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수록정보
21권3호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 5
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22권3호(2021년 09월) 수록논문
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SCOPUS

1Cats Climb Entails Mammals Move: Preserving Hyponymy in Compositional Distributional Semantics

저자 : Gemma De Las Cuevas , Andreas Klingler , Martha Lewis , Tim Netzer

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 311-353 (43 pages)

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To give vector-based representations of meaning more structure, an approach proposed in Piedeleu et al. (2015); Sadrzadeh et al. (2018); Bankova et al. (2018) is to use positive semidefinite (psd) matrices. These allow us to model similarity of words as well as the hyponymy or is-a relationship. To compose words to form phrases and sentences, we may represent adjectives, verbs, and other functional words as multilinear, positivity preserving maps, following the compositional distributional approach introduced in Coecke et al. (2010) and extended to the realm of psd matrices in Piedeleu et al. (2015), but it is not clear how to learn representations of functional words when working with psd matrices. In this paper, we introduce a generic way of composing the psd matrices corresponding to words. We propose that psd matrices for verbs, adjectives, and other functional words be lifted to completely positive (CP) maps that match their grammatical type. This lifting is carried out by our composition rule called Compression, Compr. In contrast to previous composition rules like Fuzz and Phaser (Coecke and Meichanetzidis, 2020) (a.k.a. KMult and BMult (Lewis, 2019a)), Compr preserves hyponymy. Mathematically, Compr is itself a CP map, and is therefore linear and generally non-commutative. We give a number of proposals for the structure of Compr, based on spiders, cups, and caps, and generate a range of composition rules. We test these rules on sentence entailment datasets from Kartsaklis and Sadrzadeh (2016), and see some improvements over the performance of Fuzz and Phaser. We go on to estimate the parameters of a simplified form of Compr based on entailment information from the aforementioned datasets, and find that whilst this learnt operator does not consistently outperform previously proposed mechanisms, it is competitive and has the potential to improve with the use of a less simplified version.

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2Solving Logical Puzzles in DisCoCirc

저자 : Tiffany Duneau

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 355-389 (35 pages)

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Finding a full solution to logical puzzles, from parsing the text to arriving at the answer, forms an active area of research in artificial intelligence. In this paper, we address an initial subset of these puzzles that take the form of constraint satisfaction problems, providing a method for solving them by encoding the puzzle meaning as a relation informed by the individual sentences that make up the puzzle text. To build this relation from the text we make use of a diagrammatic, distributional compositional framework called DisCoCirc. We then show that the puzzle solution can be extracted from this encoding with minimal extra work, as the logical form of the puzzle is modelled and evaluated as the meaning encoding is computed.

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3Analysing Ambiguous Nouns and Verbs with Quantum Contextuality Tools

저자 : Daphne Wang , Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh , Samson Abramsky , Víctor H. Cervantes

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 391-420 (30 pages)

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Psycholinguistic research uses eye-tracking to show that polysemous words are disambiguated differently from homonymous words, and that ambiguous verbs are disambiguated differently than ambiguous nouns. Research in Compositional Distributional Semantics uses cosine distances to show that verbs are disambiguated more efficiently in the context of their subjects and objects than when on their own. These two frameworks both focus on one ambiguous word at a time and neither considers ambiguous phrases with two (or more) ambiguous words. We borrow methods and measures from Quantum Information Theory, the framework of Contextuality-by-Default and degrees of contextual influences, and work with ambiguous subject-verb and verb-object phrases of English, where both the subject/object and the verb are ambiguous. We show that differences in the processing of ambiguous verbs versus ambiguous nouns, as well as between different levels of ambiguity in homonymous versus polysemous nouns and verbs can be modelled using the averages of the degrees of their contextual influences.

SCOPUS

4Talking Space: Inference from Spatial Linguistic Meanings

저자 : Vincent Wang-maścianica , Bob Coecke

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 421-463 (43 pages)

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This paper concerns the intersection of natural language and the physical space around us in which we live, that we observe and/or imagine things within. Many important features of language have spatial connotations, for example, many prepositions (like in, next to, after, on, etc.) are fundamentally spatial. Space is also a key factor of the meanings of many words/phrases/sentences/text, and space is a, if not the key, context for referencing (e.g. pointing) and embodiment. We propose a mechanism for how space and linguistic structure can be made to interact in a matching compositional fashion. Examples include Cartesian space, subway stations, chesspieces on a chess-board, and Penrose's staircase. The starting point for our construction is the DisCoCat model of compositional natural language meaning, which we relax to accommodate physical space. We address the issue of having multiple agents/objects in a space, including the case that each agent has different capabilities with respect to that space, e.g. the specific moves each chesspiece can make, or the different velocities one may be able to reach. Once our model is in place, we show how inferences drawing from the structure of physical space can be made. We also show how our linguistic model of space can interact with other such models related to our senses and/or embodiment, such as the conceptual spaces of colour, taste and smell, resulting in a rich compositional model of meaning that is close to human experience and embodiment in the world.

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1Special Issue on the Third Workshop on Biological Mentality

저자 : Kenneth A. Augustyn

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 371-384 (14 pages)

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The Third Workshop on Biological Mentality was held from September 23, 2019 to March 2, 2020 as a series of twenty-one Monday online conferencing sessions, each consisting of a talk followed by a Q&A discussion. Like the two previous workshops [1, 2], the objective of this workshop was to seek a deeper level of understanding the physical foundations of biological mentality (whether conscious or nonconscious).

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2Many-Body Quantum Field Models for Nonlinear Brain Dynamics

저자 : Asim Islam

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 385-428 (44 pages)

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The approach to employing quantum field theory for memory and brain function was first pioneered by Umezawa and Ricciardi in 1967 by comparing brain electrical activity with properties of condensed matter. More formally, by examining the macroscopic properties of Bose gases which arise from microscopic quantum phenomena it can be shown that by extending the concept to many-body systems applied to thermofield dynamics and condensed states it is a natural requirement to employ a dual state. The notion of duality has been extended to a dissipative model by Celeghini, Rasetti and Vitiello and has been further developed to an extensive model for brain dynamics by Vitiello, Freeman, Jibu, Yasue and others. Neuroscientific studies, based on this model, on humans and animals by Freeman and Vitiello have provided new insights into the nature of perception and cognition which for the first time relate electrical patterns directly to thoughts and perception in a formal scientific manner amenable to quantitative analysis. The model is presently the most accurate predictor of the empirical outcomes of a wide range of brain electrical activity and is of growing interest amongst quantum physicists and neuroscientists. From a broader perspective, it may also provide a deeper insight into the elusive nature of human consciousness and proposals have been conjectured by Vitiello, Freeman, Jibu and Yasue. Importantly there does not exist any suitable alternative neural network based model which can adequately explain the empirical data. We review the key elements of the many-body quantum brain model with an emphasis on providing a sound physical basis for the approach and providing compelling rationale for pursuing the model. The goal of this study is to review the dissipative many-body quantum field model of brain dynamics and highlight its key field-theoretic features in relation to the neuroscientific evidence and demonstrate the validity and strengths of the model in the light of recent developments on cerebral cortical electrical 'forms' during perception, stabilised by vortices, which agree with that observed by neuroscientists.

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3Does Consciousness-Collapse Quantum Mechanics Facilitate Dualistic Mental Causation?

저자 : Alin Christoph Cucu

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 429-473 (45 pages)

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One of the most serious challenges (if not the most serious challenge) for interactive psycho-physical dualism (henceforth interactive dualism or ID) is the so-called 'interaction problem'. It has two facets, one of which this article focuses on, namely the apparent tension between interactions of non-physical minds in the physical world and physical laws of nature. One family of approaches to alleviate or even dissolve this tension is based on a collapse solution ('consciousness collapse/CC) of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics (QM). The idea is that the mind brings about the collapse of a superposed wave function onto one of its eigenstates. Thus, it is claimed, can the mind change the course of things without violating any law figuring in physical theory.
I will first show that this hope is premature because energy and momentum are probably not conserved in collapse processes, and that even if this can be dealt with, the violations are either severe or produce further ontological problems. Second, I point out several conceptual difficulties for interactionist CC. I will also present solutions for those problems, but it will become clear that those solutions come at a high cost. Third, I shall briefly list some empirical problems which make life even harder for interactionist CC. I conclude with remarks about why no-collapse interpretations of QM don't help either and what the present study has shown is the real issue for ID: namely to find a plausible integrative view of dualistic mental causation and laws of nature.

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4A New View of Reality: Mind and Actualization of Quantum Potentia

저자 : Stuart Kauffman

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 475-487 (13 pages)

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I build upon Heisenberg's proposal in 1958 that quantum states are ontologically real “potentia.” On this view reality consists in ontologically real Possibles and ontologically real Actuals. Then measurement converts Possibles to Actuals. This ontological hypothesis, explicit in Heisenberg's proposal, suggests a natural place for “mind.” Mind converts Possibles to Actuals. This role for mind is a scientific hypothesis open to test. Modest evidence now supports the hypothesis. If very well confirmed, such results alter the foundations of quantum mechanics and afford a role of mind in the becoming of the universe. More, the ontological proposal is not a substance dualism, for potentia are not substances. Thus, this proposal for the role of mind does not seem to inherit many of the problems raised in a substance dualism such as Descartes' Res cogitans and Res extensa, (Descartes), or in a substance neutral monism such as Russell, (Russell). The proposal is radical. Far more evidence is needed.

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5Consciousness as a factor in evolution

저자 : Kenneth A. Augustyn

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 489-505 (17 pages)

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What I call the mind began as a non-conscious robotic biochemical process control system in the very earliest forms of life. As life evolved, problems in control became more difficult and exceeded the computational capabilities of the organisms. Nature discovered a means of transcending computable physical processes resulting in non-computational subjective mental capabilities that, while still not conscious, had a degree of genuine autonomy from the physical world. These autonomous subjective wants and goals now affected the course of (but not the mechanism of) evolution. The integrated amalgam of robotic and transrobotic unconscious capabilities eventually gave rise to consciousness, which became an even more important factor in the course of evolution.
The processes responsible for transrobotic mentality are conjectured to leave evidence in the physical world in the form of violations of conservation laws, evidence that future experiments may be able to detect.

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