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31권9호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 15
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31권11호(2021년 11월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Recent Advances in Synthetic, Industrial and Biological Applications of Violacein and Its Heterologous Production

저자 : Aqsa Ahmed , Abdullah Ahmad , Renhan Li , Waleed Al-ansi , Momal Fatima , Bilal Sajid Mushtaq , Samra Basharat , Ye Li , Zhonghu Bai

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1465-1480 (16 pages)

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Violacein, a purple pigment first isolated from a gram-negative coccobacillus Chromobacterium violaceum, has gained extensive research interest in recent years due to its huge potential in the pharmaceutic area and industry. In this review, we summarize the latest research advances concerning this pigment, which include (1) fundamental studies of its biosynthetic pathway, (2) production of violacein by native producers, apart from C. violaceum, (3) metabolic engineering for improved production in heterologous hosts such as Escherichia coli, Citrobacter freundii, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Yarrowia lipolytica, (4) biological/pharmaceutical and industrial properties, (5) and applications in synthetic biology. Due to the intrinsic properties of violacein and the intermediates during its biosynthesis, the prospective research has huge potential to move this pigment into real clinical and industrial applications.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Duplex dPCR System for Rapid Identification of Gram-Negative Pathogens in the Blood of Patients with Bloodstream Infection: A Culture-Independent Approach

저자 : Juyoun Shin , Sun Shin , Seung-hyun Jung , Chulmin Park , Sung-yeon Cho , Dong-gun Lee , Yeun-jun Chung

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1481-1489 (9 pages)

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Early and accurate detection of pathogens is important to improve clinical outcomes of bloodstream infections (BSI), especially in the case of drug-resistant pathogens. In this study, we aimed to develop a culture-independent digital PCR (dPCR) system for multiplex detection of major sepsis-causing gram-negative pathogens and antimicrobial resistance genes using plasma DNA from BSI patients. Our duplex dPCR system successfully detected nine targets (five bacteria-specific targets and four antimicrobial resistance genes) through five reactions within 3 hours. The minimum detection limit was 50 ag of bacterial DNA, suggesting that 1 CFU/ml of bacteria in the blood can be detected. To validate the clinical applicability, cell-free DNA samples from febrile patients were tested with our system and confirmed high consistency with conventional blood culture. This system can support early identification of some drug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, which can help improving treatment outcomes of BSI.

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3Changes in the Microbiome of Vaginal Fluid after Menopause in Korean Women

저자 : Sukyung Kim , Hoonhee Seo , Md Abdur Rahim , Saebim Lee , Yun-sook Kim , Ho-yeon Song

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1490-1500 (11 pages)

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Various microorganisms reside in the human vagina; the vaginal microbiome is closely linked to both vaginal and general health, and for this reason, microbiome studies of the vagina are an area of research. In this study, we analyzed the vaginal microbiome of women before and after menopause to further increase our understanding of the vaginal microbiome and its contribution to general health. We did a 16s rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis on the vaginal fluids of 11 premenopausal and 19 postmenopausal women in Korea. We confirmed that the taxonomic composition was significantly different between the two groups. In postmenopausal women, species richness was significantly decreased, but species diversity was significantly increased. In particular, among the taxonomic components corresponding to all taxon ranks of the vaginal microbiome, a reduction in Lactobacillus taxa after menopause contributed the most to the difference between the two groups. In addition, we confirmed through metabolic analysis that the lactic-acid concentration was also decreased in the vaginal fluid of women after menopause. Our findings on the correlation between menopause and the microbiome could help diagnose menopause and enhance the prevention and treatment diseases related to menopause.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Lagerstroemia ovalifolia Exerts Anti-Inflammatory Effects in Mice of LPS-Induced ALI via Downregulating of MAPK and NF-κB Activation

저자 : Jae-hong Min , Seong-man Kim , Ji-won Park , Nam Hoon Kwon , Soo Hyeon Goo , Ngatinem , Sri Ningsih , Jin-hyub Paik , Sangho Choi , Sei-ryang Oh , Sang-bae Han , Kyung-seop Ahn , Jae-won Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1501-1507 (7 pages)

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Lagerstroemia ovalifolia Teijsm. & Binn. (LO) (crape myrtle) has reportedly been used as traditional herbal medicine (THM) in Java, Indonesia. Our previous study revealed that the LO leaf extract (LOLE) exerted anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Based on this finding, the current study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of LOLE in a mouse model of LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The results showed that treatment with LPS enhanced the inflammatory cell influx into the lungs and increased the number of macrophages and the secretion of the inflammatory cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice. However, these effects were notably abrogated with LOLE pretreatment. Furthermore, the increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) expression in the lung tissues of mice with ALI was also reversed by LOLE. In addition, LOLE significantly suppressed the LPS-induced activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway and led to heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction in the lungs. Additionally, in vitro experiments showed that LOLE enhanced the expression of HO-1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. The aforementioned findings collectively indicate that LOLE exerts an ameliorative effect on inflammatory response in the airway of ALI mice.

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5Hsa_Circ_0001947/MiR-661/DOK7 Axis Restrains Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Development

저자 : Yuyan Bao , Yanjie Yu , Bing Hong , Zhenjian Lin , Guoli Qi , Jie Zhou , Kaiping Liu , Xiaomin Zhang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1508-1518 (11 pages)

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Hsa_circ_0001947 is associated with multiple cancers, but its function in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is ambiguous and needs further research. The targeting relationship among circ_0001947, miR-661, and downstream of tyrosine kinase 7 (DOK7) was predicted by database and further verified by dual-luciferase reporter assay, while their expressions in cancer tissues and cells were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). After transfection, cell biological behaviors and expressions of miRNAs, miR-661 and DOK7 were determined by cell function experiments and qRT-PCR, respectively. Circ_0001947 was low-expressed in NSCLC tissues and cells. Circ_0001947 knockdown intensified cell viability and proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at S phase, suppressed apoptosis and evidently enhanced miR-510, miR-587, miR-661 and miR-942 levels, while circ_0001947 overexpression did the opposite. MiR-661 was a target gene of circ_0001947 that participated in the regulation of circ_0001947 on cell biological behaviors. Furthermore, DOK7, the target gene of miR-661, partly participated in the regulation of miR-661 on cell viability. Hsa_circ_0001947 acts as a sponge of miR-661 to repress NSCLC development by elevating the expression of DOK7.

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6Direct and Indirect Reduction of Cr(VI) by Fermentative Fe(III)-Reducing Cellulomonas sp. Strain Cellu-2a

저자 : Anamika Khanal , Hor-gil Hur , James K. Fredrickson , Ji-hoon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1519-1525 (7 pages)

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Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is recognized to be carcinogenic and toxic and registered as a contaminant in many drinking water regulations. It occurs naturally and is also produced by industrial processes. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) has been a central topic for chromium remediation since Cr(III) is less toxic and less mobile. In this study, fermentative Fe(III)-reducing bacterial strains (Cellu-2a, Cellu-5a, and Cellu-5b) were isolated from a groundwater sample and were phylogenetically related to species of Cellulomonas by 16S rRNA gene analysis. One selected strain, Cellu-2a showed its capacity of reduction of both soluble iron (ferric citrate) and solid iron (hydrous ferric oxide, HFO), as well as aqueous Cr(VI). The strain Cellu-2a was able to reduce 15 μM Cr(VI) directly with glucose or sucrose as a sole carbon source under the anaerobic condition and indirectly with one of the substrates and HFO in the same incubations. The heterogeneous reduction of Cr(VI) by the surface-associated reduced iron from HFO by Cellu-2a likely assisted the Cr(VI) reduction. Fermentative features such as large-scale cell growth may impose advantages on the application of bacterial Cr(VI) reduction over anaerobic respiratory reduction.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7Endophytic Fungi of Salt-Tolerant Plants: Diversity and Ability to Promote Plant Growth

저자 : Irina Khalmuratova , Doo-ho Choi , Jong-guk Kim , In-seon Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1526-1532 (7 pages)

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Suaeda australis, Phragmites australis, Suaeda maritima, Suaeda glauca Bunge, and Limonium tetragonum in the Seocheon salt marsh on the west coast of the Korean Penincula were sampled in order to identify the endophytes inhabiting the roots. A total of 128 endophytic fungal isolates belonging to 31 different genera were identified using the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene. Fusarium, Paraconiothyrium and Alternaria were the most commonly isolated genera in the plant root samples. Various diversity indicators were used to assess the diversity of the isolated fungi. Pure cultures containing each of the 128 endophytic fungi, respectively, were tested for the plant growth-promoting abilities of the fungus on Waito-C rice germinals. The culture filtrate of the isolate Lt-1-3-3 significantly increased the growth of shoots compared to the shoots treated with the control. Lt-1-3-3 culture filtrate was analyzed and showed the presence of gibberellins (GA1 2.487 ng/ml, GA3 2.592 ng/ml, GA9 3.998, and GA24 6.191 ng/ml). The culture filtrate from the Lt-1-3-3 fungal isolate produced greater amounts of GA9 and GA24 than the wild-type Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus known to produce large amounts of gibberellins. By the molecular analysis, fungal isolate Lt-1-3-3 was identified as Gibberella intermedia, with 100% similarity.

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8Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis of n-Caproic Acid Production in Ruminococcaceae Bacterium CPB6 with Lactate Supplementation

저자 : Shaowen Lu , Hong Jin , Yi Wang , Yong Tao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1533-1544 (12 pages)

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n-Caproic acid (CA) is gaining increased attention due to its high value as a chemical feedstock. Ruminococcaceae bacterium strain CPB6 is an anaerobic mesophilic bacterium that is highly prolific in its ability to perform chain elongation of lactate to CA. However, little is known about the genome-wide transcriptional analysis of strain CPB6 for CA production triggered by the supplementation of exogenous lactate. In this study, cultivation of strain CPB6 was carried out in the absence and presence of lactate. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using RNA-seq, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the lactate-supplemented cells and control cells without lactate were analyzed. The results showed that lactate supplementation led to earlier CA p,roduction, and higher final CA titer and productivity. 295 genes were substrate and/or growth dependent, and these genes cover crucial functional categories. Specifically, 5 genes responsible for the reverse β-oxidation pathway, 11 genes encoding ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, 6 genes encoding substrate-binding protein (SBP), and 4 genes encoding phosphotransferase system (PTS) transporters were strikingly upregulated in response to the addition of lactate. These genes would be candidates for future studies aiming at understanding the regulatory mechanism of lactate conversion into CA, as well as for the improvement of CA production in strain CPB6. The findings presented herein reveal unique insights into the biomolecular effect of lactate on CA production at the transcriptional level.

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9Overexpression of Capsular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis Protein in Lactobacillus plantarum P1 to Enhance Capsular Polysaccharide Production for Di-n-butyl Phthalate Adsorption

저자 : Wei-bing Liu , Zhi-wei Lin , Ying Zhou , Bang-ce Ye

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1545-1551 (7 pages)

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Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) such as capsular polysaccharide (CPS) are important bioactive carbohydrate compounds and are often used as bioenrichment agents and bioabsorbers to remove environmental pollutants like di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP). Among the EPS-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have gained the most attention. As generally recognized as safe (GRAS) microorganisms, LAB can produce EPSs having many different structures and no health risks. However, EPS production by LAB does not meet the needs of large-scale application on an industrial scale. Here, the capA gene (encoding CPS biosynthesis protein) was overexpressed in Lactobacillus plantarum P1 to improve the production of EPSs and further enhance the DBP adsorption capability. Compared with P1, the CPS production in capA overexpressed strain was increased by 11.3 mg/l, and the EPS thickness was increased from 0.0786 ± 0.0224 μm in P1 to 0.1160 ± 0.0480 μm in P1-capA. These increases caused the DBP adsorption ratio of P1-capA to be doubled. Overall, the findings in this study provide a safe method for the adsorption and removal of DBP.

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10Effect of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli on Microbial Communities during Kimchi Fermentation

저자 : Woojung Lee , Hyo Ju Choi , Hyunwoo Zin , Eiseul Kim , Seung-Min Yang , Jinhee Hwang , Hyo-sun Kwak , Soon Han Kim , Hae-yeong Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 11호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1552-1558 (7 pages)

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The diverse microbial communities in kimchi are dependent on fermentation period and temperature. Here, we investigated the effect of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) during the fermentation of kimchi at two temperatures using high-throughput sequencing. There were no differences in pH between the control group, samples not inoculated with ETEC, and the ETEC group, samples inoculated with ETEC MFDS 1009477. The pH of the two groups, which were fermented at 10 and 25℃, decreased rapidly at the beginning of fermentation and then reached pH 3.96 and pH 3.62. In both groups, the genera Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella were predominant. Our result suggests that microbial communities during kimchi fermentation may be affected by the fermentation parameters, such as temperature and period, and not enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC).

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1Two Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Strains Representing Novel Serotypes and Investigation of Their Roles in Adhesion

저자 : Jing Wang , Hongbo Jiao , Xinfeng Zhang , Yuanqing Zhang , Na Sun , Ying Yang , Yi Wei , Bin Hu , Xi Guo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1191-1199 (9 pages)

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Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), which belongs to the attaching and effacing diarrheagenic E. coli strains, is a major causative agent of life-threatening diarrhea in infants in developing countries. Most EPEC isolates correspond to certain O serotypes; however, many strains are nontypeable. Two EPEC strains, EPEC001 and EPEC080, which could not be serotyped during routine detection, were isolated. In this study, we conducted an in-depth characterization of their putative O-antigen gene clusters (O-AGCs) and also performed constructed mutagenesis of the O-AGCs for functional analysis of O-antigen (OAg) synthesis. Sequence analysis revealed that the occurrence of O-AGCs in EPEC001 and E. coli O132 may be mediated by recombination between them, and EPEC080 and E. coli O2/O50 might acquire each O-AGC from uncommon ancestors. We also indicated that OAgknockout bacteria were highly adhesive in vitro, except for the EPEC001 wzy derivative, whose adherent capability was less than that of its wild-type strain, providing direct evidence that OAg plays a key role in EPEC pathogenesis. Together, we identified two EPEC O serotypes in silico and experimentally, and we also studied the adherent capabilities of their OAgs, which highlighted the fundamental and pathogenic role of OAg in EPEC.

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2Aloe-Emodin-Mediated Photodynamic Therapy Attenuates Sepsis-Associated Toxins in Selected Gram-Positive Bacteria In Vitro

저자 : Woodvine Otieno , Chengcheng Liu , Yanhong Ji

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1200-1209 (10 pages)

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Sepsis is an acute inflammatory response that leads to life-threatening complications if not quickly and adequately treated. Cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin are toxins produced by grampositive bacteria and are responsible for resistance to antimicrobial drugs, cause virulence and lead to sepsis. This work assessed the effects of aloe-emodin (AE) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) on sepsis-associated gram-positive bacterial toxins. Standard and antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumonia bacterial strains were cultured in the dark with varying AE concentrations and later irradiated with 72 J/cm-2 light. Colony and biofilm formation was determined. CCK-8, Griess reagent reaction, and ELISA assays were done on bacteriainfected RAW264.7 cells to determine the cell viability, NO, and IL-1β and IL-6 pro-inflammatory cytokines responses, respectively. Hemolysis and western blot assays were done to determine the effect of treatment on hemolysis activity and sepsis-associated toxins expressions. AE-mediated PDT reduced bacterial survival in a dose-dependent manner with 32 μg/ml of AE almost eliminating their survival. Cell proliferation, NO, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokines production were also significantly downregulated. Further, the hemolytic activities and expressions of cytolysin, hemolysin, and pneumolysin were significantly reduced following AE-mediated PDT. In conclusion, combined use of AE and light (435 ± 10 nm) inactivates MRSA, S. aureus (ATCC 29213), S. pneumoniae (ATCC 49619), MDR-S. pneumoniae, E. faecalis (ATCC 29212), and VRE (ATCC 51299) in an AE-dose dependent manner. AE and light are also effective in reducing biofilm formations, suppressing proinflammatory cytokines, hemolytic activities, and inhibiting the expressions of toxins that cause sepsis.

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3Ramlibacter terrae sp. nov. and Ramlibacter montanisoli sp. nov., Isolated from Soil

저자 : Shehzad Abid Khan , Hyung Min Kim , Ju Hye Baek , Hye Su Jung , Che Ok Jeon

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1210-1217 (8 pages)

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Two gram-negative, catalase-positive, strictly aerobic, and white colony-forming bacteria, strains H242T and B156T, were isolated from soil in South Korea. Cells of strain H242T were oxidase-positive and non-motile short rods, while those of strain B156T were oxidase-negative and long non-motile rods. Ubiquinone-8 was identified as the sole isoprenoid quinone in both strains. C16:0, cyclo-C17:0, and summed feature 3 (C16:1 ω7c and/or C16:1 ω6c) and phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, and diphosphatidylglycerol were identified in both strains as the major cellular fatty acids and polar lipids, respectively. The DNA G+C contents of strains H242T and B156T were 69.4 mol% and 69.3 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and 92 concatenated core gene sequences revealed that strains H242T and B156T formed distinct phylogenic lineages from other Ramlibacter type strains. The DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) value between strains H242T and B156T was 24.6%. Strains H242T and B156T were most closely related to Ramlibacter ginsenosidimutans BXN5-27T and Ramlibacter monticola G-3-2T with 98.4% and 98.6% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, respectively. Digital DDH values between strain H242T and R. ginsenosidimutans and between strain B156T and R. monticola were 23.5% and 26.1%, respectively. Phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, and molecular analyses indicated that strains H242T and B156T represent two novel species of the genus Ramlibacter, for which the names Ramlibacter terrae sp. nov. and Ramlibacter montanisoli sp. nov., respectively, are proposed. The type strains of R. terrae and R. montanisoli are H242T (=KACC 21667 T =JCM 33922T) and B156T (=KACC 21665 T =JCM 33920T), respectively.

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4Isolation and Characterization of Cold- Adapted PGPB and Their Effect on Plant Growth Promotion

저자 : Mingyuan Li , Jilian Wang , Tuo Yao , Zhenlong Wang , Huirong Zhang , Changning Li

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1218-1230 (13 pages)

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Cold-adapted plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) with multiple functions are an important resource for microbial fertilizers with low-temperature application. In this study, culturable coldadapted PGPB strains with nitrogen fixation and phosphorus solubilization abilities were isolated. They were screened from root and rhizosphere of four dominant grass species in nondegraded alpine grasslands of the Qilian Mountains, China. Their other growth-promoting characteristics, including secretion of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), production of siderophores and ACC deaminase, and antifungal activity, were further studied by qualitative and quantitative methods. In addition, whether the PGPB strains could still exert plant growth-promoting activity at 4°C was verified. The results showed that 67 isolates could maintain one or more growth-promoting traits at 4°C, and these isolates were defined as cold-adapted PGPB. They were divided into 8 genera by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, of which Pseudomonas (64.2%) and Serratia (13.4%) were the common dominant genera, and a few specific genera varied among the plant species. A test-tube culture showed that inoculation of Elymus nutans seedlings with cold-adapted PGPB possessing different functional characteristics had a significant growth-promoting effect under controlled low-temperature conditions, including the development of the roots and aboveground parts. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that different growth-promoting characteristics made different contributions to the development of the roots and aboveground parts. These cold-adapted PGPB can be used as excellent strain resources suitable for the near-natural restoration of degraded alpine grasslands or agriculture stock production in cold areas.

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5Profiles of Bacillus spp. Isolated from the Rhizosphere of Suaeda glauca and Their Potential to Promote Plant Growth and Suppress Fungal Phytopathogens

저자 : Ping Lu , Ke Jiang , Ya-qiao Hao , Wan-ying Chu , Yu-dong Xu , Jia-yao Yang , Jia-le Chen , Guo-hong Zeng , Zhou-hang Gu , Hong-xin Zhao

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1231-1240 (10 pages)

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Members of the genus Bacillus are known to play an important role in promoting plant growth and protecting plants against phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, 21 isolates of Bacillus spp. were obtained from the root micro-ecosystem of Suaeda glauca. Analysis of the 16S rRNA genes indicated that the isolates belong to the species Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus aryabhattai and Brevibacterium frigoritolerans. One of the interesting findings of this study is that the four strains B1, B5, B16 and B21 are dominant in rhizosphere soil. Based on gyrA, gyrB, and rpoB gene analyses, B1, B5, and B21 were identified as B. amyloliquefaciens and B16 was identified as B. velezensis. Estimation of antifungal activity showed that the isolate B1 had a significant inhibitory effect on Fusarium verticillioides, B5 and B16 on Colletotrichum capsici (syd.) Butl, and B21 on Rhizoctonia cerealis van der Hoeven. The four strains grew well in medium with 1-10% NaCl, a pH value of 5-8, and promoted the growth of Arabidopsis thaliana. Our results indicate that these strains may be promising agents for the biocontrol and promotion of plant growth and further study of the relevant bacteria will provide a useful reference for the development of microbial resources.

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6Suppression of Fusarium Wilt Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae and Growth Promotion on Lettuce Using Bacterial Isolates

저자 : Dil Raj Yadav , Mahesh Adhikari , Sang Woo Kim , Hyun Seung Kim , Youn Su Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1241-1255 (15 pages)

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This study was carried out to explore a non-chemical strategy for enhancing productivity by employing some antagonistic rhizobacteria. One hundred eighteen bacterial isolates were obtained from the rhizospheric zone of various crop fields of Gangwon-do, Korea, and screened for antifungal activity against Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae) in lettuce crop under in vitro and in vivo conditions. In broth-based dual culture assay, fourteen bacterial isolates showed significant inhibition of mycelial growth of F. oxysporium f. sp. lactucae. All of the antagonistic isolates were further characterized for the antagonistic traits under in vitro conditions. The isolates were identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and confirmed at their species level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Arthrobacter sulfonivorans, Bacillus siamensis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas proteolytica, four Paenibacillus peoriae strains, and Bacillus subtilis were identified from the biochemical characterization and 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. The isolates EN21 and EN23 showed significant decrease in disease severity on lettuce compared to infected control and other bacterial treatments under greenhouse conditions. Two bacterial isolates, EN4 and EN21, were evaluated to assess their disease reduction and growth promotion in lettuce in field conditions. The consortium of EN4 and EN21 showed significant enhancement of growth on lettuce by suppressing disease caused by F. oxysporum f. sp. lactucae respectively. This study clearly indicates that the promising isolates, EN4 (P. proteolytica) and EN21 (Bacillus siamensis), can be commercialized and used as biofertilizer and/or biopesticide for sustainable crop production.

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7Freeze-Dried Powder of Rubus coreanus Miquel Ameliorates Isoproterenol-Induced Oxidative Stress and Tissue Damage in Rats

저자 : Jin Tae Kim , Shuai Qiu , Yimeng Zhou , Ji Hyun Moon , Seung Beom Lee , Ho Jin Park , Hong Jin Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1256-1261 (6 pages)

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Rubus coreanus Miquel (bokbunja), Korean black raspberry, is known to possess various phytochemicals that exert antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, most studies on Rubus coreanus Miquel have been performed with the solvent extracts and/or a single component to demonstrate the efficacy, while studies evaluating the effect of the whole fructus of Rubus coreanus Miquel are limited. In this study, therefore, we employed the isoproterenol (IPN)- induced myocardial infarction model and investigated the effect of freeze-dried powder of Rubus coreanus Miquel (RCP) on oxidative stress and prevention of organ damage. Oral administration of RCP reduced the level of toxicity markers, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) without affecting body weight and diet intake. The oxidative stress marker glutathione (GSH) increased about 45% and malonaldehyde (MDA) decreased about 27% compared to the IPN group with RCP-H (3%) administration. By histological analysis, IPN induced significant myocardial damage in the heart and vascular injury in the liver, and RCP administration ameliorated the damages in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, RCP activated the antioxidant system leading to prevention of damage to organs by IPN in rats, making it possible to expect beneficial efficacies by consuming the whole fructus of Rubus coreanus Miquel.

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8Bioconversion of Untreated Corn Hull into L-Malic Acid by Trifunctional Xylanolytic Enzyme from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6 and Acetobacter tropicalis H-1

저자 : Thi Bich Huong Duong , Prattana Ketbot , Paripok Phitsuwan , Rattiya Waeonukul , Chakrit Tachaapaikoon , Akihiko Kosugi , Khanok Ratanakhanokchai , Patthra Pason

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1262-1271 (10 pages)

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L-Malic acid (L-MA) is widely used in food and non-food products. However, few microorganisms have been able to efficiently produce L-MA from xylose derived from lignocellulosic biomass (LB). The objective of this work is to convert LB into L-MA with the concept of a bioeconomy and environmentally friendly process. The unique trifunctional xylanolytic enzyme, PcAxy43A from Paenibacillus curdlanolyticus B-6, effectively hydrolyzed xylan in untreated LB, especially corn hull to xylose, in one step. Furthermore, the newly isolated, Acetobacter tropicalis strain H1 was able to convert high concentrations of xylose derived from corn hull into L-MA as the main product, which can be easily purified. The strain H1 successfully produced a high L-MA titer of 77.09 g/l, with a yield of 0.77 g/g and a productivity of 0.64 g/l/h from the xylose derived from corn hull. The process presented in this research is an efficient, low-cost and environmentally friendly biological process for the green production of L-MA from LB.

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9Aqueous Extract of Lysimachia christinae Hance Prevents Cholesterol Gallstone in Mice by Affecting the Intestinal Microflora

저자 : Shijia Liu , Quji Luorong , Kaizhi Hu , Weiguo Cao , Wei Tao , Handeng Liu , Dan Zhang

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1272-1280 (9 pages)

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With changes in human dietary patterns, the proportion of high-fat and high-cholesterol foods in the daily diet has increased. As a result, the incidence rate of cholelithiasis is increasing rapidly. Many studies have reported on the crucial role that the intestinal microflora plays in the progression of gallstones. Although the whole herb of Lysimachia christinae, a traditional Chinese medicine, has long been extensively used as a remedy for cholelithiasis in China, its effects on the intestinal microflora remain unknown. Hence, in this study, we investigated the ability of the aqueous extract of L. christinae (LAE) to prevent cholesterol gallstones (CGSs) in model animals by affecting the intestinal microflora. The effects of LAE on body weight, serum lipid profile, visceral organ indexes, and histomorphology were studied in male C57BL/6J mice, which were induced by a lithogenic diet. After the 8-week study, CGSs formation was greatly reduced after LAE treatment. LAE also reduced body weight gain and hyperlipidemia and restored the histomorphological changes. Moreover, the intestinal microflora exhibited significant variation. In the model group fed the lithogenic diet, the abundances of the genera unclassified Porphyromonadaceae, Lactobacillus and Alloprevotella decreased, but in contrast, Akkermansia dramatically increased compared with the control check group, which was fed a normal diet; the administration of LAE reversed these changes. These results imply that L. christinae can be considered an efficient therapy for eliminating CGSs induced by a high-fat and high-cholesterol diet, which may be achieved by influencing the intestinal microflora.

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10The Effect of Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 on Postmenopausal Symptoms in Ovariectomized Rats

저자 : Sol Lee , Dong Hoon Jung , Miri Park , Seung-woo Yeon , Sang-hyuk Jung , Sung-il Yun , Han-oh Park , Wonbeak Yoo

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 31권 9호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1281-1287 (7 pages)

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Clinical and preclinical studies have reported that Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17, a probiotic bacterial strain isolated from human breast milk, reduces body weight and white adipose tissue volume. In order to further explore the actions of L. gasseri BNR17, we investigated the anti-menopausal effects of L. gasseri BNR17 in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. The serum alanine aminotransferase levels of the rats in the OVX-BNR17 group were lower than those of the rats in the OVX-vehicle only (OVX-Veh) group. Upon administration of L. gasseri BNR17 after ovariectomy, calcitonin and Serotonin 2A levels increased significantly, whereas serum osteocalcin levels showed a decreasing tendency. Compared to the rats in the OVX-Veh group, those in the OVX-BNR17 group showed lower urine deoxypyridinoline levels, lower pain sensitivity, and improved vaginal cornification. Furthermore, L. gasseri BNR17 administration increased bone mineral density in the rats with OVX-induced femoral bone loss. These results suggest that L. gasseri BNR17 administration could alleviate menopausal symptoms, indicating that this bacterium could be a good functional probiotic for managing the health of older women.

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