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21권3호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 5
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22권2호(2021년 06월) 수록논문
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1Anaphora and Ellipsis in Lambek Calculus with a Relevant Modality: Syntax and Semantics

저자 : Lachlan Mcpheat , Gijs Wijnholds , Mehrnoosh Sadrzadeh , Adriana Correia , Alexis Toumi

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-34 (34 pages)

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Lambek calculus with a relevant modality !L* of (Kanovich et al., 2016) syntactically resolves parasitic gaps in natural language. It resembles the Lambek calculus with anaphora LA of (Jäger, 1998) and the Lambek calculus with controlled contraction L of (Wijnholds and Sadrzadeh, 2019b) which deal with anaphora and ellipsis. What all these calculi add to Lambek calculus is a copying and moving behaviour. Distributional semantics is a subfield of Natural Language Processing that uses vector space semantics for words via co-occurrence statistics in large corpora of data. Compositional vector space semantics for Lambek Calculi are obtained via the DisCoCat models (Coecke et al., 2010). LA does not have a vector space semantics and the semantics of L is not compositional. Previously, we developed a DisCoCat semantics for !L* and focused on the parasitic gap applications. In this paper, we use the vector space instance of that general semantics and show how one can also interpret anaphora, ellipsis, and for the first time derive the sloppy vs strict vector readings of ambiguous anaphora with ellipsis cases. The base of our semantics is tensor algebras and their finite dimensional variants: the Fermionic Fock spaces of Quantum Mechanics. We implement our model and experiment with the ellipsis disambiguation task of (Wijnholds and Sadrzadeh, 2019a).

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2On the Relationship between Syntactic and Semantic Encoding in Metric Space Language Models

저자 : Whitney Tabor

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 35-67 (33 pages)

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The relationship between form and meaning is central to the theory of language. Traditionally, syntax and semantics are viewed as two different levels of representation. Based on insights from the intersection of dynamical systems theory and the theory of computation, and guided by linguistic data, I argue that there is only one space, a syntactic-semantic one. I model it here as a stable, countably infinite attractor of an iterated map dynamical system. One advantage of this approach is that it supports a unified treatment of grammatical and ungrammatical processing.

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3Cobordisms and Commutative Categorial Grammars

저자 : Sergey Slavnov

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 68-91 (24 pages)

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We propose a concrete surface representation of abstract categorial grammars in the category of word cobordisms or cowordisms for short, which are certain bipartite graphs decorated withwords in a given alphabet, generalizing linear logic proof-nets. We also introduce and study linear logic grammars, directly based on cobordisms and using classical multiplicative linear logic as a typing system.

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4Integrated Information in Process Theories: Towards Categorical IIT

저자 : Sean Tull , Johannes Kleiner

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 22권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 92-123 (32 pages)

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We demonstrate how integrated information and other key notions from Tononi et al.'s Integrated Information Theory (IIT) can be studied within the simple graphical language of process theories (symmetric monoidal categories). This allows IIT to be generalised to a broad range of physical theories, including as a special case the Quantum IIT of Zanardi, Tomka and Venuti, and sets the foundation for a categorical definition of IIT.

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1Special Issue on the Third Workshop on Biological Mentality

저자 : Kenneth A. Augustyn

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 371-384 (14 pages)

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The Third Workshop on Biological Mentality was held from September 23, 2019 to March 2, 2020 as a series of twenty-one Monday online conferencing sessions, each consisting of a talk followed by a Q&A discussion. Like the two previous workshops [1, 2], the objective of this workshop was to seek a deeper level of understanding the physical foundations of biological mentality (whether conscious or nonconscious).

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2Many-Body Quantum Field Models for Nonlinear Brain Dynamics

저자 : Asim Islam

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 385-428 (44 pages)

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The approach to employing quantum field theory for memory and brain function was first pioneered by Umezawa and Ricciardi in 1967 by comparing brain electrical activity with properties of condensed matter. More formally, by examining the macroscopic properties of Bose gases which arise from microscopic quantum phenomena it can be shown that by extending the concept to many-body systems applied to thermofield dynamics and condensed states it is a natural requirement to employ a dual state. The notion of duality has been extended to a dissipative model by Celeghini, Rasetti and Vitiello and has been further developed to an extensive model for brain dynamics by Vitiello, Freeman, Jibu, Yasue and others. Neuroscientific studies, based on this model, on humans and animals by Freeman and Vitiello have provided new insights into the nature of perception and cognition which for the first time relate electrical patterns directly to thoughts and perception in a formal scientific manner amenable to quantitative analysis. The model is presently the most accurate predictor of the empirical outcomes of a wide range of brain electrical activity and is of growing interest amongst quantum physicists and neuroscientists. From a broader perspective, it may also provide a deeper insight into the elusive nature of human consciousness and proposals have been conjectured by Vitiello, Freeman, Jibu and Yasue. Importantly there does not exist any suitable alternative neural network based model which can adequately explain the empirical data. We review the key elements of the many-body quantum brain model with an emphasis on providing a sound physical basis for the approach and providing compelling rationale for pursuing the model. The goal of this study is to review the dissipative many-body quantum field model of brain dynamics and highlight its key field-theoretic features in relation to the neuroscientific evidence and demonstrate the validity and strengths of the model in the light of recent developments on cerebral cortical electrical 'forms' during perception, stabilised by vortices, which agree with that observed by neuroscientists.

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3Does Consciousness-Collapse Quantum Mechanics Facilitate Dualistic Mental Causation?

저자 : Alin Christoph Cucu

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 429-473 (45 pages)

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One of the most serious challenges (if not the most serious challenge) for interactive psycho-physical dualism (henceforth interactive dualism or ID) is the so-called 'interaction problem'. It has two facets, one of which this article focuses on, namely the apparent tension between interactions of non-physical minds in the physical world and physical laws of nature. One family of approaches to alleviate or even dissolve this tension is based on a collapse solution ('consciousness collapse/CC) of the measurement problem in quantum mechanics (QM). The idea is that the mind brings about the collapse of a superposed wave function onto one of its eigenstates. Thus, it is claimed, can the mind change the course of things without violating any law figuring in physical theory.
I will first show that this hope is premature because energy and momentum are probably not conserved in collapse processes, and that even if this can be dealt with, the violations are either severe or produce further ontological problems. Second, I point out several conceptual difficulties for interactionist CC. I will also present solutions for those problems, but it will become clear that those solutions come at a high cost. Third, I shall briefly list some empirical problems which make life even harder for interactionist CC. I conclude with remarks about why no-collapse interpretations of QM don't help either and what the present study has shown is the real issue for ID: namely to find a plausible integrative view of dualistic mental causation and laws of nature.

SCOUPUS

4A New View of Reality: Mind and Actualization of Quantum Potentia

저자 : Stuart Kauffman

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 475-487 (13 pages)

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I build upon Heisenberg's proposal in 1958 that quantum states are ontologically real “potentia.” On this view reality consists in ontologically real Possibles and ontologically real Actuals. Then measurement converts Possibles to Actuals. This ontological hypothesis, explicit in Heisenberg's proposal, suggests a natural place for “mind.” Mind converts Possibles to Actuals. This role for mind is a scientific hypothesis open to test. Modest evidence now supports the hypothesis. If very well confirmed, such results alter the foundations of quantum mechanics and afford a role of mind in the becoming of the universe. More, the ontological proposal is not a substance dualism, for potentia are not substances. Thus, this proposal for the role of mind does not seem to inherit many of the problems raised in a substance dualism such as Descartes' Res cogitans and Res extensa, (Descartes), or in a substance neutral monism such as Russell, (Russell). The proposal is radical. Far more evidence is needed.

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5Consciousness as a factor in evolution

저자 : Kenneth A. Augustyn

발행기관 : 서울대학교 인지과학연구소 간행물 : Journal of Cognitive Science 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 489-505 (17 pages)

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What I call the mind began as a non-conscious robotic biochemical process control system in the very earliest forms of life. As life evolved, problems in control became more difficult and exceeded the computational capabilities of the organisms. Nature discovered a means of transcending computable physical processes resulting in non-computational subjective mental capabilities that, while still not conscious, had a degree of genuine autonomy from the physical world. These autonomous subjective wants and goals now affected the course of (but not the mechanism of) evolution. The integrated amalgam of robotic and transrobotic unconscious capabilities eventually gave rise to consciousness, which became an even more important factor in the course of evolution.
The processes responsible for transrobotic mentality are conjectured to leave evidence in the physical world in the form of violations of conservation laws, evidence that future experiments may be able to detect.

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