간행물

Gut and Liver update

  • : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회
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수록정보
15권4호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 17
간행물 제목
16권5호(2022년 09월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : Seung Wook Hong , Jeong-sik Byeon

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 661-662 (2 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Suhyun Park , Sang Hyoung Park

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 663-664 (2 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Eun Sil Kim , Ben Kang

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 665-666 (2 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Ioannis S. Papanikolaou , Peter D. Siersema

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 667-675 (9 pages)

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Gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) is a relatively common condition in which mechanical obstruction of the pylorus, distal stomach, or duodenum causes severe symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and early satiety. Its etiology includes both benign and malignant disorders. Currently, GOO has many treatment options, including initial conservative therapeutic protocols and more invasive procedures, such as surgical gastroenterostomy, stent placement and, the most recently implemented procedure, endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUSGE). Each procedure has its merits, with surgery often prevailing in patients with longer life expectancy and stents being used most often in patients with malignant gastric outlet stenosis. The newly developed EUS-GE combines the immediate effect of stents and the long-term efficacy of gastroenterostomy. However, this novel method is a technically demanding process that requires expert experience and special facilities. Thus, the true clinical effectiveness, as well as the duration of the effects of EUS-GE, still need to be determined. (Gut Liver 2022;16:667-675)

KCI등재

저자 : Su Bee Park , Jin Young Yoon , Jae Myung Cha

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 676-685 (10 pages)

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The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Asia has been increasing over the past decades. Although patients with IBD show heterogenous phenotypes depending on the individual characteristics, no significant differences have been established in the IBD phenotypes of Western and Asian populations. However, despite the much lower incidence of IBD in Asia than in Western countries, the incidence has been rapidly increasing in Asia while remaining stable in Western countries. The incidence of ulcerative colitis (UC) showed an earlier and a more marked increase than the incidence of Crohn disease (CD), but the UC-to-CD ratio has recently decreased because of a relative increase in the incidence of CD in Asia. While CD shows a significant male predominance, UC only shows a slight male predominance. A recent study reported that the incidence of IBD in Asia showed a bimodal age distribution with increasing IBD prevalence, similar to the findings of Western studies. CD in Asian patients, especially those in East Asia, is characterized by ileocolonic involvement and perianal fistula. The frequency of extraintestinal manifestations, including primary sclerosing cholangitis, appears to be lower in Asia, but this finding should be interpreted with caution due to the transient and nonspecific nature of these manifestations. Although familial aggregation is lower in East Asia, it may also be explained by the low prevalence of IBD in Asia. Thus, more studies should focus on the differences in phenotypes in Asian IBD patients versus Western patients. (Gut Liver 2022;16:676-685)

KCI등재

저자 : Fumin Xu , Chunmei Yang , Mingcheng Tang , Ming Wang , Zhenhao Cheng , Dongfeng Chen , Xiao Chen , Kaijun Liu

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 686-696 (11 pages)

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Pancreatitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases of the pancreas caused by autodigestion induced by excessive premature protease activation. However, recognition of novel pathophysiological mechanisms remains a still challenge. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and the gut microbiota is a potential source of an environmental effect. In recent years, several new frontiers in gut microbiota and genetic risk assessment research have emerged and improved the understanding of the disease. These investigations showed that the disease progression of pancreatitis could be regulated by the gut microbiome, either through a translocation influence or in a host immune response manner. Meanwhile, the onset of the disease is also associated with the heritage of a pathogenic mutation, and the disease progression could be modified by genetic risk factors. In this review, we focused on the recent advances in the role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, and the genetic susceptibility in pancreatitis. (Gut Liver 2022;16:686-696)

KCI등재

저자 : Seung In Seo , Hyun Lim , Chang Seok Bang , Young Joo Yang , Gwang Ho Baik , Sang Pyo Lee , Hyun Joo Jang , Sea Hyub Kae , Jinseob Kim , Hak Yang Kim , Woon Geon Shin

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 697-705 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: Clarithromycin resistance is a main factor for treatment failure in the context of Helicobacter pylori infection. However, the treatment regimen for clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection has not yet been determined. We aimed to compare the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy versus 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy for clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection with genotypic resistance.
Methods: This was a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. A total of 782 patients with H. pylori infection examined using sequencing-based clarithromycin resistance point mutation tests were recruited between December 2018 and October 2020 in four institutions in Korea. Patients with significant point mutations (A2142G, A2142C, A2143G, A2143C, and A2144G) were randomly assigned to receive either 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy (n=102) or 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy (n=99).
Results: The overall genotypic clarithromycin resistance rate was 25.7% according to the sequencing method. The eradication rate of 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy was not significantly different in the intention-to-treat analysis (80.4% vs 69.7%, p=0.079), but was significantly higher than that of 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy in the per-protocol analysis (95.1% vs 76.4%, p=0.001). There were no significant differences in the incidence of side effects. In addition, the 14-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy was more cost-effective than the 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy.
Conclusions: Fourteen-day bismuth-based quadruple therapy showed comparable efficacy with 14-day metronidazole-intensified triple therapy, and it was more cost-effective in the context of clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori infection. (Gut Liver 2022;16:697-705)

KCI등재

저자 : Yoon Ju Jung , Hee Jin Kim , Cho Hyun Park , Seun Ja Park , Nayoung Kim

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 706-715 (10 pages)

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Background/Aims: Gastric cancers (GCs), particularly the Lauren intestinal type, show a male predominance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of reproductive factors on GCs in females, according to Lauren classification.
Methods: Medical records of 1,849 males and 424 females who underwent radical gastrectomy or endoscopic resection for GCs between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed. The incidences of intestinal-type GCs were compared between males and groups of females stratified according to postmenopausal period. Associations between reproductive factors in females and intestinaltype GCs were analyzed using multivariate models.
Results: The proportions of intestinal-type GCs were significantly lower in premenopausal (19%), less than 10 years postmenopausal (30.4%), and 10 to 19 years postmenopausal females (44.1%) than in males (61.0%) (p<0.05 for all). Females ≥20 years postmenopause had a proportion of intestinal-type GCs similar to that in males (60.6% vs 61.0%; p=0.948). Multivariate analysis revealed that age (odds ratio [OR], 1.075; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.039 to 1.113; p<0.001) and parity ≥3 (OR, 1.775; 95% CI, 1.012 to 3.114; p=0.045) were positively associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type GCs in postmenopausal females, while long fertility duration (OR, 1.147; 95% CI, 1.043 to 1.261; p=0.005) was positively associated with an increased risk of intestinal-type GCs in premenopausal females.
Conclusions: There were no significant differences in the proportions of intestinal-type GCs between males and females ≥20 years postmenopause, suggesting that female reproductive factors play a role in the prevention of intestinal-type GC. (Gut Liver 2022;16:706-715)

KCI등재

저자 : Jae Hee Han , Hyun Gun Kim , Eu Mi Ahn , Suyeon Park , Seong Ran Jeon , Jae Myung Cha , Min Seob Kwak , Yunho Jung , Jeong Eun Shin , Hyun Deok Shin , Young-seok Cho

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 716-725 (10 pages)

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Background/Aims: The adenoma detection rate (ADR) does not reflect the complete detection of every adenoma during colonoscopy; thus, many surrogate indicators have been suggested. This study investigated whether the ADR and surrogate quality indicators reflect the adenoma miss rate (AMR) when performing qualified colonoscopy.
Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of asymptomatic examinees aged 50 to 75 years who underwent back-to-back screening colonoscopies by eight endoscopists. The ADR and surrogate quality indicators, including polyp detection rate, total number of adenomas per colonoscopy, additional adenomas found after the first adenoma per colonoscopy (ADR-Plus), and total number of adenomas per positive participant, were calculated for the prediction of AMR.
Results: A total of 371 back-to-back colonoscopies were performed. There was a significant difference in ADRs (range, 44% to 75.4%; p=0.024), polyp detection rates (range, 56% to 86.9%; p=0.008) and adenomas per positive participants (range, 1.19 to 2.30; p=0.038), and a tendency of a difference in adenomas per colonoscopy (range, 0.62 to 1.31; p=0.051) and ADR-Plus (range, 0.13 to 0.70; p=0.054) among the endoscopists. The overall AMR was 20.1%, and AMRs were not different (range, 13.9 to 28.6; p>0.05) among the endoscopists. No quality indicators were significantly correlated with AMR. The number of adenomas found during the first colonoscopy was an independent factor for increased AMR (odds ratio, 1.79; p<0.001).
Conclusions: The colonoscopy quality indicators were significantly different among high-ADR endoscopists, and none of the quality indicators reflected the AMR of good quality colonoscopy performances. The only factor influencing AMR was the number of adenomas detected during colonoscopy. (Gut Liver 2022;16:716-725)

KCI등재

저자 : Hong Yang , Zhihua Ran , Meng Jin , Jia-ming Qian

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 16권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 726-735 (10 pages)

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Background/Aims: Opportunistic infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has become a serious problem. However, its status of doctors' opinions and test equipment in hospitals are unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate these issues to improve the prognosis of IBD patients.
Methods: This retrospective, multicenter study was conducted by 83 investigators who were members of the Asian Organization for Crohn's and Colitis. Data on opportunistic infection were collected from hospital databases between January 2017 and December 2017. The survey consisted of 11 items.
Results: Most physicians appreciated the diagnostic value of tissue cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA, accounting for 86.1% of members in China, 37.5% in Japan, 52.9% in South Korea, and 66.7% in Southeast Asia. Only 83.1% of hospitals had the ability to test for CMV immunohistochemistry in Asia. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) screening was recommended by all members. However, only 66.7% in China, 70.6% in South Korea, and 66.7% in Southeast Asia agreed to routinely vaccinate IBD patients when HBsAg tested negative. Most members preferred metronidazole (74.7%) as the first choice for patients with Clostridium difficile infection. However, the proportion of stool C. difficile toxin test was lower in China than in other areas (75.0% in China vs 95.8% in Japan and 100% in South Korea and Southeast Asia, p<0.05).
Conclusions: Opportunistic infection from CMV, hepatitis B virus, and C. difficile should be of high concern for IBD patients. More efforts are needed, such as understanding consensus in clinical practice and improving testing facilities in hospitals. (Gut Liver 2022;16:726-735)

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KCI등재

저자 : Batsaikhan Saruuljavkhlan , Yoshio Yamaoka

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 487-489 (3 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Chang Hun Lee , In Hee Kim

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 490-491 (2 pages)

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KCI등재

저자 : Keng Hoong Chiam , Seon Ho Shin , Kun Cheong Choi , Florencia Leiria , Mariana Militz , Rajvinder Singh

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 492-499 (8 pages)

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Recent advances in endoscopic imaging of the esophagus have revolutionized the diagnostic capability for detecting premalignant changes and early esophageal malignancy. In this article, we review the practical application of narrow-band imaging focusing on diseases of the esophagus, including Barrett's esophagus, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. (Gut Liver 2021;15:492-499)

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저자 : Dexi Zhou , Jiajie Luan , Cheng Huang , Jun Li

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 500-516 (17 pages)

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and it has diverse etiologies with multiple mechanisms. The diagnosis of HCC typically occurs at advanced stages when there are limited therapeutic options. Hepatocarcinogenesis is considered a multistep process, and hepatic macrophages play a critical role in the inflammatory process leading to HCC. Emerging evidence has shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are crucial components defining the HCC immune microenvironment and represent an appealing option for disrupting the formation and development of HCC. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the polarization and function of TAMs in the pathogenesis of HCC, as well as the mechanisms underlying TAM-related anti-HCC therapies. Eventually, novel insights into these important aspects of TAMs and their roles in the HCC microenvironment might lead to promising TAM-focused therapeutic strategies for HCC. (Gut Liver 2021;15:500-516)

KCI등재

저자 : Shang Yu Wang , Chun Nan Yeh , Yi Yin Jan , Miin Fu Chen

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 517-527 (11 pages)

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Acute cholecystitis and several gallbladder stone-related conditions, such as impacted common bile duct stones, cholangitis, and biliary pancreatitis, are common medical conditions in daily practice. An early cholecystectomy or drainage procedure with delayed cholecystectomy is the current standard of treatment based on published clinical guidelines. Cirrhosis is not only a condition of chronically impaired hepatic function but also has systemic effects in patients. In cirrhotic individuals, several predisposing factors, including changes in the bile acid composition, increased nucleation of bile, and decreased motility of the gallbladder, contribute to the formation of biliary stones and the possibility of symptomatic cholelithiasis, which is an indication for surgical treatment. In addition to these predisposing factors for cholelithiasis, systemic effects and local anatomic consequences related to cirrhosis lead to anesthesiologic risks and perioperative complications in cirrhotic patients. Therefore, the treatment of the aforementioned biliary conditions in cirrhotic patients has become a challenging issue. In this review, we focus on cholecystectomy for cirrhotic patients and summarize the surgical indications, risk stratification, surgical procedures, and surgical outcomes specific to cirrhotic patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis. (Gut Liver 2021;15:517-527)

KCI등재

저자 : Sang Yoon Kim , Jae Myung Park , Chul-hyun Lim , Hye Ah Lee , Ga-yeong Shin , Younghee Choe , Yu Kyung Cho , Myung-gyu Choi

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 528-536 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: Point mutations in the 23S ribosomal RNA gene have been associated with Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance. This study aimed to detect the prevalence of these point mutations and to investigate the role of different point mutations in the success of eradication therapy.
Methods: We retrospectively investigated a total of 464 consecutive patients who underwent an endoscopic examination and dual-priming oligonucleotide-based multiplex polymerase chain reaction for H. pylori between June 2014 and October 2019. For 289 patients with negative point mutations, standard triple therapy was used in 287 patients, and the bismuth-quadruple regimen was used in two patients. For 175 patients with positive point mutations (A2142G, A2143G, and both mutations), standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies were used in 37 patients and 138 patients, respectively.
Results: The eradication rates of standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies showed no significant difference in mutation-negative patients or those with the A2142G point mutation. However, the eradication rate with bismuth-quadruple therapy was significantly higher than that with standard triple therapy in the group with the A2143G mutation or with the double mutation. The eradication rates for standard triple and bismuth-quadruple therapies, respectively, were 25.8% and 92.1% in the per-protocol group (p<0.001) and 24.2% and 85.2% in the intention-totreat analysis (p<0.001).
Conclusions: The A2143G point mutation is the most prevalent cause of clarithromycin resistance. Bismuth-quadruple therapy is superior to standard triple therapy in patients with the A2143G or double point mutation. (Gut Liver 2021;15:528-536)

KCI등재

저자 : Hyun Jung Lee , Gwang Ha Kim , Su Jin Park , Chae Hwa Kwon , Moon Won Lee , Bong Eun Lee , Dong Hoon Baek , Hoseok I

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 533-541 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: Unlike other gastrointestinal tract cancers, there are relatively few reports on the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and TWIST, a marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of TWIST expression in CTCs in patients with ESCC.
Methods: Peripheral blood samples for CTC analyses were prospectively obtained from 52 patients with ESCC prior to treatment between September 2017 and September 2019. CTCs were detected using a centrifugal microfluidic system based on a fluid-assisted separation technique, and CTCs positive for TWIST on immunostaining were defined as TWIST (+) CTCs.
Results: Of the 52 patients with ESCC, CTCs and TWIST (+) CTCs were detected in 44 patients (84.6%) and 39 patients (75.0%), respectively. The CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts were significantly higher in patients aged >65 years and those who had a large tumor (>3 cm) than in those aged ≤65 years and those who had a small tumor (≤3 cm), respectively. There were no differences in CTC and TWIST (+) CTC counts according to tumor location, histologic grade, or TNM stage. TWIST (+) CTCs were significantly associated with histologic grade; a proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs ≥0.5 was significantly associated with advanced histologic grade. Other clinicopathologic characteristics such as sex, age, tumor location, tumor size, and TNM stages were not significantly associated with TWIST (+) CTCs.
Conclusions: Our study showed that TWIST (+) CTCs were frequently detected in patients with ESCC, and a high proportion of TWIST (+) CTCs was associated with poor differentiation. (Gut Liver 2021;15:553-561)

KCI등재

저자 : Yong Sung Kim , Joonki Lee , Aesun Shin , Jung Min Lee , Jong Heon Park , Hwoon-yong Jung

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 537-545 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: The incidence of peptic ulcer disease has decreased in past decades; however, the trends in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) are inconsistent among regions. This study aimed to investigate the trends in PUB incidence and the effect of risk factors on PUB in Korea.
Methods: The records of patients hospitalized with PUB from 2006 to 2015 were retrieved from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database. Standardized incidences of PUB were calculated, and the clinical characteristics such as age, sex, Helicobacter pylori infection, drug exposure, comorbidities, and mortality were obtained.
Results: In total, 151,507 hospitalizations with PUB were identified. The overall annual hospitalization rate was 34.98 per 100,000 person-years. The incidence of PUB showed no significant change from 2006 to 2008 and decreased from 2008 to 2015, with an annual change of -2.7% (p<0.05); however, this change was only significant in men. The incidence of PUB was higher in men than in women between 40 and 70 years old and higher in women than in men older than 80 years. From 2006 to 2015, the H. pylori infection rate increased significantly in patients with PUB; however, there was no significant change in exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or other drugs that increase the risk of PUB.
Conclusions: Over the past decade, the incidence of PUB has decreased in a sex-specific manner. There has been a decreasing trend in the H. pylori infection rate and no change in exposure to drugs that increase the risk of PUB in Korea. (Gut Liver 2021;15:537-545)

KCI등재

저자 : Jung Min Lee , In Kyung Yoo , Eunju Kim , Sung Pyo Hong , Joo Young Cho

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 546-552 (7 pages)

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Background/Aims: Increased esophagogastric junction (EGJ) relaxation is the most important mechanism involved in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). An endoscopic functional luminal imaging probe (EndoFLIP) is a device used to quantify EGJ distensibility in routine endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to assess the usefulness of EndoFLIP for the diagnosis of GERD compared to normal controls.
Methods: We analyzed EndoFLIP data from 204 patients with erosive reflux disease (ERD), 310 patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD), and 277 normal subjects. EndoFLIP uses impedance planimetry to measure 16 cross-sectional areas (CSAs) in conjunction with the corresponding intrabag pressure within a 4.6 cm cylindrical segment of a fluid-filled bag. The EGJ distensibility was assessed using 40 mL volume-controlled distensions.
Results: The mean distensibility index values were 13.98 ㎟/mm Hg in ERD patients, 11.42 ㎟/mm Hg in NERD patients, and 9.1 ㎟/mm Hg in normal subjects. There were significant differences in EGJ distensibility among the three groups (p<0.001). In addition, the CSAs were significantly higher in the ERD (291.03±160.77 ㎟) and NERD groups (285.87±155.47 ㎟) than in the control group (249.78±144.76 ㎟, p=0.004). We determined the distensibility index cutoff value of EGJ as 10.95 for the diagnosis of GERD by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Conclusions: The EGJ distensibilities of GERD patients were higher than those of normal subjects, regardless of the presence of reflux esophagitis. Thus, the measurement of EGJ distensibility using the EndoFLIP system could be useful in the diagnosis of GERD. (Gut Liver 2021;15:546-552)

KCI등재

저자 : Joon Seop Lee , Eun Soo Kim , Kwang Bum Cho , Kyung Sik Park , Yoo Jin Lee , Ju Yup Lee

발행기관 : 대한소화기기능성질환·운동학회 간행물 : Gut and Liver 15권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 562-568 (7 pages)

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Background/Aims: The intensities of injection pain resulting from the use of long- and mediumchain triglyceride (LCT/MCT) propofol and conventional LCT propofol during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) have yet to be compared. We aimed to determine the pain intensity caused by different formulations of propofol and to evaluate the formulation that would be preferred by patients as a sedative agent during their next procedure.
Methods: This study was a single-center, randomized, controlled, and double-blind trial. Pain intensity was estimated 30 seconds after propofol injection by an examiner who was blinded to the group assignment using a numeric (0-10) pain rating scale (NPRS). After 1 week, the patients were asked whether they could recall the pain and were willing to receive the same agent for their next EGD.
Results: One hundred twenty-nine patients were randomly assigned to LCT/MCT or LCT group. Although there was no significant difference in pain incidence between the LCT/MCT and LCT groups (52.9% vs 65.6%, p=0.156), the pain intensity was significantly lower in the LCT/MCT group (NPRS median [interquartile range]; 1 (0-2) vs 2 (0-5), p=0.005). After 1 week, fewer patients in the LCT/MCT group recalled the pain (19.1% vs 63.9%, p<0.001) and more patients in the LCT/MCT group were more willing to use the same agent for their next procedure (86.8% vs 72.1%, p=0.048) than in the LCT group.
Conclusions: LCT/MCT propofol significantly reduced injection pain intensity compared to LCT propofol during EGD and preferred by patients as a sedative agent during their next EGD. (Gut Liver 2021;15:562-568)

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