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대한내과학회> The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine

The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine update

  • : 대한내과학회
  • : 의약학분야  >  내과학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 연속간행물
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  • : 1226-3303
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36권6호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 29
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37권3호(2022년 05월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Emotional and cognitive changes in chronic kidney disease

저자 : Duk-soo Kim , Seong-wook Kim , Hyo-wook Gil

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 489-501 (13 pages)

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to cognitive impairment and emotional changes. However, the precise mechanism underlying the crosstalk between the kidneys and the nervous system is not fully understood. Inflammation and cerebrovascular disease can influence the development of depression in CKD. CKD is one of the strongest risk factors for cognitive impairment. Moreover, cognitive impairment occurs in CKD as patients experience the dysregulation of several brain functional domains due to damage caused to multiple cortical regions and to subcortical modulatory neurons. The differences in structural brain changes between CKD and non-CKD dementia may be attributable to the different mechanisms that occur in CKD. The kidney and brain have similar anatomical vascular systems, which may be susceptible to traditional risk factors. Vascular factors are assumed to be involved in the development of cognitive impairment in patients with CKD. Vascular injury induces white matter lesions, silent infarction, and microbleeds. Uremic toxins may also be directly related to cognitive impairment in CKD. Many uremic toxins, such as indoxyl sulfate, are likely to have an impact on the central nervous system. Further studies are required to identify therapeutic targets to prevent changes in the brain in patients with CKD.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Glomerular filtration rate as a kidney outcome of diabetic kidney disease: a focus on new antidiabetic drugs

저자 : Hyo Jin Kim , Sang Soo Kim , Sang Heon Song

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 502-519 (18 pages)

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Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions, both in Korea and worldwide and is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease and kidney failure (KF). The natural course of kidney function among people with diabetes (especially type 2 diabetes) may be complex in real-world situations. Strong evidence from observational data and clinical trials has demonstrated a consistent association between decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and subsequent development of hard renal endpoints (such as KF or renal death). The disadvantage of hard renal endpoints is that they require a long follow-up duration. In addition, there are many patients with diabetes whose renal function declines without the appearance of albuminuria, measurement of the eGFR is emphasized. Many studies have used GFR-related parameters, such as its change, decline, or slope, as clinical endpoints for kidney disease progression. In this respect, understanding the trends in GFR changes could be crucial for developing clinical management strategies for the prevention of diabetic complications. This review focuses on the clinical implication of the eGFR-related parameters that have been used so far in diabetic kidney disease. We also discuss the use of recently developed new antidiabetic drugs for kidney protection, with a focus on the GFR as clinical endpoints.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Omics-based biomarkers for diagnosis and prediction of kidney allograft rejection

저자 : Jeong-hoon Lim , Byung Ha Chung , Sang-ho Lee , Hee-yeon Jung , Ji-young Choi , Jang-hee Cho , Sun-hee Park , Yong-lim Kim , Chan-duck Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 520-533 (14 pages)

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Kidney transplantation is the preferred treatment for patients with end-stage kidney disease, because it prolongs survival and improves quality of life. Allograft biopsy is the gold standard for diagnosing allograft rejection. However, it is invasive and reactive, and continuous monitoring is unrealistic. Various biomarkers for diagnosing allograft rejection have been developed over the last two decades based on omics technologies to overcome these limitations. Omics technologies are based on a holistic view of the molecules that constitute an individual. They include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The omics approach has dramatically accelerated biomarker discovery and enhanced our understanding of multifactorial biological processes in the field of transplantation. However, clinical application of omics-based biomarkers is limited by several issues. First, no large-scale prospective randomized controlled trial has been conducted to compare omics-based biomarkers with traditional biomarkers for rejection. Second, given the variety and complexity of injuries that a kidney allograft may experience, it is likely that no single omics approach will suffice to predict rejection or outcome. Therefore, integrated methods using multiomics technologies are needed. Herein, we introduce omics technologies and review the latest literature on omics biomarkers predictive of allograft rejection in kidney transplant recipients.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Role of T cells in ischemic acute kidney injury and repair

저자 : Kyungho Lee , Hye Ryoun Jang

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 534-550 (17 pages)

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Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common medical problem with significant mortality and morbidity, affecting a large number of patients globally. Ischemic AKI is associated with intrarenal inflammation as well as systemic inflammation; thus, the innate and adaptive immune systems are implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic AKI. Among various intrarenal immune cells, T cells play major roles in the injury process and in the repair mechanism affecting AKI to chronic kidney disease transition. Importantly, T cells also participate in distant organ crosstalk during AKI, which affects the overall outcomes. Therefore, targeting T cell-mediated pathways and T cell-based therapies have therapeutic promise for ischemic AKI. Here, we review the major populations of kidney T cells and their roles in ischemic AKI.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Changes in practice for mechanically ventilated patients: effect of the pain, agitation, and delirium guidelines

저자 : Jin Won Huh

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 553-554 (2 pages)

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6Safety of direct oral anticoagulants compared to warfarin in cirrhotic patients with atrial fibrillation

저자 : Seo Yeon Yoo , Eunju Kim , Gi-byoung Nam , Danbi Lee , Ju Hyun Shim , Kang Mo Kim , Young-suk Lim , Han Chu Lee , Young-hwa Chung , Yung Sang Lee , Jonggi Choi

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 555-566 (12 pages)

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Background/Aims: The safety of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with warfarin in patients with both nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and clinically confirmed liver cirrhosis (LC) has not been well studied. We compared the risk of a major bleeding event between DOAC and warfarin treatments in this patient population.
Methods: A total of 238 cirrhotic patients with AF were retrospectively analyzed. The major bleeding event risk was compared between DOAC- and warfarin-treated groups. The median follow-up duration was 5.6 years.
Results: Among the 238 study patients with LC and AF, 128 (53.8%) received DOACs and 110 (46.2%) received warfarin. The mean patient age was 68.8 years, and 78.2% were men. A major bleeding event occurred in 10 and 20 patients in the DOAC and warfarin groups, respectively, most commonly caused by gastrointestinal bleeding (70.0%). The cumulative risk of major bleeding did not differ between the groups by log-rank test (p = 0.12). This finding did not change when using 60 propensity score-matched pairs. A multivariable Cox regression model indicated that the concomitant use of antiplatelet agents (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 4.30; p = 0.048) and presence of esophageal or gastric varices confirmed by endoscopic examination (aHR, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.03 to 5.17; p = 0.04) were associated with major bleeding in the entire cohort.
Conclusions: A major bleeding event risk is not increased by DOAC compared with warfarin treatment. Antiplatelet agent use and varices are independently associated with a higher risk of major bleeding during anticoagulation.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7Radiology plus ileocolonoscopy versus radiology alone in Crohn's disease: prognosis prediction and mutual agreement

저자 : Hye Kyung Hyun , Jongwook Yu , Eun Ae Kang , Jihye Park , Soo Jung Park , Jae Jun Park , Tae Il Kim , Won Ho Kim , Jae Hee Cheon

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 567-579 (13 pages)

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Background/Aims: The optimal tools for monitoring Crohn's disease (CD) are controversial. We compared radiology plus ileocolonoscopy and radiology alone in terms of prognosis prediction and evaluated the agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings in patients with CD.
Methods: Patients with CD who were followed up with computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) alone or CTE or MRE plus ileocolonoscopy were retrospectively recruited. Time to relapse was investigated to evaluate the difference in prognosis using the log-rank and Cox regression tests, and the agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings was determined using a kappa value.
Results: A total of 501 patients with CD in clinical remission who underwent CTE or MRE and/or ileocolonoscopy were analyzed. Of these, 372 (74.3%) patients underwent CTE or MRE alone and 129 (25.7%) patients underwent CTE or MRE plus ileocolonoscopy. The cumulative maintenance rate of clinical remission between the two groups was not significantly different (p = 0.526, log-rank test). In multivariate analysis, age <40 years (hazard ratio [HR], 2.756; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.263 to 6.013) and a history of steroid use (HR, 2.212; 95% CI, 1.258 to 3.577) were found to independently predict an increased risk for clinical relapse in patients with CD in clinical remission. Radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings had a moderate degree of agreement (κ = 0.401, -0.094 to 0.142). The comparison of agreement between radiologic and ileocolonoscopic findings was the highest in the anastomotic site (κ = 0.749, -0.168 to 0.377).
Conclusions: Radiology plus ileocolonoscopy was not superior to radiology alone in predicting the prognosis of CD.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8Is radiological healing alone enough? 'Can't take my eyes off' the mucosa

저자 : Su Hyun Park , Sang Hyoung Park

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 567-568 (2 pages)

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9Long-term effect of the eradication of Helicobacter pylori on the hemoglobin A1c in type 2 diabetes or prediabetes patients

저자 : Won Seok Kim , Yonghoon Choi , Nayoung Kim , Seon Hee Lim , Gitark Noh , Ki Wook Kim , Jaehyung Park , Hyeongho Jo , Hyuk Yoon , Cheol Min Shin , Young Soo Park , Dong Ho Lee

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 579-596 (18 pages)

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Background/Aims: The long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on the metabolic syndrome or diabetes are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of H. pylori eradication on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or prediabetes mellitus (preDM).
Methods: A total of 124 asymptomatic subjects with T2DM or preDM were divided into H. pylori-negative (n = 40), H. pylori-positive with non-eradicated (n = 34), and eradicated (n = 50) groups. We measured H. pylori status (culture, histology, and rapid urease test) and glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) levels and followed-up at the 1st year and the 5th year of follow-up.
Results: The A1C levels significantly decreased in the eradicated group compared to the negative group and the non-eradicated groups (at the 1st year, p = 0.024; at the 5th year, p = 0.009). The A1C levels decreased in male, and/or subjects < 65 years of age in subgroup analyses (in male subjects, p = 0.047 and p = 0.020 at the 1st and the 5th year; in subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.028 and p = 0.006 at the 1st and the 5th year; in male subjects < 65 years of age, p = 0.039 and p = 0.032 at the 1st and the 5th year). The eradication of H. pylori was related to the decrease in A1C values throughout the follow-up period, compared to the non-eradicated group (p = 0.017).
Conclusions: H. pylori eradication was related to the decreasing of A1C levels in patients with T2DM or preDM over a long-term follow-up period, especially in male and subjects < 65 years of age.

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10Off-hour presentation and outcomes for percutaneous coronary intervention in acute myocardial infarction with Killip Ⅲ-Ⅳ

저자 : Seok Oh , Ju Han Kim , Kyung Hoon Cho , Min Chul Kim , Doo Sun Sim , Young Joon Hong , Youngkeun Ahn , Myung Ho Jeong

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 37권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 591-610 (20 pages)

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Background/Aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is conventionally recognized as an urgent medical condition requiring timely and effective reperfusion therapy. However, the results of studies on the clinical outcomes in AMI according to hospital visit timings are inconclusive. To explore the difference in long-term outcomes between off- and on-hour percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in patients with AMI of Killip functional classification III-IV (Killip III-IV AMI).
Methods: Data on the characteristics and clinical outcomes of 1,751 patients with Killip III-IV AMI between November 2011 and June 2015 from the Korea Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry-National Institutes of Health registry were analyzed. All participants were allocated into two groups: off-hour (weekdays from 6:00 PM to 8:00 AM, weekends, and legal holidays) and on-hour (weekdays from 8:00 AM to 6:00 PM) groups. The incidence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, any revascularization, cerebrovascular accident, and stent thrombosis, was the primary endpoint.
Results: Among the 1,751 patients, 572 (39.1%) underwent PCI during on-hours and 892 (60.9%) during off-hours. At the 3-year follow-up, no significant difference was found in the clinical outcomes between the two groups in both the unadjusted and propensity-score weighing-adjusted analyses.
Conclusions: The outcomes of patients with Killip III-IV AMI admitted during off- and on-hours were similar.

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1Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease after hematopoietic cell transplantation: historical and current consider-ations in Korea

저자 : Jae-ho Yoon , Chul Won Choi , Jong-ho Won

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1261-1280 (20 pages)

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Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome/veno-occlusive disease (SOS/VOD) is a rare but severe complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) showing high mortality. Multiple risk factors for SOS/VOD were identified, but it is often confused with other hepatic complications due to nonspecific clinical features. Therefore, diagnostic and severity criteria have been re vised several times. The European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation suggested a new guideline that excludes the standard duration of development within 21 days, emphasizes late-onset SOS/VOD, and suggests the importance of Doppler ultrasonography. The severity criteria were further subdivided for guidance to begin active treatment using defibrotide which was approved in Korea since 2016. In a phase 3 trial, defibrotide had superior 100-day survival, compared to best available treatments (38.2% vs. 25.0%). Although several studies of SOS/VOD in Korean patients have been performed after the implementation of HCT, most involved small number of pediatric patients. Recently, the Korean Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation investigated the incidence of SOS/VOD in the Korean population, and several influential studies of adult patients were published. Here, we summarize recent issues regarding the mechanism, diagnosis, severity criteria, prevention, and treatments of SOS/VOD in Korean patients, as well as recent analyses of nationwide incidence.

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2Role of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the progression of chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease

저자 : Yousuf Waheed , Fan Yang , Dong Sun

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1281-1293 (13 pages)

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Previous research has investigated whether hyperuricemia serves as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. Hyperuricemia is defined as an abnormally high level of uric acid (UA; i.e., serum urate level > 6.8 mg/dL). Hyperuricemia has been considered a complication of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, it seems to play a pathogenic role in the progression of renal diseases. There has been increasing focus on the link between hyperuricemia and CKD. The results of randomized controlled trials have implied independent associations between hyperuricemia and the progression of cardiovascular and renal morbidities. These associations may be mediated by renin-angiotensin system activation, nitric oxide synthase inhibition, and macrovascular/microvascular disease development. There remains controversy regarding the use of serum UA level as an indirect index of renal vascular disease. This literature review focuses on the role of asymptomatic hyperuricemia in the progression of CKD, as well as the association between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease. It also provides a general overview of the physiological metabolism of UA.

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3Recent advances in airway imaging using micro-computed tomography and computed tomography for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

저자 : Naoya Tanabe , Toyohiro Hirai

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1294-1304 (11 pages)

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a complex lung disease characterized by a combination of airway disease and emphysema. Emphysema is classified as centrilobular emphysema (CLE), paraseptal emphysema (PSE), or panlobular emphysema (PLE), and airway disease extends from the respiratory, terminal, and preterminal bronchioles to the central segmental airways. Although clinical computed tomography (CT) cannot be used to visualize the small airways, micro-CT has shown that terminal bronchiole disease is more severe in CLE than in PSE and PLE, and micro-CT findings suggest that the loss and luminal narrowing of terminal bronchioles is an early pathological change in CLE. Furthermore, the introduction of ultra-high-resolution CT has enabled direct evaluation of the proximal small (1 to 2-mm diameter) airways, and new CT analytical methods have enabled estimation of small airway disease and prediction of future COPD onset and lung function decline in smokers with and without COPD. This review discusses the literature on micro-CT and the technical advancements in clinical CT analysis for COPD. Hopefully, novel micro-CT findings will improve our understanding of the distinct pathogeneses of the emphysema subtypes to enable exploration of new therapeutic targets, and sophisticated CT imaging methods will be integrated into clinical practice to achieve more personalized management.

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4Eosinophilic endotype of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: similarities and differences from asthma

저자 : Andrew Li , Hiang Ping Chan , Phyllis X.L. Gan , Mei Fong Liew , W.S. Fred Wong , Hui-Fang Lim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1305-1319 (15 pages)

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Approximately 25% to 40% of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have the eosinophilic endotype. It is important to identify this group accurately because they are more symptomatic and are at increased risk for exacerbations and accelerated decline in forced expiratory volume in the 1st second. Importantly, this endotype is a marker of treatment responsiveness to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), resulting in decreased mortality risk. In this review, we highlight differences in the biology of eosinophils in COPD compared to asthma and the different definitions of the COPD eosinophilic endotype based on sputum and blood eosinophil count (BEC) with the corresponding limitations. Although BEC is useful as a biomarker for eosinophilic COPD endotype, optimal BEC cut- offs can be combined with clinical characteristics to improve its sensitivity and specificity. A targeted approach comprising airway eosinophilia and appropriate clinical and physiological features may improve identification of subgroups of patients who would benefit from biologic therapy or early use of ICS for disease modification.

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5Optimizing glucose control for diabetic patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

저자 : Haseong Chang , Sung-Hea Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1320-1322 (3 pages)

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6Is the anti-centromere antibody a marker for a distinct subset of polyautoimmunity in Sjögren's syndrome?

저자 : Yun Jong Lee

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1323-1326 (4 pages)

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7HER-2 positivity is a high risk of recurrence of stage I gastric cancer

저자 : Seonhoo Kim , Yeon-ji Kim , Woo Chul Chung

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1327-1338 (12 pages)

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Background/Aims: The treatment of gastric cancer remains unsatisfactory. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical staining in gastric cancer.
Methods: We analyzed 505 (279 early staged, 226 advanced-staged) gastric cancer tissues from patients who underwent radical gastric resection between January 2014 and December 2016. Available surgical specimens immunohistochemically stained for p53, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), human EGFR 2 (HER-2), E-cadherin, and Ki-67 were reviewed. We evaluated the association between positivity to various biomarkers and disease recurrence, disease-free survival, lymph node metastasis, and microscopic lymphovascular invasion.
Results: The median follow-up duration was 32.5 months (range, 7 to 70). Advanced gastric cancer cases showed high Ki-67 expression; other cases showed un-remarkable expression. Concerning disease recurrence, lymphatic invasion, and disease-free interval, all biomarkers had no prognostic effects. HER-2-positive stage I gastric cancer tended to occur in old patients and in the upper one-third of the stomach (p = 0.01). HER-2 positivity was significantly correlated with disease recurrence (p = 0.01), lymphatic invasion (p = 0.03), and vascular invasion (p = 0.03) in stage I cases.
Conclusions: Only HER-2 was associated with the recurrence of stage I gastric cancer. HER-2-positive stage I gastric cancer requires additional therapy despite curative resection.

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8Longstanding postoperative fluid collection influences recurrence of pancreatic malignancy

저자 : Young Jung Kim , Young Koog Cheon , Tae Yoon Lee , Seong-Hwan Chang , Mi-Hye Yu

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1338-1346 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: Postoperative abdominal fluid collection (PAFC) is a frequent complication of pancreatobiliary cancer surgery. The effects of the existence and duration of PAFC are not well known. This study aimed to assess the effects of PAFC on patient prognosis after surgery for pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma and the association of longstanding PAFC with the recurrence of pancreatic cancer.
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 194 consecutive patients with pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma who underwent curative operations from August 2005 to December 2019. The presence of PAFC was assessed using computed tomography within a week of surgery; PAFC lasting > 4 weeks was defined as longstanding PAFC.
Results: Among 194 patients, PAFC occurred in 165 (85.1%), and 74 of these had longstanding PAFC. The recurrence rate of pancreatobiliary adenocarcinoma was significantly higher in patients with longstanding PAFC than in patients with non-longstanding PAFC (p = 0.025). Recurrence was also significantly associated with high T stage (T3, T4; p = 0.040), lymph node involvement (p < 0.001), perineural invasion (p < 0.006), and non-receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy (p = 0.025). Longstanding PAFC was significantly associated with the recurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (p = 0.016). However, cancer-specific survival was related to neither the presence nor the duration of PAFC.
Conclusions: The presence of longstanding PAFC was associated with the recurrence of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. However, a larger prospective study is necessary to confirm the findings.

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9Impact of non-hepatic hyperammonemia on mortality in intensive care unit patients: a retrospective cohort study

저자 : Jae Heon Kim , Hankyu Jeon , Sang Soo Lee , I Re Heo , Jung Woo Choi , Hee Jin Kim , Ra Ri Cha , Jae Min Lee , Hyun Jin Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1347-1362 (16 pages)

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Background/Aims: The effect of hyperammonemia on the mortality in patients with liver cirrhosis is well documented. However, little is known about the impact of hyperammonemia on mortality among intensive care unit patients without hepatic disease. We aimed to investigate factors associated with non-hepatic hyperammonemia among intensive care unit patients and to evaluate the factors related to the 7- and 90-day mortality.
Methods: Between February 2016 and February 2020, 948 patients without hepatic disease who had 972 episodes of admission to the intensive care unit were retrospectively enrolled and classified as hyperammonemia grades 0 (≤ 80 μg/dL; 585 [60.2%]), 1 (≤ 160 μg/dL; 291 [29.9%]), 2 (≤ 240 μg/dL; 55 [5.7%]), and 3 (> 240 μg/dL; 41 [4.2%]). Factors associated with hyperammonemia and the 7- and 90-day mortality were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis, respectively. Kaplan-Meier survival curves for the 7- and 90-day mortality were constructed.
Results: The independent risk factors for hyperammonemia were male sex (odds ratio, 1.517), age (0.984/year), acute brain failure (2.467), acute kidney injury (1.437), prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (2.272/unit), and albumin (0.694/g/dL). The 90-day mortality rate in the entire cohort was 24.3% and gradually increased with increasing hyperammonemia grade at admission (17.9%, 28.2%, 43.6%, and 61.0% in patients with grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Additionally, non-hepatic hyperammonemia was an independent predictor of the 90- day mortality in intensive care unit patients.
Conclusions: Non-hepatic hyperammonemia is common (39.8%) and associated with the 90-day mortality among intensive care unit patients.

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10Clinical analysis of 117 cases with synchronous multiple primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas

저자 : Zhiqin Chen , Sihan Li , Zheng He , Guang Li

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1356-1364 (9 pages)

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Background/Aims: We aimed to study the clinical characteristics, treatment modality, and the prognosis of synchronous multiple primary esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (SMPESCC).
Methods: A total of 117 SMPESCC cases were evaluated retrospectively from 2010 to 2015.
Results: The most common locations of SMPESCC were mid- and lower thoracic segments (n = 208, 84.9%). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rates were 53.8%, 30.8%, and 15.4%, respectively; the median survival time (MST) was 12.5 months. With definitive radiotherapy and surgery, respectively, the MST of stage I/II patients were 34.2 and 26.7 months, of stage III patients were 8.3 and 13.2 months (p = 0.163), and of stage IV patients were and 8 and 12.6 months (p = 0.379). Clinical stage, family history of cancer, and Karnofsky performance status were independent prognostic factors for the whole cohort by Cox multivariate regression analysis (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.859, p < 0.001; HR = 0.579, p = 0.032; and HR = 0.586, p = 0.013).
Conclusions: Although the prognosis of SMPESCC is poor, stage I/II patients can achieve long-term survival with aggressive treatment, especially those with a Karnofsky performance score 90 or higher and who have no family history of cancer. Definitive radiotherapy could achieve a similar survival rate to definitive surgery at different clinical stages.

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