간행물

한국호텔리조트학회> 호텔리조트연구

호텔리조트연구 update

Journal of Hotel & Resort

  • : 한국호텔리조트학회
  • : 사회과학분야  >  경영학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 격월
  • : 1598-7760
  • :
  • : 호텔리조트연구(~2005) → 호텔리조트카지노연구(2005~) → 호텔리조트연구(2008~)

수록정보
21권3호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 19
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21권5호(2022년 10월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : 박종철 ( Park Jong-chul ) , 최현정 ( Choi Hyun-jung )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-21 (17 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to test the structural relationships of customer incivility, emotional dissonance, burnout and turnover intention in the hotel industry. To accomplish the study goals, a field survey was conducted with the employees of deluxe hotels in Seoul area. The statistical tools to be undertaken in this research were frequency analysis, correlation analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and covariance analysis using the statistical package of SPSS(12.0) and AMOS(6.0). The results of this study could be summarized as follows; First, the customer incivility (the language and physical violence, destructive behavior, bad credit behavior) had a positive effect on the level of hotel employees' emotional dissonance. Second, the customer incivility (the language and physical violence, destructive behavior, bad credit behavior) positively affected the level of hotel employees' burnout. Third, the customer incivility (the bad credit behavior) showed a positive effect on the level of hotel employees' turnover intention. Fourth, emotional dissonance significantly enhanced employees' burnout. Fifth, emotional dissonance had a positive effect on employees' turnover intention. In the last chapter, the paper concludes with discussions and the managerial implications for the effective personnel policies.

KCI등재

저자 : 김하림 ( Kim Harim ) , 한진수 ( Han Jinsu ) , 안소영 ( An Soyoung )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 23-41 (19 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to provide the Effect of Satisfaction with Hotel non-face-to-face services on relationship continuity intention. Non-face-to-face services are also increasing in the hotel industry. In addition, this study derived results by conducting demographic difference analysis. As a result, all of the hypotheses of this study were found to be significant. Hotel non-face-to-face service quality, customer satisfaction, and relationship continuity intention all have a positive influence. The demographic T-TEST and ANOVA of the survey subjects were conducted to find out the differences according to characteristics. Based on previous studies that show that customer expectations and performance have a direct effect on customer satisfaction, an expanded EDT(Expectation- Disconfirmation Theory) was used. Therefore, this study provides academic and practical implications for hotel non-face-to-face service quality. For the purpose of this study, empirical analysis using SPSS was performed.

KCI등재

저자 : 이윤재 ( Lee Yun-jae ) , 김남곤 ( Kim Nam-gon ) , 신동진 ( Shin Dong-jin )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 43-60 (18 pages)

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This study aims to verify the influence of employees' perception of their leader's fun leadership on rapport, emotional response and service behavior in the context of hotel organizations to present practical implications related to fun leadership. This study posited six research hypotheses based on relative literature, also established a research model with the six hypotheses. In addition, data obtained from 395 hotel employees working at five-star hotels in Seoul and the metropolitan area was used to test the postulated six hypotheses and the research model. The findings of this study, first, leaders' fun leadership in hotel companies has a positive and significant impact on rapport. Second, the study found that leaders' fun leadership positively and significantly influences emotional response. Third, the study found that leaders' fun leadership positively and significantly influences service behavior. Fourth, rapport positively and significantly affects emotional response. Fifth, rapport positively and significantly affects service behavior. Sixth, emotional response positively and significantly affects service behavior. The current study contributes to advancement of the hospitality, presenting the significant findings that fun leadership plays a crucial role in the human resources management for hotel organizations.

KCI등재

저자 : 임소이 ( Lim So-yi ) , 서원석 ( Seo Won-seok )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 61-79 (19 pages)

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This study proposes a measure of value innovation culture for rapidly changing hotel organizations and conducts a study on how organizations with such organizational culture affect knowledge sharing and service innovation behavior. Therefore, this study summarized the theoretical background of value innovation, organizational culture, definition of value innovation culture, and value innovation culture, and selected Khanapuri's 'Framework to assess Value Innovation Potential of organization' and set the measurement items as two sub-items. In addition, through a theoretical review of knowledge sharing and service innovation behavior, the hypothesis was clearly defined and a research model was established to conduct a survey. As a result, members of an organization with a culture of value innovation are determined to constantly try to reach a consensus on innovative ideas, modify and supplement new ideas to work, try to share job information or knowledge within the hotel, and find new skills, tools, and intentions. Based on these research results, the direction of research tasks for future research was suggested along with theoretical and practical implications.

KCI등재

저자 : 한종헌 ( Han Jong-hun ) , 서정운 ( Seo Jung-woon )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 81-97 (17 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to verify the effective relationship between brand equity and relationship orientation of hotel's ESG (Environment, Social, Governance) management acknowledged by consumer since ESG management was recently emphasized in global. An online survey was conducted to guests who stayed at a five-star hotel. A total of 261 questionnaires were used for statical analysis by SPSS v.23 and AMOS v.23. The summary of results from this investigation is as follows. First, it was found out that hotel's ESG management positively affected perceived quality. Second, the hotel's ESG management was partially supported as the governance didn't affect brand recognition. Third, the hotel's ESG management was partially supported as the governance didn't have positive influence on brand image. Forth, hotel's ESG management didn't affect the relationship orientation as all of them were not supported. Fifth, it was analyzed that the brand equity was a mediating effect between hotel's ESG management and relationship orientation. This paper proposed an implication of brand equity and relationship orientation in hotel ESG management based on the research results.

KCI등재

저자 : 문정남 ( Moon Jung-nam )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 99-117 (19 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among Family-Friendly Organizational Culture, Work-Family Conflict and Burnout. For the purpose of study, 220 survey questionnaires were distributed among employees who are working for 5-Star Hotel in Busan area from 1st July, 2022 to 31th July, 2022. Due to the reliability of data, 17 samples were discarded and 203 samples were put to actual analysis. In order to accomplish the purpose of the study, the researcher conducted and analyzed by using SPSS Ver. 22.0 statistics package. The results of the study are as follows. First, Family-Friendly Organizational Culture which are consist of organizational time demands perceived career consequences managerial supports had significantly negative effects on work-family conflict and burnout. Second, Work-Family Conflict had significantly positive effects on burnout. This study shows that if a hotel company implements various family-friendly systems to maintain the work-life balance of its employees establishes a flexible working system so that employees can freely use it, and provides active support from supervisors and other organizations, Experience will reduce work-family conflict and burnout and increase work performance. For this, the introduction and implementation of the family-friendly system is important, but it is to form a consensus that the members of the organization are not affected by any negative effects in using the family-friendly system and to encourage them to actively use the system.

KCI등재

저자 : 신재원 ( Shin Jaewon ) , 김동휘 ( Kim Donghwi )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 119-137 (19 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship among sharing accommodation's selective attributes, positive emotion and behavior intention. To perform this study, total 240 questionnaire were distributed to tourists who had experienced sharing accommodation dated from May 15th to June 15th. Unusable data were excluded, 204 usable responses were obtained for empirical analysis. For the study structure, selective attributes of sharing accommodation was divided with economy, accessibility, authenticity, convenient facilities. Positive emotion and behavior intention were sing factor. The results have shown as follows: Hypothesis 1, among selective attributes of sharing accommodation, all factors have a positive effect on positive emotion. Hypothesis 2, positive emotion of tourist has a positive effect on behavior intention. Hypothesis 3, among selective attributes of sharing accommodation, accessibility, authenticity and convenience facility have a positive effect on behavior intention. This study results has found that managing selective attributes of sharing accommodation is competitive marketing strategy for industry.

KCI등재

저자 : 전정아 ( Jeon Jeong-ah )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 139-161 (23 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of camping site selection factors on camping constraints. In addition, the factors influencing camping constraints on the continuous behavioral intention of campers were identified. In addition, the adjustment effect of auto camping and car camping is identified. To this end, 314 camping users were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS analysis tools. As a result of the study, it was investigated that the camping site selection factor did not significantly affect the physical constraint factor. However, among the factors for selecting campsites, the remaining three factors excluding the environment were found to have a significant effect on external constraints. In addition, it was investigated that camping constraints had a significant effect on the continuous behavioral intention of campers. In addition, a difference test was conducted on the moderating effect between the camping type of auto camping site and car camping. As a result of the study, since the result value of 28.134 (df=15) is greater than the standard value of 25.00 (df=15), it may be said that there is a control effect. Therefore, it can be said that the relationship between the selection factor of the camping site, the camping restriction factor, and the continuous behavioral intention of the campers varies depending on the camping type of auto camping and car camping. Through this study, we intend to examine new trends in the camping industry and continue positive changes.

KCI등재

저자 : 이상민 ( Lee Sang-min ) , 우서련 ( Woo Seo-ryeon ) , 박수지 ( Park Su-ji ) , 이원석 ( Lee Won-seok )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 163-179 (17 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the priority and strategic direction of Mokpo's sustainable tourism development by vitalizing Tourism Hub City as Mokpo, Jeollanam Province, was selected as the target site for the Tourism Hub Cities Development Project. For this purpose, the A'WOT analysis technique, which proved the ease of deriving priorities and strategies was used. As a result, specific factors were analyzed as important priorities in sustainable tourism development through vitalization of Mokpo's Tourism Hub City. Therefore, specific strategies are needed to vitalize sustainable tourism in Mokpo based on the Tourism Hub City. The academic significance of this study is that it presented priorities and strategies using the A'WOT methodology, which is different from previous studies related to tourism development and Tourism Hub City Project in Mokpo. Based on this study, Mokpo's successful growth as Tourism Hub City and sustainable tourism development can be basis.

KCI등재

저자 : 이명구 ( Lee Myoung Goo )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 181-197 (17 pages)

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This study empirically verified the causal relationship that healing, family, natural, and deviant motives have on LOHAS values, LOHAS image, and tourism behavioral intentions as LOHAS tourism motives in rural tourism. It suggests useful implications for LOHAS tourism in rural tourism. From June 5 to June 20, 2022, a total of 400 copies were distributed and 377 copies were recovered. Factor analysis and reliability verification were performed using SPSS 23.0 and AMOS 23.0 for 369 copies for which statistical analysis was possible. Structural analysis of covariance was performed to verify the proposed research hypothesis. The hypothesis test results of the study are summarized as follows. First, healing motives, natural motives, family motives, and deviant motives were found to have a significant effect on LOHAS values. Second, healing motive and family motive were found to have a significant effect on LOHAS image. However, it was found that natural motive and deviant motive did not have a significant effect on LOHAS image. Third, healing motives and natural motives were found to have a significant effect on tourism behavior intention. However, it was found that family motives and deviant motives did not have a significant effect on tourism behavior intention. Finally, it was analyzed that the LOHAS value did not have a significant effect on the LOHAS image.

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KCI등재

저자 : 정젤나 ( Chung Jellna )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 5-23 (19 pages)

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Developing a hotel or investing in the hotel markets requires a lot of initial capital. If developers or investors do not have a clear blueprint with regard to the dynamic and complex environments that can foster the potential market size, those capitals will not generate profits in time and proper returns as planned. This study tried to identify which environmental variables affect the size of the hotel industry market in Seoul, Korea, and present a standardized investment evaluation model accordingly. In order to identify valid environmental variables affecting the market size of the hotel industry, two-equation models have been established. Based on standardized models, differences in market size are defined by administrative districts in Seoul in terms of surplus or shortage for market potential.

KCI등재

저자 : 권혁진 ( Kwon Hyuk-jin ) , 권봉헌 ( Kwon Bong-heon )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 25-46 (22 pages)

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The crisis in the hotel industry due to the prolonged COVID-19 is accelerating changes in the employment environment of employees working in the field. As a result, there is a growing need to find out how changes in the employment environment of companies caused by COVID-19 ultimately affect hotel employees. The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of changes in employment of hotel companies caused by COVID-19 and their intention to change jobs. To this end, an empirical analysis was conducted on employees of five-star and four-star hotels in Seoul. According to the results of the study, among the factors that change employment, reorganization and job competency change have a significant impact on job stress. In addition, the factor of reorganization was found to be a preceding factor affecting the intention to change jobs. Finally, job stress had a mediating effect in the relationship between employment change and turnover intention. In particular, reorganization factors were found to be an important factor between job stress and the intention to change jobs. Therefore, based on the research results, it is expected to contribute to the establishment of corporate operation strategies by presenting human resource utilization strategies for hotel companies in the post-COVID-19 era.

KCI등재

저자 : 초승우 ( Cho Seung-woo ) , 김월호 ( Kim Weol-ho )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 47-64 (18 pages)

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Infectious disease risk perception for hotels on travel attitude and switch intention of staycation was investigate. For the sample, online survey was conduct for adults 19 years of age or older who had travel experience from February 2020 to April 2022, and a total of 249 samples were analyzed. For the analysis of this study, exploratory factor analysis and regression analysis were performed using SPSS 20. The results of this study are as follows. First, it was found that physical, economic, social, and psychological factors in the perception of risk of infectious diseases for hotels significantly affected the switch intention of staycation. Second, the economic factors of the perception of the risk of infectious diseases for hotels was found to have a significant negative effect on the positive travel attitude. Third, the positive travel attitude was found to have a significant negative effect on the switch intention of staycation. As the implications of this study, it provides information on the introduction of contactless technology and safe hotel promotion.

KCI등재

저자 : 김태욱 ( Kim Tae-uk )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 65-86 (22 pages)

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This study aims to verify the relationship between green consciousness and pro-environmental behavior intention and other variables (perception image of green CSR, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, willingness to sacrifice for the environment) verified in previous studies and to verify structural relationship between all variables based on theory of planned behavior. For empirical analysis, 333 samples were obtained from an online survey company for two weeks from Mar 10, 2022 for a month for customers who have visited green hotel for the past one year. Using the IBM SPSS Ver. 21 program and the IBM AMOS Ver. 21 program, the hypothesis was verified through demographic characteristics and confirmatory factor analysis, correlation analysis, and structural model analysis. The analysis results of the hypothesis test in this study are as follows. H1: CSR image was found to have a significant positive (+) effect on green consciousness as supported. H2: green consciousness was found to have a significant positive (+) effect on green behavior as supported. H3a,b,d: CSR image was found to have a significant positive (+) effect on attitude, subjective norm willingness to sacrifice for the environment as supported. but, not perceived behavior control as not supported of H3c. Also, H4a,b,d were supported. but not supported of H4c. And, H5a,b,c,d were all supported.

KCI등재

저자 : 윤태규 ( Yoon Tae-kyu ) , 최웅 ( Choi Woong )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 87-103 (17 pages)

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Service companies tried to find ways to reduce burnout and turnover intention by finding job stressors of employees for efficient human resource management. In addition, it was intended to prevent sabotage or deviant behavior by employees so that employees can concentrate on their jobs and prevent acts that cause damage to the company. However, recently, research on positive psychology has begun rather than research on these negative aspects. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the effect of hotel employees' occupational calling and psychological ownership on their job engagement and job performance. To achieve the purpose of this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted with hotel employees, and a total of 180 questionnaires were used for empirical analysis. As a result of factor analysis, occupational calling, psychological ownership, job engagement, and job performance were each classified into a single dimension. As a result of hypothesis testing, it was found that the occupational calling of hotel employees had a significant effect on psychological ownership, job engagement, and psychological ownership of hotel employees had a significant effect on job engagement, and it was verified that job engagement had a significant effect on job performance. In the end, it was studied that a sense of occupational calling and psychological ownership are necessary to increase job engagement and improve job performance of hotel employees.

KCI등재

저자 : 한장헌 ( Han Jang-heon )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 105-119 (15 pages)

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Although the death rate from industrial accidents in Korea continues to decline, the overall accident rate has been steadily increasing since 2018 and remains higher than that of foreign countries. In this context, various types of industrial accidents related to occupational safety and health can occur in the hotel industry. This study analyzed the discourse on the Hotel Occupational Safety and Health Act through unstructured big data. 2,943 keywords were collected through Naver and Google, and 60 keywords closely related to the hotel Occupational Safety and Health Act were confirmed as analysis targets. As a result, first, first, diverse keywords recognized by the hotel Occupational Safety and Health Act such as 'management', 'industry', 'public', 'law', 'industrial accident', 'education', 'occupational health', 'Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency', 'construction safety', 'check', evaluation', 'international cooperation', 'professional technology', 'service safety', 'information exchang', 'private organizations' were extracted. Second, as the result of the CONCOR group analysis, four clusters were clustered. The four clusters were 'preventive management and management', 'field violations and responsibilities', 'management consignment and education', and 'information disclosure'. Based on these findings provided various academic implications that can be used as basic data in the field of hotel human resource management and practical implications that can be applied to management manual related to the hotel occupational Safety and Health Act in the practice of the hotel industry.

KCI등재

저자 : 정충영 ( Jung Choong-young ) , 이준재 ( Lee Jun-jae ) , 함종찬 ( Ham Jong-chan )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 121-140 (20 pages)

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This study analyzed the cooperation model between hotels and websites connected to the supply chain using the owner-agent model. In this model, hotels determine room rates through competition, and websites charge fees by providing promotional efforts for hotels. As a result of the analysis, first, the demand of hotel guests increases as the degree of publicity efforts of the corresponding hotel increases, and decreases as the degree of publicity efforts of other hotels increases. Second, when a hotel directly operates a website, the two hotels determine the price and publicity efforts at the same level, and the market is divided equally. Third, when the hotel entrusts the website with its public relations efforts, the website does not make any publicity efforts for at least one of the two hotels. Fourth, when the commission for the website increases, the publicity efforts for the hotel are more diligent and the publicity efforts for other companies are reduced.. Fifth, if the sensitivity of the number of visits to the price and the sensitivity of the number of hotel guests to the hotel publicity efforts are sufficiently low, the higher the hotel price, the greater the company's public relations efforts and the less public relations efforts of other companies. Sixth, if the sensitivity of the number of visits to the hotel price and the sensitivity of the number of hotel guests to the hotel publicity efforts are sufficiently low, the higher the hotel price, the greater the company's public relations efforts and the lesser the public relations efforts of other companies. Based on the above research results, hotel companies determine the optimal price.

KCI등재

저자 : 이승훈 ( Lee Seung-hun )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 141-159 (19 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the changes in business performance based on the financial ratio analysis data by period of tourist accommodation business due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The target of this study were hotel and resort companies, which are tourist accommodation business, and the financial data of the analysis target were disclosed data from the DART. Using a total of 38 companies as analysis samples, 12 major financial ratio variables from 2019 to 2021 of the analysis companies were calculated, and empirical analysis was performed through corresponding sample t-test. As a result of the study, first, in terms of profitability, the decline and rebound of tourist accommodation business by period of COVID-19 appeared to be high, and compared to resorts, it was found that hotels did not recover to the level before COVID-19. Second, in terms of growth, the sales growth rate of hotels decreased significantly due to the outbreak of COVID-19, but it showed a remarkably rebound with COVID-19. As for resorts, the decrease in sales growth rate due to the COVID-19 outbreak was not significant, so the rebound is also not large. Based on the results of this study, implications for the future strategic direction of tourist accommodation business due to COVID-19 were presented.

KCI등재

저자 : 최우성 ( Choi Woo-sung )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 161-184 (24 pages)

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This study aims to verify the relationship between organizational citizenship behavior and the resulting variables verified in previous studies. Specifically, there are result variables in the positive aspects of job performance, job satisfaction, and job involvement, and there are result variables in the negative aspects of burnout, job stress, and turnover intention. Unlike the scale of organizational citizenship behavior used in previous studies, a scale developed to suit domestic hotel employees was used. For empirical analysis, in this study, a survey was conducted to evaluate organizational citizenship behavior and resulting variables for employees of 4-5 star hotels in Seoul. The survey collection of this study was conducted through a Google questionnaire, and it was conducted for two months from January 14, 2022. The analysis results are as follows. Voluntary behavior, Uncompensatory behavior, Behavior for organizational or peer support has significant effect on job performance. Voluntary behavior, Behavior for organizational or peer support, Behavior that enable the organization to remain in the current state has significant effect on job satisfaction. Voluntary behavior, Uncompensatory behavior, Behavior for organizational or peer support Behavior that enable the organization to remain in the current state has significant effect job involvement. Behavior unrelated to official duties, Uncompensatory behavior has significant effect job stress. Behavior unrelated to official duties, Uncompensatory behavior, Behavior for organizational or peer support, Behavior that enable the organization to remain in the current state has significant effect burnout. Behavior unrelated to official duties, Behavior for organizational or peer support has significant effect turnover intention.

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저자 : 천덕희 ( Cheon Deok-hee ) , 베로니카 ( Elagina Veronika ) , 정병웅 ( Chung Byung-woong )

발행기관 : 한국호텔리조트학회 간행물 : 호텔리조트연구 21권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 185-203 (19 pages)

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In this study, the effect of overseas tour conductors' occupational calling on job engagement, customer orientation, and job performance was empirically studied. A survey was conducted for overseas tour conductors whose current occupation is an overseas tour conductor and who had experience leading overseas travel before COVID-19, and a total of 196 questionnaires were used for empirical analysis. As a result of the factor analysis, the occupational calling was classified into life purpose and meaning, pro-social value, and transcendental calling, and job engagement, customer orientation, and job performance were classified into a single dimension. As a result of the hypothesis test, it was found that transcendental calling, life purpose and meaning, and pro-social value, which are the components of occupational calling, all had a significant effect on job engagement and customer orientation. It was studied that job engagement had a significant effect on customer orientation and job performance, and that customer orientation also had a significant effect on job performance. In the end, it was studied that the occupational calling of overseas tour conductors increased job engagement, customer orientation, and improved job performance.

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