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The Journal of Korean Society of Physical Therapy

  • : 대한물리치료학회
  • : 의약학분야  >  재활의학
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  • : 1229-0475
  • : 2287-156x
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수록정보
33권5호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 8
간행물 제목
33권6호(2021년 12월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재

1Choice Stepping Reaction Time under Unstable Conditions in Healthy Young and Older Adults: A Reliability and Comparison Study

저자 : Ji Young Lim , Seong Joo Lee , Dae-sung Park

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 265-271 (7 pages)

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Purpose: We aimed to analyze the reliability of the test for choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) under an unstable surface and determine whether there were differences in CSRT between support surface conditions (stable vs. unstable conditions) and between age groups (young adults vs. community-dwelling older adults).
Methods: Twenty healthy community-dwelling older adults and twenty young adults performed the stepping task under an unstable condition over two visits. The mean of the two trials measured for each visit was used for the analysis. The test-retest reliability was analyzed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) with a 95% confidence interval, standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC). Differences in CSRT between support surface conditions and age groups were analyzed using the independent t-test with Bonferroni correction.
Results: Excellent consistency was observed for ICC >0.90 in both groups. Moreover, the SEM and MDC values of the CSRT in older and young adults were 0.03 and 0.09 and 0.01 and 0.04, respectively. There was a significant difference in the CSRT between the age groups under stable (p<0.001) and unstable conditions (p<0.001).
Conclusion: The findings demonstrated that the test for CSRT under an unstable condition had reliable results in both groups. Although older adults demonstrated longer reaction times than younger adults in all surface conditions, increasing the balance control demand by implementing a choice stepping task concomitant with a balance task had no influence on the reaction time in both age groups.

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2Immediately Effects of Static Stretching of the Ankle Plantar Flexor for 5 Minutes on Balance Control and Muscle Activity in Healthy Young Adults

저자 : Sang-hyuk Yoon , Jae-won Lee , Dongyeop Lee , Ji-heon Hong , Jae-ho Yu , Jin-seop Kim , Seong-gil Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 272-277 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to confirm the effect of static stretching of the plantar flexor for 5 minutes on balance and ankle muscle activity when walking in young adults.
Methods: This study experimented on 20 healthy college students without vestibular and musculoskeletal diseases. Subjects performed static stretching intervention of plantar flexor for 5 minutes on a stretch board set at 15° to 25° Balance was measured four times before intervention (pre), after intervention (post), 5 minutes after intervention (post 5 min), 10 minutes after intervention (post 10 min), and ankle muscle activity was measured during walking. For the analysis and post hoc analysis, one-way Repeated Measure ANOVA and Fisher's LSD (Last Significant Difference) was performed to find out the change in balance and the activity of ankle muscles before static stretching, pre, post, post 5 minutes rest, post 10 minutes rest.
Results: There was no significant difference in weight distribution index (WDI) in balance, but stability index (ST) showed a significant difference, and there was also a significant difference in correlation pre, post, post 5min rest, post 10 minutes rest (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference in ankle muscle activity during walking in Tibialis anterior (TA), Medial gastrocnemius (GM), and Lateral gastrocnemius (GL) (p >0.05).
Conclusion: The stability index (ST) increased significantly immediately after static stretching and decreased after 5 minutes. After static stretching, at least 5 minutes of rest are required to restore balance.

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3Effects of Open Kinetic Chain Exercise for the Gastrocnemius and Tibialis Anterior Muscles on Balance

저자 : Song Yeon Yi , Young Ju Kim , Dong Yeop Lee , Jae Ho Yu , Jin Seop Kim , Soung Gil Kim , Ji Heon Hong

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 278-285 (8 pages)

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Purpose: This study investigated the effects of open kinetic chain (OKC) exercise for the gastrocnemius (GCM) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles on static and dynamic balance and muscle strength.
Methods: We recruited 21 healthy participants, dividing them into 3 groups (GCM, TA, and non-exercise). Each group contains 7 participants. Two exercise groups (GCM and TA) performed OKC exercise with elastic bands twice per week for 4 weeks, while non-exercise group did nothing. We obtained the data for static and dynamic balance and muscle strength before and after the intervention. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test to compare and analyze the pre-post-intervention differences among the groups.
Results: For static balance, the stability index of the TA group was the lowest for the dynamic platform (p<0.05). The dynamic balance of the TA group increased for the anterior and posteromedial directions (p<0.05). The peak torque increased in the TA group for dorsiflexion (D/F) movement and in the GCM group for plantar flexion movement compared with the other groups, except for the left direction during D/F (p<0.05).
Conclusion: OKC exercises with elastic bands were effective for selectively increasing muscle strength. It is clinically thought that strength training for TA muscles will be effective among the muscles of the ankle.

KCI등재

4The Immediate Effects of Dynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Using a Wedge Board on the Balance Ability and Jump Function of Healthy Adult

저자 : Ye-ri Ji , Yoo-sun Hong , Dongyeop Lee , Ji-heon Hong , Jae-ho Yu , Jin-seop Kim , Seong-gil Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 286-291 (6 pages)

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Purpose: This study aims to measure the improvement of balanced ability and rapid response of 30 healthy adults by performing dynamic stretching, static stretching, and sargent jump.
Methods: The sample 30 peoples without any musculoskeletal disease who volunteered to be the subject of the study. We measured all subjects on following metrics to evaluate the function and stability under the normal condition, with dynamic stretching (DS) group, static stretching (SS) group: vertical jump height and reaching distance Anterior, Posteromedial, Posterolateral and NO (Normal eye open), NC (Normal eye close), PO (Pillow with eye open), and PC (Pillow with close eye) were evaluated. All measures were analyzed using independent t-test and One-way repeated Anova.
Results: There was a significant increase in SJH (Sargent jump) in both groups (p<0.05). In Y-balance test, there was a significant increase in both groups except for the ANT (Anterior) direction, and there was a significant increase only in the SS group in the ANT (Anterior) direction (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference between the DS group and the SS group (p >0.05). There was no significant improvement in ST (Stability Index) and WDI (Weight Distribution Index) in both groups (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Both DS and SS showed significant improvement in SJH and Y-balance tests, which are dynamic functions, but had no significant effect on static balance ability.

KCI등재

5Effect of Training Types Using Recumbent Cycle Ergometer on Ankle Strength in Healthy Male Subjects

저자 : Ho-youl Ryu , In-cheol Jeon , Ki-song Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 292-296 (5 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the exercise effect of two types of training with a recumbent cycle ergometer on ankle muscle strength (dorsiflexor strength, DFS; dorsiflexor strength/weight, DFS/kg; plantar flexor strength, PFS; and plantar flexor strength/weight, PFS/kg) in healthy male subjects.
Methods: Twenty-three healthy males (27.91±8.66 yr) were randomly allocated into two groups (high-intensity interval training (HIIT), and aerobic exercise training (AET) after the first measurement. The subjects were trained for 24 sessions (40 min/rep, three times/week) and ankle strength was measured for a second time. Two-way mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to identify significant differences between changes in ankle muscle strength between before and after training (within factors) in the HIIT and AET groups (between factors). The statistical significance level was set at α=0.05.
Results: In both HIIT and AET groups, all variables of ankle muscle strength were significantly increased after training compared to before training (p=0.001). However, there were no differences in all variables of ankle strength between the HIIT and AET group (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Both types (HIIT and AET) of recumbent cycle exercise training could be effective training methods to increase ankle muscle strength in healthy individuals, and the HIIT type with high intensity and low frequency pedaling could be recommended more to strengthen ankle muscles.

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6Effects of Facial Exercise for Facial Muscle Strengthening and Rejuvenation: Systematic Review

저자 : Hyoung Won Lim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 297-303 (7 pages)

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Purpose: The mass of facial muscles can be increased through exercise, as is also the case for muscles in the extremities. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the effect of facial exercises on facial muscle strengthening and facial rejuvenation, focusing on recent studies.
Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases. The quality of the trials was evaluated according to the PEDro scale. In total, 11 studies were included in this review: four studies on facial exercise for facial rejuvenation and seven studies on strengthening the muscles of the face.
Results: Facial exercises for facial rejuvenation increased the mechanical properties and elasticity of the skin of the face and neck, the thickness and cross-sectional area of the facial muscles, and the fullness of the upper and lower cheeks.
Conclusion: A study aimed at strengthening facial muscles showed improvements in labial closure strength and tongue elevation strength. Despite the positive results for facial rejuvenation and muscle strengthening, the level of evidence was low. Therefore, in future research, it will be necessary to investigate the effects of facial exercise in a thoroughly controlled experiment with a sufficient sample size to increase the level of evidence.

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7Mild Bradykinesia Due to an Injury of Corticofugal-Tract from Secondary Motor Area in a Patient with Traumatic Brain Injury

저자 : Han Do Lee , Jeong Pyo Seo

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 304-306 (3 pages)

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Objectives: We report on a patient who showed mild bradykinesia due to injury of the corticofugal tract (CFT) from the secondary motor area following direct head trauma, which was demonstrated on diffusion tensor tractography (DTT).
Case summary: A 58-year-old male patient underwent conservative management for subarachnoid hemorrhages caused by direct head trauma resulting from a fall from six-meter height at the department of neurosurgery of a local hospital. His Glasgow Coma Scale score was 3. He developed mildly slow movements following the head trauma and visited the rehabilitation department of a university hospital at ten weeks after the fall. The patient exhibited mild bradykinesia during walking and arm movements with mild weakness in all four extremities (G/G-).
Results: On ten-week DTT, narrowing of the right CFT from the supplementary motor area (SMA-CFT), and partial tearing of the left SMA-CFT, left CFTs from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC-CFT) and both corticospinal tracts (CSTs) at the subcortical white matter were observed.
Conclusion: This case demonstrated abnormalities in both CSTs (partial tearing at the subcortical white matter and narrowing), both SMA-CFTs (narrowing and partial tearing) and left dPMC-CFT. We believe our findings suggest the necessity of assessment of the CFTs from the secondary motor area for patients with unexplained bradykinesia following direct head trauma.

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8Recognition of Physical Activity between Physical Therapy and Non-Physical Therapy Students: Cross-Sectional Survey

저자 : Heun-jae Ryu , Jung-won Kwon , Young-min Lee

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 6호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 307-313 (7 pages)

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Purpose: This study was to the investigate recognition of physical activity between physical therapy students (PTS) and non-physical therapy students (NPTS) by measuring the level of physical activity using International Physical Activity Questionnaires (IPAQ).
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was completed by 191 university students. The IPAQ with an additional question (Is physical activity necessary for your future job?) was used to evaluate the recognition and the amount of physical activity. The collected data were calculated as MET-minutes scores and were classified as walking, moderate, and vigorous level of physical activity. The students were analyzed by dividing them into those who had a part-time employment (16 PTS and 12 NPTS) and those who did not have a part-time employment (80 PTS and 83 NPTS).
Results: In students with a part-time employment, no significances were observed between the PTS and NPTS, in terms of MET, frequency and time of physical activity, and sitting time (p>0.05). In students without a part-time employment, the NPTS was significantly higher than the PTS for the MET and frequency of physical activity in a vigorous level (p< 0.05), and there were no significant differences in other levels of physical activity (p >0.05). In the additional question, the PTS showed a slightly higher than the NPTS (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The physical therapy students did not remarkable barrier to recognition of physical activity, but there was a difference in their recognition of the vigorous level of physical activity. Therefore, the understanding of physical activity for PTS would play an important role in the recognition of how physical activity can be promoted.

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KCI등재

1The Effect of Manual Physical Therapy on Improvement in the Range of Motion of Frozen Shoulder Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Cases in South Korea

저자 : Chan Myeong Kim , Jong Kyung Lee , Jong Ha Hwang , Jae Kwang Lee

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 211-216 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The main purpose of this meta-analysis was to identify the degree of effect size and variables for the impact of manual physi-cal therapy on the improvement in the range of motion of frozen shoulder patients.
Methods: This study collected 8 studies published between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2020. The analysis of the results veri-fied 49 effect size data and the random effect model was chosen.
Results: First, the full case showed the largest mean effect size of 2.485 (p<0.001). Second, the size of the effect based on manual ther-apy and modality therapy showed an effect size of 4.178 (p< 0.001). Third, the outcome group included 6 variables. The external rotation (2.818) variable group showed the largest mean effect size, followed by internal rotation (2.748), flexion (2.643), abduction (2.356), and adduction (2.356). Six outcomes were significant and the mean effect sizes of all the varied groups were above large size. The number of participants showed a 20 or less effect size of 2.478 (p >0.737). The number of intervention periods showed 4 weeks 20 or more effect size of 2.782 (p>0.294). Finally, the 'Trim and Fill' result confirmed that the calibration effect size was 1.471 (p<0.001).
Conclusion: This study verified that manual physical therapy had a substantial effect on the improvement of the range of motion of pa-tients with frozen shoulders and that the effects were dependent on the methods of outcomes.

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Purpose: This study sought to identify the effects of coordinative locomotor training (CLT) using elastic bands on the flexibility and body alignment of right-handed baseball players in elementary school.
Methods: The subjects were 20 instructed right-handed baseball players in elementary school. They were classified into the experimental group with 10 players (n=10) to be given coordinative locomotor training using elastic bands and the control group with 10 players (n=10). Flexibility was measured by the sit and reach exercise. Body alignment was measured using formetric 4D method to measure the trunk imbalance angle (TI), trunk torsion angle (TT), pelvic tilt angle (PTi), pelvic torsion angle (PTo), pelvic rotation angle (PR), kyphot-ic angle (Ky), and lordotic angle (Lo).
Results: There was a significant increase in the flexibility within the experimental group (p<0.05). after the intervention. There was also a significant increase in the difference between the experimental group and the control group (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in PR during body alignment in the experimental group after intervention (p<0.05). An analysis of the differences between groups showed a significant decrease in the PR of the experimental group compared to the control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: These findings show that coordinative locomotor training using elastic bands would be effective for enhancing the flexibility and pelvic rotation of elementary school right-handed baseball players.

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3Comparison of Maximum Isometric Strength, Proprioceptive, Dynamic Balance, and Maximum Angle by Applying the Fascial Distortion Model to Chronic Ankle Instability Subjects

저자 : Jae Kwang Lee , Chan Myeong Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 224-230 (7 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the fascia distortion model (FDM), one of the fascia treatments, on unstable ankle subjects. This was done through the chronic ankle instability tool (CAIT) questionnaire on maximum isometric muscle strength, proprioception, dynamic balance, and maximum angle.
Methods: An experiment was conducted using the chronic ankle instability tool questionnaire on males and females in their twenties who suffered from ankle instability. Before the experiment, maximum isometric strength, proprioceptive, dynamic balance, and maximum angle were measured. The fascia distortion model was applied and then measurements were taken again to compare and analyze the changes. Analysis was carried out using the paired t-test.
Results: After applying the fascia distortion model, maximum isometric strength, proprioceptive, dynamic balance, and maximum angle significantly improved (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study found that the fascia distortion model method was effective in improving maximum isometric strength, proprio-ceptive, dynamic balance, and maximum angle. The results suggest that the fascia distortion model method is a new intervention that could be used for subjects with chronic ankle instability.

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4Effects of Gait Training Using a Robot for Balance in Total Hip Arthroplasty Patients after Bilateral Avascular Necrosis: A Case Study

저자 : So-yeong Kim , Byeong-geun Kim , Woon-su Cho , Chi-bok Park

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 231-237 (7 pages)

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Purpose: This study sought to investigate the effects of robot-assisted gait training on balance in total hip arthroplasty (THA) patients after bilateral avascular necrosis (AVN).
Methods: This case study in two patients utilized an 'A-B-A' single-subject experimental design that included five days of pre-interven-tion, followed by five days of intervention, and five days of post-intervention. The intervention involved the use of a standing inclined ro-bot (R-bot) for 15 minutes. The outcome measures were evaluated using the Functional Reaching Test (FRT), Time Up to Go (TUG), and the Modified One Leg Standing Test (OLST).
Results: Patient 1 showed improvement based on data gathered from baseline A to intervention period B, with results as follows: FRT improved from 27.7 cm to 41.28 cm, OLST LT from 14.03 seconds to 67.37 seconds, OLST RT from 2.94 seconds to 35.97 seconds, and TUG from 12.96 seconds to 7.82 seconds. Patient 2 also showed improvement from baseline A to intervention period B, with results as follows: FRT improved from 17.18 cm to 24.3 cm, OLST LT from 11.53 seconds to 52.01 seconds, OLST RT from 12.99 seconds to 62.19 seconds, and TUG from 27.31 seconds to 12.99 seconds.
Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, robotic rehabilitation during the early stages after surgery is effective for promoting bal-ance in patients who have undergone THA due to bilateral AVN.

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5Comparison of the Effects of Pilates and Aerobic Exercise on Pain, Menstruation Symptoms, and Balance in Women with Dysmenorrhea

저자 : Su-wan Lee , Won-seob Shin

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 238-244 (7 pages)

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Purpose: Menstruation is associated with menstrual symptoms like pain and balance problems which have an impact on the quality of life. Pilates increases pelvic stability and reduces menstrual pain by inducing abdominal muscle contraction. This study was done to eval-uate the effects of Pilates on menstrual pain, symptoms, balance, and quality of life when compared to aerobic exercise.
Methods: Thirty-nine women with menstrual pain were randomly divided into the Pilates group (n=13), aerobics group (n=13), and control group (n=13). The Pilates group performed lumbar-pelvic stabilization exercises, while the aerobic group ran on a treadmill. The control group did not undergo any intervention. The experimental groups exercised for four weeks (12 sessions) and did not exercise dur-ing menstruation. The Y-balance test was performed on the second day of menstruation to evaluate dynamic balance. The questionnaires administered immediately after menstruation were the visual analog scale (VAS), Korea Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the modified Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ). The paired t-test was used to compare the effect of exercise within the three groups and a one-way analysis of variance was used to compare between groups.
Results: VAS and MEDI-Q scores significantly decreased in the Pilates group after 4 weeks compared with those in the aerobic and con-trol groups. Moreover, ODI and Y-balance scores increased in the Pilates group compared with those in the aerobic and control groups (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The Pilates stabilization exercises are effective and help in improving menstrual pain, balance and other menstrual symp-toms assessed through ODI, and MEDI-Q, compared to aerobic exercises.

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6The Effect of Type of Communication by Physical Therapists on Patient Satisfaction and Revisit Intention

저자 : Eun-ji Kim , Gyeong Seop Sim , Dong-hoon Kim

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 245-251 (7 pages)

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Purpose: This study sought to identify the effect of various types of communication by physical therapists on patient satisfaction and re-visit intention.
Methods: A total of 212 patients who received physical therapy in Seoul and the Gyeonggi province were surveyed on patient satisfac-tion and revisit intentions depending on the types of communication by physical therapists. Frequency and correlation analyses were conducted to process the data using the SPSS 22.0 program, and the AMOS 18.0 statistical package was used for confirmatory factor analysis. A structural equation modeling analysis was also performed to verify the model and the hypothesis that was set up in the pres-ent paper.
Results: The survey showed that patient satisfaction correlates positively and significantly with patient-centric communication, physical factors, and spatial behavior. A significant negative correlation was also found between patient satisfaction and therapist-centered com-munication. Patient satisfaction positively correlated with revisit intentions.
Conclusion: These results showed that there was a positive correlation between the communication of the physical therapist and the satisfaction recognized by a patient. This implies that the patient satisfaction with a physical therapist increases as the communication skills of a physical therapist improve. These findings suggest that a physical therapist must adopt patient-centric communication styles, physical factors, and spatial behavior. This study was important as it generated basic data for the formation of a therapeutic relationship through efficient and promotional communication skills. It recognizes the importance of communication between a physical therapist and a patient as the indispensable factor for interaction.

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7Influence of External Scapular Stabilization on the Isometric Strength of Shoulder Flexor in the Sitting Position in Subjects with Scapular Winging

저자 : Tae-jin Jang , Byeong-hun Hwang , In-cheol Jeon

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 252-257 (6 pages)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the influence of external scapular stabilization on the isometric strength of shoulder flexor muscle in subjects with and without scapular winging and conditions with and without external scapular stabilization.
Methods: A total of 30 subjects with and without scapular winging were enrolled. Two groups were classified using clinical and diag-nostic tests to divide the groups with and without scapular winging (15 with scapular winging 15 without scapular winging). The iso-metric strength of the shoulder flexor was measured using a tensiometer. The isometric strength was evaluated in the sitting position with and without an external scapular stabilization. The external scapular stabilization was provided with the examiner's hand to fix scapular winging during shoulder flexion. The changing value was calculated to determine the isometric strength difference between shoulder flexion with and without the external scapular stabilization in each group. The changing value between isometric strength of shoulder flexor with and without scapular winging was compared using the independent t-test. Statistical significance was set at 0.05.
Results: In the group with scapular winging, the shoulder flexor isometric strength in the sitting position was greater with an external scapular stabilization than without an external scapular stabilization (p< 0.05). There was no significant difference in the shoulder flexor isometric strength in the subjects without scapular winging between conditions with or without an external scapular stabilization (p >0.05).
Conclusion: The external scapular stabilization in the individuals with scapular winging may increase shoulder flexor isometric strength in the sitting position.

KCI등재

8Quantitative Analysis of Myofascial Pain Syndrome in Trapezius Muscle Using Pressure Algometer and Surface Electromyography

저자 : Shin-hye Kim , Yu-min Ko , Ji-won Park , Jong-in Youn

발행기관 : 대한물리치료학회 간행물 : 대한물리치료학회지(JKPT) 33권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 258-263 (6 pages)

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Purpose: Myofascial syndrome is a chronic muscle pain caused by repetitive motions with stress-related muscle tension. This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the evidence for diagnosing myofascial pain syndrome in trapezius muscle using a pressure algometer and surface electromyography.
Methods: The experiments were performed using a total of 10 subjects, and the target locations were determined by means of a pres-sure algometer in the right upper trapezius muscle. The part with the lowest pain value as the trigger point and the part with the highest pain value as the non-pain trigger point were selected for measuring the locations. The median frequency and average frequency were measured in those locations with electromyography. To check the muscle fatigue, the upper trapezius muscle was moved up and down for 2 seconds at 5-second intervals in 30 seconds. The measured values were evaluated using the independent paired t-test and Mann- Whitney U-test.
Results: The median frequency at the non-trigger point (13.7) was significantly higher than that at the trigger point (7.3). Furthermore, the mean frequency (14.7) at the non-trigger point was significantly higher than that at the trigger point (6.3).
Conclusion: The results showed the correlations between the trigger points of the muscle pain and frequency analysis of surface electro-myography. Thus, this study may be possible to use as a diagnostic tool for myofascial pain syndrome.

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