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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

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수록정보
32권1호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 5
간행물 제목
32권2호(2022년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

저자 : Subin Park , David Michael O'sullivan , Jungho Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 37-42 (6 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of the strength of the ankle support on the walking characteristics and ankle joints when men with flexible flat feet walk.
Method: 13 adult male subjects (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs, height: 173.0 ± 5.0 cm, weight: 76.9 ± 13.2 kg, Navicular Drop Test (NDT): 10.2 ± 0.8 mm) participated in this study. Each participant had to walk with the 3 conditions, barefoot, soft arch support and hard arch support, along a walkway while their kinematics was recorded at 100 Hz.
Results: Based on the results of this study, it is considered that men with flexible flat feet should use hard arch support rather than bare feet to induce normal arch shape, relieve foot damage caused by excessive ankle joint abnormalities and improve stability.
Conclusion: Our results for men with flat flexibility, there was a significant difference in the value of step length when walking was performed using two arch supports with different strengths. The angle of ankle dorsiflexion was significantly increased, and the ankle eversion angle was significantly decreased.

KCI등재

저자 : Heungsoo Kim , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 43-48 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to verify the effectiveness among simulating ski jumping trainings by comparing with actual ski jump.
Method: Three healthy youth national athletes were recruited for this study (age: 13.70 ± 0.9 yrs, height: 169.30 ± 0.9 cm, jumping caree: 5.3 ± 0.9 yrs). Participants were asked to performed ski jumping with 3 simulating and one actual situation. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 5 channels of EMG was performed in this study. Muscle activations of Rectus Femoris [RF], Tibialis Anterior [TA], Thoracis [TH], Gluteus maximus [GM], and Gastronemius [GL] were achieved with sampling rate of 2,000 Hz during each jump.
Results: In the case of S1 in the actual jumping motion, the deviation of the muscle activity peak did not appear each trial, and the jump timing was consistent. For S2, the timing of the muscles peak activation which can maintain the posture of the upper body and ankles appeared at the beginning. In the case of S3, the part maintaining the ankle posture at the beginning appeared, but it could be expected that it would progress in the vertical direction due to the activation of GL at the time of jumping.
Conclusion: The muscle activation peak before the take-off point showed a different pattern for each athlete, and individual differences were large. In addition, it was attempted to confirm the actual jump with simulation jump, and it was found that not only the difference in patterns but also the fluctuations in the timing of each muscle activation peak were large.

KCI등재

저자 : Yootae Jang , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 49-55 (7 pages)

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Objective: This study aims to verify the front squat motions using by two different surfaces, thereby elucidating the grounds for effective training environment that can minimize the risk of injury.
Method: Total of 10 healthy male crossfit athletes were recruited for this study (age: 32.30 ± 3.05 yrs., height: 173.70 ± 5.12 cm, body mass: 82.40 ± 6.31 kg, 1RM: 160 ± 13.80 kg). All participants are those who know how to do front squats well with more than five years of crossfit athlete experience. All participants have sufficient experience in front squats on two types of surface which are soft surface (SS) and hard surface (HS). In each surface, participant perform 10reps of the front squat with 80% of the pre-measured 1RM. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and 2 channels of EMG was performed in this study. Paired sample t-test was used for statistical verification between two surfaces. The significant level was set at α=.05.
Results: The significantly decreased rectus femoris muscle activation was found in SS compared with that of HS on phase 1 (p<.05). Also, ROM of ankle joint was significantly increased in the SS compare with that of HS on phase 1 (p<.05). The muscle activity ratio of gluteus maximus/rectus femoris showed a significant difference only in SS compared with that of HS on phase 1 (p<.05).
Conclusion: In conclusion, Korean crossfit boxes should consider the use of hard surface, which has a relatively less risk of injury than soft surface, in selecting flooring materials. For the Crossfit athletes, they are also considered appropriate to train on a relatively hard surface.

KCI등재

저자 : Hanall Lee , Young-min Park , Nyeonju Kang

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 56-68 (13 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate potential effects of HRT (hormone replacement therapy) on motor functions in postmenopausal women.
Method: In this meta-analysis, 19 studies that examined changes in motor functions between postmenopausal women with and without HRT intervention were qualified. We additionally conducted moderator variable analyses including: (1) motor function type, (2) hormone type, and (3) duration of HRT intervention.
Results: The random effects model showed no significant overall effects (SMD = 0.199; SE = 0.115; 95% CI = -0.026~0.425; Z = 1.730; p = 0.084; I2 = 93.258%). Additional three moderator variable analyses revealed no significant effect sizes indicating that specific HRT protocols did not improve different motor functions in postmenopausal women.
Conclusion: These meta-analytic findings suggest that HRT had no positive effects on motor functions in postmenopausal women.

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KCI등재

저자 : Yeon Ho Kim , Seung Hyun Cho , Hae Ryun Jung , Ki Kwang Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 1-8 (8 pages)

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Objective: This study proposes a methodology to analyze important variables that have a significant impact on the putting direction prediction using a machine learning-based putting direction prediction model trained with IMU sensor data.
Method: Putting data were collected using an IMU sensor measuring 12 variables from 6 adult males in their 20s at K University who had no golf experience. The data was preprocessed so that it could be applied to machine learning, and a model was built using five machine learning algorithms. Finally, by comparing the performance of the built models, the model with the highest performance was selected as the proposed model, and then 12 variables of the IMU sensor were applied one by one to analyze important variables affecting the learning performance.
Results: As a result of comparing the performance of five machine learning algorithms (K-NN, Naive Bayes, Decision Tree, Random Forest, and Light GBM), the prediction accuracy of the Light GBM-based prediction model was higher than that of other algorithms. Using the Light GBM algorithm, which had excellent performance, an experiment was performed to rank the importance of variables that affect the direction prediction of the model.
Conclusion: Among the five machine learning algorithms, the algorithm that best predicts the putting direction was the Light GBM algorithm. When the model predicted the putting direction, the variable that had the greatest influence was the left-right inclination (Roll).

KCI등재

저자 : Kew-wan Kim , Kyoungkyu Jeon , Seokwoo Park , Seji Ahn

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 9-16 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how the chronic ankle instability affects postural control during forward jump landing.
Method: 20 women with chronic ankle instability (age: 21.7 ± 1.6 yrs, height: 162.1 ± 3.7 cm, weight: 52.2 ± 5.8 kg) and 20 healthy adult women (age: 21.8 ± 1.6 yrs, height: 161.9 ± 4.4 cm, weight: 52.9 ± 7.2 kg) participated in this study. For the forward jump participants were instructed to stand on two legs at a distance of 40% of their body height from the center of force plate. Participants were jump forward over a 15 cm hurdle to the force plate and land on their non-dominant or affected leg. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using 8 motion capture cameras and 1 force plates and joint angle, vertical ground reaction force and center of pressure. All statistical analyses were using SPSS 25.0 program. The differences in variables between the two groups were compared through an independent sample t-test, and the significance level was to p < .05.
Results: In the hip and knee joint angle, the CAI group showed a smaller flexion angle than the control group, and the knee joint valgus angle was significantly larger. In the case of ankle joint, the CAI group showed a large inversion angle at all events. In the kinetic variables, the vGRF was significantly greater in the CAI group than control group at IC and mGRF. In COP Y, the CAI group showed a lateral shifted center of pressure.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that chronic ankle instability decreases the flexion angle of the hip and knee joint, increases the valgus angle of the knee joint, and increases the inversion angle of the ankle joint during landing. In addition, an increase in the maximum vertical ground reaction force and a lateral shifted center of pressure were observed. This suggests that chronic ankle instability increases the risk of noncontact knee injury as well as the risk of lateral ankle sprain during forward jump landing.

KCI등재

저자 : Jihyuk Kang , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 17-23 (7 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect Tiger-step walking on the movement of the lower extremities during walking.
Method: Twenty healthy male adults who had no experience of musculoskeletal injuries on lower extremities in the last six months (age: 26.85 ± 3.28 yrs, height: 174.6 ± 3.72 cm, weight: 73.65 ± 7.48 kg) participated in this study. In this study, 7-segments whole-body model (pelvis, both side of thigh, shank and foot) was used and 29 reflective markers and cluster were attached to the body to identify the segments during the gait. A 3-dimensional motion analysis with 8 infrared cameras and 7 channeled EMG was performed to find the effect of tigerstep on uphill walking. To verify the tigerstep effect, a one-way ANOVA with a repeated measure was used and the statistical significance level was set at α=.05.
Results: Firstly, Both Tiger-steps showed a significant increase in stance time and stride length compared with normal walking (p<.05), while both Tiger-steps shown significantly reduced cadence compared to normal walking (p<.05). Secondly, both Tiger-steps revealed significantly increased in hip and ankle joint range of motion compared with normal walking at all planes (p<.05). On the other hand, both Tiger-steps showed significantly increased knee joint range of motion compared with normal walking at the frontal and transverse planes (p<.05). Lastly, Gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior of both tiger-step revealed significantly increased muscle activation compared with normal walking in gait cycle and stance phase (p<.05). On the other hand, in swing phase, the muscle activity of the vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior of both tiger-step significantly increased compared with those of normal walking (p <.05).
Conclusion: As a result of this study, Tiger step revealed increased in 3d range of motion of lower extremity joints as well as the muscle activities associated with range of motion. These findings were evaluated as an increase in stride length, which is essential for efficient walking. Therefore, the finding of this study prove the effectiveness of the tiger step when walking uphill, and it is thought that it will help develop a more efficient tiger step in the future, which has not been scientifically proven.

KCI등재

저자 : Choong Min Jung , Sang-kyoon Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 24-30 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the factors of successful and unsuccessful movements through the analysis of kinematics and muscle activity of the Free Aerial Cartwheel on the balance beam.
Method: Subjects (Age: 22.8 ± 2.4 yrs., Height: 158.7 ± 5.0 cm, Body mass: 54.1 ± 6.4 kg, Career: 13 ± 2.4 yrs.) who were currently active as female gymnasts participated in the study. They had no history of surgical treatment within 3 months. Subject criteria included more than 10 years of professional experience in college and professional level of gymnastics and the ability to conduct the Free Aerial Cartwheel on the Balance Beam. Each subject performed 10 times of Free Aerial Cartwheel on the balance beam. One successful trial and one unsuccessful trial (failure) among 10 trials were selected for the comparison.
Results: It was found that longer time required in case of unsuccessful trial when performing the Free Aerial Cartwheel on the balance beam compared with successful trial. It is expected to be the result of movement in the last landing section (i.e. phase 5). In addition, it was found that the center of gravity of the body descends at a high speed to perform the jump (i.e. phase 2) in order to obtain a sufficient jumping height when the movement is successful while the knee joint is rapidly extended to perform a jump when movement fails. In the single landing section after the jump (i.e. phase 4), if the ankle joint rapidly dorsiflexed after take-off and the hip joint rapidly flexed, so landing was not successful. Conversely, in a successful landing movement, muscle activity of the biceps femoris was greatly activated resulting no shaking in the last landing section (i.e. phase 5).
Conclusion: In order to succeed in this movement, it is necessary to perform a strong jump after rapidly descending the center of gravity of the body using the force of the biceps femoris muscle. Further improvement of the skills on the balance beam requires the analysis of the game-like situation with continuous research on kinematic and kinematic analysis of various techniques, jumps, turns, etc.

KCI등재

저자 : Yeon Kyung Hong , Sukhoon Yoon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 32권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 31-36 (6 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle activation according to the four strap lengths in the TRX plank exercise to provide scientific and accurate data on effective training methods.
Method: Twenty healthy men who had at least 6 months of weight training experience and could fully adjusted plank exercise, were participate in this study (age: 25.2 ± 3.7 yrs., height: 174.2 ± 3.9 cm., weight: 71.2 ± 9 kg). To pursue the study purpose, surface electrodes were attached to trunk muscles (pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi) and lower extramity muscles (gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, gastrocnemius), and the muscle activity was measured using 11-channel electromyography equipment. In order to verify the muscle activation according to the four strap lengths during TRX plank exercise, an one-way ANOVA with repeated measure was used with statistical significance level set at as α=.05.
Results: First, there were statistically significant differences in pectoralis major, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, and erector spinae among TRX strap lengths. Second, there were statistically significant differences in gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius among TRX strap lengths. Third, even though no statistically significant difference found in latissimus dorsi, but increased muscle activation tendency was showed as the length of the strap increased.
Conclusion: From the results of this study, it may be possible that TRX exercise prevent injuries and improve lower extremity muscle as well as trunk muscles by setting appropriate length of strap.

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