo and Buyeo, being the first syllable of the monarchs' names. Later historians may have inadvertently distorted historical fact while restructuring ancient names according to their contemporary conventions of naming. It is evident that a non-prejudiced and fundamental observation/approach of ancient names is necessary.

KCI등재

저자 : 이현주 ( Lee¸ Hyunju )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 135-168 (34 pages)

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This study examines the process of establishing and operating the female official system in the Silla Dynasty(Silla)
The official duties of women in the early Silla Period were recorded in connection with the divine characteristics of royal women. She was worshipped as a female deity and was in charge of ancestral rites as a priest.
However, as Silla society developed with the political system of Silla, the political status of royal and upper-class women and public affairs have been differentiated.
The official status of Silla's Court Maid was established under the bureaucracy in the 4th year(664) of King Munmu(文武王). The important role of female officials was to administer and enforce the procedures in the official royal rites of King Sinmun(神文王), especially in royal marriages based on Confucian Ritual Systems(禮制).
From King Sinmun(神文王)'s royal wedding, it can be seen that the female official consists of a government official's spouse, a true aristocratic woman (wife and daughter, etc.), an upper-class woman. As such, the female official of the Silla played a role in proceeding rituals based on Confucian Ritual Systems(禮制) as an upper class.
During the Middle Ages of Silla, the BonPiGung(本彼宮) was established, the Sa-mo(私母) was assigned, and the Sa-mo(私母) were placed in charge of female government officials.
The BonPiGung(本彼宮) was a government office in charge of various affairs in the Imperial Court, and the BonPiGung(本彼宮)'s Sa-mo(私母) was in charge of two duties in the royal family. One is to administer the duties of implementing royal rites, and the other is to administer the government offices related to textile production in the court handicrafts. The Sa-mo(私母)'s main duties include the education and leadership of female officials and the supervision of government offices belonging to female officials concerning royal rituals and court handicrafts.
In addition, the mother(母) and the woman(女子) who are female officials can be seen in the government office of the Interior Ministry. According to the name of the agency, the mother(母) were mainly in charge of textile production, and there were the woman(女子) edical personnel who were in charge of pregnancy and childbirth and treatment of women's diseases.
The BonPiGung(本彼宮) was established in 681 and was in charge of royal affairs, and the Sa-mo(私母) was in charge of preparing and conducting royal ceremonial procedures, and was responsible for managing the government offices and women's officials. Subsequently, the division of labor and specialization of royal affairs was promoted, which led to the division of government offices belonging to domestic government offices into higher and lower government offices and the establishment of new government offices.
For this reason, the Sa-mo(私母) of the palace was a senior female official, and she was mainly in charge of the preparation and progress of royal rituals.
Furthermore, the government offices related to textile production and the women's government offices of the Imperial handicraft industry are gradually positioned as the lower government offices of the government offices related to production and their affiliated with the production.

KCI등재

저자 : 구도영 ( Koo¸ Doyoung )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 169-204 (36 pages)

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The shape of the skirts of Chosŏn women was a dressy and wide throughout the Chosŏn Dynasty. So, there was a device to maintain the volume of the skirt. Usually several layers of undergarments were worn, which served as support for the skirt to look fuller. In the Chosŏn Dynasty, women's underwear not only played a sanitary role, but was also a part of fashion.
At that time, women had to wear several layers of underwear under their skirts to follow the fashion of Chosŏn. A lot of fabric is needed, and these fabrics aren't cheap either. In Cheju Island(濟州島), agriculture was not developed, making it difficult to produce textiles, so they had to go to land cities by boat to purchase them. Cheju people wanted to find a more economical way, and that was mamigun(馬尾裙).
In Cheju Island, it was more economical to wear a petticoat made of horsehair than to wear multiple layers of underwear when trying to create the effect of making a skirt look dressy. On land in Chosŏn, cotton fabrics are cheaper, but in Cheju Island, it is difficult to find fabrics, but horsehair was easy to find. In the end, Cheju's economic environment changed the materials of clothing.
Mamigun was 'the product of cultural transformation' that followed the fashion of Chosŏn and replaced the material with horsehair, common in Cheju, instead of textiles. Mamigun, born in Cheju in the 15th century, was a unique 'petticoat' in that an underskirt was made of horsehair. In the West(西歐), the petticoat made from horsehair, crinoline, was also popular in the 19th century. Horsehair was used as a material for petticoats for women's dresses in both East and West.
The mamigun, born in Cheju, was transmitted to the 'Jiangnan(江南)' region of Ming through maritime trade in the 15th century, and became very popular in the the Jiangnan area of Ming dynasty.
Through mamigun, it is possible to confirm the existence of 'horsehair', which was used as a petticoat material in both East and West, as well as the new material and shape of clothes on Cheju Island, the change of culture within Chosŏn, the history of wide cultural exchange between Chosŏn and the Ming dynasty.

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저자 : 이지완 ( Lee¸ Jiwan )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 205-240 (36 pages)

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After the liberation, the high enthusiasm for education led to the mandatory and expansion of elementary education. However, the Rhee Syngman government failed to raise the cost of operating compulsory education free of charge, and the procurement of education expenses was handed over to parents in the name of collections in the PTA(parent-teacher association). The Department of Education tried to enact the Education Tax Act to raise funds to resolve the contradiction of “paid” compulsory education. However, the enactment of the Education Tax Act continued to be withheld as no agreement was reached between the relevant Departments within the administration. In this situation, the driving force behind the establishment of the Education Tax Act came from the Liberal Party. The Liberal Party, which promiconsed to improve the treatment of civil servants, including teachers, as a pledge for the 1958 general election, promoted the enactment of the Education Tax Act as part of a way to raise funds to fulfill its pledge. However, the enactment of the Education Tax Act, which initially had a strong nature of a pledge policy for the general election, proceeded very hastily, and the other opinions except the Liberal Party's were excluded in the legislative process. The hastily legislative process contributed to the defects revealed in the subsequent enforcement of the Education Tax Act.

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저자 : 김영숙 ( Gim¸ Youngsuk )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 241-270 (30 pages)

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Zhanggobong Peak(Zhanggufeng) is a hill located at the border between Manchuria, the Soviet Union, and Choseon, where the military conflict between Soviet and Japanese forces occurred between July and August 1938. However, conflicts broke out on the slopes of Zhanggobong Peak, Koreans carried ammunition, and soldiers were transported through railroads in the Choseon area, and Soviet attacks, mainly involving airplanes and tanks, caused the most damage to Koreans and the Choseon area.
Next, Battle of Lake Khasan was another arbitrary act in which the army violated the orders of the central army and the emperor, and if a local military commander violated the command system and engaged in force, the army center and the emperor eventually followed a bad precedent.
Lastly, Battle of Lake Khasan exposed various problems such as inconsistent military policies and differences in perception between the Army and the Foreign Ministry, the Central Foreign Ministry, and the local diplomats, who failed to grasp local information. In particular, it is the limitation of Japanese diplomacy that it was difficult to understand why the Soviet Union agreed to a ceasefire while signing the armistice agreement.

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저자 : 이상민 ( Lee¸ Sangmin )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 271-294 (24 pages)

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This paper examines the background of the implementation of the People's Republic of China(PRC), which is not revealed in previous studies. Before and after the establishment of the PRC, we looked at the reasons why the Chinese Communist Party(CCP) actively promoted the Chinese government and what was the goal to be achieved through the Chinese government. In this paper, it was “war” that was noted while looking at the process of establishing the PRC. I think the nature of the political party implemented by the PRC before and after the establishment of the PRC is different. From the establishment of the CCP in July 1921 to the establishment of the PRC on October 1st, 1949, the CCP had been threatened and fought by the The Kuomintang(KMT). Prior to the founding of the PRC, the goal was to win the competition with the CCP by promoting the expansion of the Chinese Red Army through the veterans policy. Immediately after the victory in the Chinese Civil War and the founding of the PRC, the resolution of the economic difficulties and stability of the national system were prioritized. However, due to the “The Korean War” that broke out on June 25th, 1950, the establishment of national politics was accelerated. The long-term goal of the veterans policy, which was enacted and implemented after the founding of the country, was to contribute to the solidarity and stability of the national system.

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저자 : 황대현 ( Hwang¸ Dae-hyeon )

발행기관 : 수선사학회 간행물 : 사림(성대사림) 80권 0호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 295-332 (38 pages)

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The comets that suddenly appeared and crossed the night sky were mysterious phenomena as well as natural incidents for the early modern Europeans. Aristotle's meteorological theory that was closely connected with his dichotomous cosmology and had decisively affected the European perceptions of comets since the ancient era encountered a serious challenge in the sixteenth century. In 1577, the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe demonstrated through empirical-quantitative observation and calculation that the comets must be not sublunary meteorological phenomena, but superlunary celestial bodies, and therefore posed a serious problem for the paradigm of the invariability of the celestial sphere.
A series of comets of 1618 that motivated many Protestant authors in Germany to write pamphlets on the theme were considered omens indicating imminent catastrophes like a devastating war. Although these comets were the first to be observed through a telescope in the history of astronomy, the new images of special celestial bodies acquired through modern observational instrument could not yet replace the old symbolism. One of the most interesting incidents regarding the symbolic implications of the comets of 1618 was the so-called 'Ulmer comets debate', which was inspired by the eschatological interpretation of Ulmer mathematician J. Faulhaber. His millenarian opinion was criticized by both intellectuals and ministers of the city who regarded the comets as sign of God's punishments, which could be reversible through believers' tears of repentance.

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