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대한내과학회> The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine update

  • : 대한내과학회
  • : 의약학분야  >  내과학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 연속간행물
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37권3호(2022) |수록논문 수 : 23
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37권5호(2022년 09월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Jihye Park , Jae Hee Cheon

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 895-905 (11 pages)

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The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are rapidly increasing worldwide. IBDs are considered an emerging problem not only in Western countries but also in developing counties. The relapses and complications of active IBD mandate various medications. Nevertheless, hospitalization, emergency room visits, or surgery may be required, resulting in a socioeconomic burden. Great advances have been made in the development of new therapeutic options for IBD to achieve induction and maintenance remission. Nevertheless, conventional therapy is still the mainstay in the treatment of IBD. This review article provides an update on recent advances in conventional therapies, including 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents to treat IBD.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Jung Won Lee , Chang Soo Eun

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 895-904 (10 pages)

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Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) refers to a group of disorders, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, that exhibit similar but distinct manifestations. These diseases are characterized by refractory and chronic inflammation of the bowel. IBD is usually accompanied by severe symptoms. When a patient presents with suspected IBD, physicians encounter various challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment. In addition, given such characteristics, the associated medical expenses gradually increase. Although IBD was formerly known as a disease of Western countries, the incidence and prevalence are increasing in Korea. Korean investigators have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the regional characteristics and epidemiology of the disease, especially via well-organized, joint cohort studies. Against this background, this article describes the epidemiology of IBD in Korea compared to that in the West. In addition, an overview of the pathophysiology of the disease is provided, focusing on the latest results.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Soo-young Na , You Sun Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 906-919 (14 pages)

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The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, have increased in Asia and developing countries. In the past two decades, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agents have revolutionized the treatment of IBD, in part by decreasing the rates of complications and surgery. Although anti-TNF agents have changed the course of IBD, there are unmet needs in terms of primary and secondary non-responses and side effects such as infections and malignancies. Novel biologics and small-molecule drugs have been developed for IBD, and the medical treatment options have improved. These drugs include sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators and anti-integrins to block immune cell migration, and cytokine and Janus kinase inhibitors to block immune cell communications. In this review, we discuss the approved novel biologics and small-molecule drugs, including several of those in the late stages of development, for the treatment of IBD.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Yoo Jin Lee , Eun Soo Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 920-930 (11 pages)

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Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are vulnerable to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. Immunosuppressive drugs, which are often used to manage IBD, may increase this vulnerability and attenuate vaccine efficacy. Thus, healthcare providers should understand infectious diseases and schedule vaccinations for them to reduce the infection-related burden of patients with IBD. All patients with IBD should be assessed in terms of immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases at the time of IBD diagnosis, and be vaccinated appropriately. Vaccination is becoming more important because of the unprecedented coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global health crisis. This review focuses on recent updates to vaccination strategies for Korean patients with IBD.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Chan Joo Lee , Minjae Yoon , Hyun-jae Kang , Byung Jin Kim , Sung Hee Choi , In-kyung Jeong , Sang-hak Lee

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 931-944 (14 pages)

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Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder. Due to the marked elevation of cardiovascular risk, the early detection, diagnosis, and proper management of this disorder are critical. Herein, the 2022 Korean guidance on this disease is presented. Clinical features include severely elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, tendon xanthomas, and premature coronary artery disease. Clinical diagnostic criteria include clinical findings, family history, or pathogenic mutations in the LDLR, APOB, or PCSK9. Proper suspicion of individuals with typical characteristics is essential for screening. Cascade screening is known to be the most efficient diagnostic approach. Early initiation of lipid-lowering therapy and the control of other risk factors are important. The first-line pharmacological treatment is statins, followed by ezetimibe, and PCSK9 inhibitors as required. The ideal treatment targets are 50% reduction and < 70 or < 55 mg/dL (in the presence of vascular disease) of LDL-C, although less strict targets are frequently used. Homozygous FH is characterized by untreated LDL-C > 500 mg/dL, xanthoma since childhood, and family history. In children, the diagnosis is made with criteria, including items largely similar to those of adults. In women, lipid-lowering agents need to be discontinued before conception.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Yangjin Jegal

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 945-946 (2 pages)

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KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Sung Hye Kong

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 947-948 (2 pages)

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KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Soo-kyung Park , Sang-bum Kang , Sangsoo Kim , Tae Oh Kim , Jae Myung Cha , Jong Pil Im , Chang Hwan Choi , Eun Soo Kim , Geom Seog Seo , Chang Soo Eun , Dong Soo Han , Dong Il Park

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 949-962 (14 pages)

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Background/Aims: In ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) is equivalent to mesalazine for preventing disease relapse; however, evidence of the ability of EcN to increase health-related quality of life or induce remission remains scarce. We investigated the efficacy of EcN as an add-on therapy for UC.
Methods: In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study, a total of 133 UC patients were randomly assigned to receive either EcN or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. Inflammatory bowel disease questionnaire (IBDQ) scores (primary endpoint) and clinical remission and response rates (secondary endpoints) were compared (Clinical trial registration number: NCT04969679).
Results: In total, 118 patients (EcN, 58; placebo, 60) completed the study. The number of patients reaching the primary endpoint did not differ between the EcN and placebo groups (30 [51.7%] vs. 31 [51.7%]; per-protocol analysis, p = 1.0; intention-to-treat analysis, p = 0.86). However, significantly fewer patients in the EcN group exhibited a decreased IBDQ score (1 [1.7%] vs. 8 [13.3%]; per-protocol analysis, p = 0.03; intention-to-treat analysis, p = 0.02). Moreover, a significantly higher number of patients in the EcN group displayed clinical response at 4 weeks (23 [39.7%] vs. 13 [21.7%], p = 0.04) and endoscopic remission at 8 weeks (26 [46.4%] vs. 16 [27.1%], p = 0.03).
Conclusions: Although the number of patients reaching the primary endpoint did not differ between the EcN and placebo groups, EcN was found to be safe and effective in preventing the exacerbation of IBDQ scores and achieving clinical responses and endoscopic remission in patients with mild-to-moderate UC.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Ji Eun Ryu , Myeong Jun Song , Seok-hwan Kim , Jung Hyun Kwon , Sun Hong Yoo , Soon Woo Nam , Hee Chul Nam , Hee Yeon Kim , Chang Wook Kim , Hyun Yang , Si Hyun Bae , Do Seon Song , U Im Chang , Jin Mo

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 958-968 (11 pages)

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Background/Aims: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) available in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Korea.
Methods: In a retrospective, multicenter cohort study, 362 patients were enrolled from 2015 to 2019. The effectiveness and safety of DAAs including glecaprevir/pibrentasvir, sofosubvir/ribavirin, ledipasvir/sofosbuvir, and daclatasvir/asunaprevir were analyzed for patients according to CKD stage. We evaluated sustained virologic response at week 12 after treatment (SVR12) as primary endpoint. The effectiveness and safety were also evaluated according to CKD stage.
Results: Among 362 patients, 307 patients completed DAAs treatment and follow-up period after end of treatment. The subjects comprised 87 patients (62 with CKD stage 3 and 25 with CKD stage (4-5), of whom 22 were undergoing hemodialysis). HCV patients with CKD stage 1 and 2 (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 ㎡) showed SVR12 of 97.2% and 95.4% respectively. SVR12 of CKD stage 3 and 4-5 (eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 ㎡) patients was 91.9% and 91.6% respectively. Patients undergoing hemodialysis achieved SVR12 (90.9%). Treatment failure of DAAs in stage 1, 2, 3, and 4-5 was 2.8%, 2.7%, 1.6%, and 4%. DAAs showed good safety profile and did not affect deterioration of renal function.
Conclusions: DAAs shows comparable SVR12 and safety in CKD patients (stage 3, 4, and 5) with HCV compared with patients with stage 1 and 2. The effectiveness and safety of DAAs may be related to the treatment duration. Therefore, it is important to select adequate regimens of DAAs and to increase treatment adherence.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

저자 : Ilsoo Kim , Han Hee Lee , Young Jae Ko , Ho Eun Chang , Dae Young Cheung , Bo-in Lee , Young-seok Cho , Jin Il Kim , Myung-gyu Choi

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 969-978 (10 pages)

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Background/Aims: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown a continued increase in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults. Little is known about the factors that contribute to the development of young-onset colorectal neoplasia (CRN).
Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was performed for individuals younger than 40 years who underwent colonoscopy in Seoul St. Mary's Hospital and its affiliated health screening center. High-risk CRN was defined as adenoma or sessile serrated lesion ≥ 10 mm, with three or more adenomas, villous histology, high grade dysplasia, or carcinoma.
Results: Of these 13,621 included participants, 2,023 (14.9%) had one and more CRN. Young patients with CRN tended to be elderly, male, obese, smoker, having a habit of drinking, and having comorbidities such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, obesity, smoking status, and alcohol intake, old age (odds ratio [OR], 1.086; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.054 to 1.119), male sex (OR, 1.748; 95% CI, 1.247 to 2.451), obesity (OR, 1.439; 95% CI, 1.133 to 1.828), and smoking (OR, 1.654; 95% CI, 1.287 to 2.127) were independent risk factors for overall CRN. Obesity and smoking as two modifiable factors increased the risk for high-risk CRN even more than for overall CRN (OR, 1.734; 95% CI, 1.168 to 2.575 and OR, 1.797; 95% CI, 1.172 to 2.753, respectively).
Conclusions: Obesity and smoking were modifiable risk factors for CRN in young adults. They increased the risk for high-risk CRN even more than for overall CRN. A colonoscopy might be beneficial for young individuals with these factors.

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Duk-soo Kim , Seong-wook Kim , Hyo-wook Gil

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 489-501 (13 pages)

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to cognitive impairment and emotional changes. However, the precise mechanism underlying the crosstalk between the kidneys and the nervous system is not fully understood. Inflammation and cerebrovascular disease can influence the development of depression in CKD. CKD is one of the strongest risk factors for cognitive impairment. Moreover, cognitive impairment occurs in CKD as patients experience the dysregulation of several brain functional domains due to damage caused to multiple cortical regions and to subcortical modulatory neurons. The differences in structural brain changes between CKD and non-CKD dementia may be attributable to the different mechanisms that occur in CKD. The kidney and brain have similar anatomical vascular systems, which may be susceptible to traditional risk factors. Vascular factors are assumed to be involved in the development of cognitive impairment in patients with CKD. Vascular injury induces white matter lesions, silent infarction, and microbleeds. Uremic toxins may also be directly related to cognitive impairment in CKD. Many uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, are likely to have an impact on the central nervous system. Further studies are required to identify therapeutic targets to prevent changes in the brain in patients with CKD.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Hyo Jin Kim , Sang Soo Kim , Sang Heon Song

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 502-519 (18 pages)

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Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, both in Korea and worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure (KF). The natural course of kidney function among people with diabetes (especially type 2 diabetes) may be complex in real-world situations. Strong evidence from observational data and clinical trials has demonstrated a consistent association between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent development of hard renal endpoints (such as KF or renal death). The disadvantage of hard renal endpoints is that they require a long follow-up duration. In addition, there are many patients with diabetes whose renal function declines without the appearance of albuminuria, measurement of the eGFR is emphasized. Many studies have used GFR-related parameters, such as its change, decline, or slope, as clinical endpoints for kidney disease progression. In this respect, understanding the trends in GFR changes could be crucial for developing clinical management strategies for the prevention of diabetic complications. This review focuses on the clinical implication of the eGFR-related parameters that have been used so far in diabetic kidney disease. We also discuss the use of recently developed new antidiabetic drugs for kidney protection, with a focus on the GFR as clinical endpoints.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Jeong-hoon Lim , Byung Ha Chung , Sang-ho Lee , Hee-yeon Jung , Ji-young Choi , Jang-hee Cho , Sun-hee Park , Yong-lim Kim , Chan-duck Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 520-533 (14 pages)

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Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Kyungho Lee , Hye Ryoun Jang

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 534-550 (17 pages)

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Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common medical problem with significant mortality and morbidity, affecting a large number of patients globally. Ischemic AKI is associated with intrarenal inflammation as well as systemic inflammation; thus, the innate and adaptive immune systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic AKI. Among various intrarenal immune cells, T cells play major roles in the injury process and in the repair mechanism affecting AKI to chronic kidney disease transition. Importantly, T cells also participate in distant organ crosstalk during AKI, which affects the overall outcomes. Therefore, targeting T cell-mediated pathways and T cell-based therapies have therapeutic promise for ischemic AKI. Here, we review the major populations of kidney T cells and their roles in ischemic AKI.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Jin Won Huh

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 553-554 (2 pages)

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Seo Yeon Yoo , Eunju Kim , Gi-byoung Nam , Danbi Lee , Ju Hyun Shim , Kang Mo Kim , Young-suk Lim , Han Chu Lee , Young-hwa Chung , Yung Sang Lee , Jonggi Choi

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 555-566 (12 pages)

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Background/Aims: The safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with warfarin in patients with both nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinically confirmed liver cirrhosis (LC) has not been well studied. We compared the risk of a major bleeding event between DOAC and warfarin treatments in this patient population.
Methods: A total of 238 cirrhotic patients with AF were retrospectively analyzed. The major bleeding event risk was compared between DOAC- and warfarin-treated groups. The median follow-up duration was 5.6 years.
Results: Among the 238 study patients with LC and AF, 128 (53.8%) received DOACs and 110 (46.2%) received warfarin. The mean patient age was 68.8 years, and 78.2% were men. A major bleeding event occurred in 10 and 20 patients in the DOAC and warfarin groups, respectively, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding (70.0%). The cumulative risk of major bleeding did not differ between the groups by log-rank test (p = 0.12). This finding did not change when using 60 propensity score-matched pairs. A multivariable Cox regression model indicated that the concomitant use of antiplatelet agents (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 4.30; p = 0.048) and presence of esophageal or gastric varices confirmed by endoscopic examination (aHR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.17; p = 0.04) were associated with major bleeding in the entire cohort.
Conclusions: A major bleeding event risk is not increased by DOAC compared with warfarin treatment. Antiplatelet agent use and varices are independently associated with a higher risk of major bleeding during anticoagulation.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Su Hyun Park , Sang Hyoung Park

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 567-568 (2 pages)

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KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Hye Kyung Hyun , Jongwook Yu , Eun Ae Kang , Jihye Park , Soo Jung Park , Jae Jun Park , Tae Il Kim , Won Ho Kim , Jae Hee Cheon

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 567-579 (13 pages)

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Background/Aims: The optimal tools for monitoring Crohn's disease (CD) are controversial. We compared radiology plus ileocolonoscopy and radiology alone in terms of prognosis prediction and evaluated the agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings in patients with CD.
Methods: Patients with CD who were followed up with computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) alone or CTE or MRE plus ileocolonoscopy were retrospectively recruited. Time to relapse was investigated to evaluate the difference in prognosis using the log-rank and Cox regression tests, and the agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings was determined using a kappa value.
Results: A total of 501 patients with CD in clinical remission who underwent CTE or MRE and/or ileocolonoscopy were analyzed. Of these, 372 (74.3%) patients underwent CTE or MRE alone and 129 (25.7%) patients underwent CTE or MRE plus ileocolonoscopy. The cumulative maintenance rate of clinical remission between the two groups was not significantly different (p = 0.526, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, age <40 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.756; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263 to 6.013) and a history of steroid use (HR, 2.212; 95% CI, 1.258 to 3.577) were found to independently predict an increased risk for clinical relapse in patients with CD in clinical remission. Radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings had a moderate degree of agreement (κ = 0.401, -0.094 to 0.142). The comparison of agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings was the highest in the anastomotic site (κ = 0.749, -0.168 to 0.377).
Conclusions: Radiology plus ileocolonoscopy was not superior to radiology alone in predicting the prognosis of CD.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Won Seok Kim , Yonghoon Choi , Nayoung Kim , Seon Hee Lim , Gitark Noh , Ki Wook Kim , Jaehyung Park , Hyeongho Jo , Hyuk Yoon , Cheol Min Shin , Young Soo Park , Dong Ho Lee

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 579-596 (18 pages)

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Background/Aims: The long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the metabolic syndrome or diabetes are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or prediabetes mellitus (preDM).
Methods: A total of 124 asymptomatic subjects with T2DM or preDM were divided into H. pylori-negative (n = 40), H. pylori-positive with non-eradicated (n = 34), and eradicated (n = 50) groups. We measured H. pylori status (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and followed-up at the 1st year and the 5th year of follow-up.
Results: The A1C levels significantly decreased in the eradicated group compared to the negative group and the non-eradicated groups (at the 1st year, p = 0.024; at the 5th year, p = 0.009). The A1C levels decreased in male, and/or subjects < 65 years of age in subgroup analyses (in male subjects, p = 0.047 and p = 0.020 at the 1st and the 5th year; in subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.028 and p = 0.006 at the 1st and the 5th year; in male subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.039 and p = 0.032 at the 1st and the 5th year). The eradication of H. pylori was related to the decrease in A1C values throughout the follow-up period, compared to the non-eradicated group (p = 0.017).
Conclusions: H. pylori eradication was related to the decreasing of A1C levels in patients with T2DM or preDM over a long-term follow-up period, especially in male and subjects < 65 years of age.

KCI등재SCOUPUS

저자 : Seok Oh , Ju Han Kim , Kyung Hoon Cho , Min Chul Kim , Doo Sun Sim , Young Joon Hong , Youngkeun Ahn , Myung Ho Jeong

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 591-610 (20 pages)

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Background/Aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is conventionally recognized as an urgent medical condition requiring timely and effective reperfusion therapy. However, the results of studies on the clinical outcomes in AMI according to hospital visit timings are inconclusive. To explore the difference in long-term outcomes between off- and on-hour percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with AMI of Killip functional classification III-IV (Killip III-IV AMI).
Methods: Data on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of 1,751 patients with Killip III-IV AMI between November 2011 and June 2015 from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health registry were analyzed. All participants were allocated into two groups: off-hour (weekdays from 6:00 PM to 8:00 AM, weekends, and legal holidays) and on-hour (weekdays from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM) groups. The incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, any revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, and stent thrombosis, was the primary endpoint.
Results: Among the 1,751 patients, 572 (39.1%) underwent PCI during on-hours and 892 (60.9%) during off-hours. At the 3-year follow-up, no significant difference was found in the clinical outcomes between the two groups in both the unadjusted and propensity-score weighing-adjusted analyses.
Conclusions: The outcomes of patients with Killip III-IV AMI admitted during off- and on-hours were similar.

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