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KCI등재

1미세플라스틱의 저감 및 관리를 위한 입법적 연구

저자 : 유다원 ( Dawon Yu ) , 방제성 ( Jeseong Bang ) , 이지영 ( Jiyoung Yi ) , 한주예 ( Juye Han ) , 윤혜선 ( Hye-sun Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국환경법학회 간행물 : 환경법연구 44권 1호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 283-336 (54 pages)

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최근 들어 미세플라스틱 오염이 환경 및 인체에 끼치는 영향이 여러 연구 결과를 통해 가시화되면서, 국가적 대응책을 요구하는 우리 국민의 목소리가 날로 높아지고 있다. 이와 더불어 EU를 중심으로 해외 주요 국가들이 미세플라스틱을 국제환경정치의 현안에 놓고 규제를 강화하려는 기조를 보이는 등 전 세계적으로 미세플라스틱 오염을 해결하기 위한 입법적 노력이 추진되고 있다. 특히 EU는 미세플라스틱에 관한 특별법 제정을 시도하고 있으며, 2022년 3월에는 UN이 미세플라스틱을 포함한 플라스틱에 관한 국제협약 계획을 발표하였다. 이러한 동향을 살피건대, 미세플라스틱을 규제하기 위한 국내외적 대응의 필요성과 국제협력이 더욱 강조될 것으로 보인다. 이와 같은 분위기에도 불구하고 우리나라의 현행 법체계는 미세플라스틱 오염 대처에 실효적이지 못하다. 무엇보다 「화학제품안전법」이나 「화장품법」 등 미세플라스틱이 문제된다고 알려진 일부 영역에서 고시를 통해 미세플라스틱을 산발적으로 규제하고 있어서 규제의 통일성이나 일관성이 부족하고, 1차 미세플라스틱 중에서도 극히 일부만이 규율되어 규제 범위가 협소하다. 또한, 법제화의 방식이 지나치게 행위규제 중심적이기 때문에 규제의 실효성도 의심된다. 본고에서는 미세플라스틱을 통합적이고 실효적으로 규제할 수 있는 입법적 방안을 마련하여 이러한 문제점을 해결하고자 한다. 이에 본고는 먼저 미세플라스틱의 개념과 유형, 배출 현황 및 환경·인체에의 영향을 개관하여 미세플라스틱 오염 문제의 심각성을 검토하고, 미세플라스틱 문제에 대응하기 위한 국내의 법제적 접근 방안을 살펴 그 의의와 한계를 조명하였다. 나아가 유럽연합의 입법례와 정책을 중심으로 미세플라스틱 문제에 관한 해외의 법적 조치를 검토하고 법제도적 시사점을 도출하였다. 마지막으로, 위의 연구내용을 바탕으로 미세플라스틱 저감 및 관리에 관한 법률안을 제안하였다.


Recently, as negative influences of microplastic pollution have been scientifically verified, the public have called for the government to arrange countermeasures. Furthermore, legislative efforts to mitigate microplastic pollution are being observed around the world with foreign countries, especially the EU membership, trying to place it on pending issues of international environmental politics and to tighten regulations. In particular, the EU intends to arrange legislation focused solely on microplastics, and the UN, in March 2022, announced its plan for an international agreement on plastic and microplastics. Taking these into consideration, international cooperation to respond to microplastic pollution is expected to be further emphasized. Despite this encouraging atmosphere, Korea's current legal system is not effective in dealing with microplastic pollution. Above all, the relevant regulations lack consistency and unity because they are sporadically legislated in a few areas where microplastics are known to be problematic. At the same time, their effectiveness is also suspected because only a few of the primary microplastics are regulated and the method of legislation is too much centered to regulation on conduct. This paper aims to solve this crux of our current legal system and come up with legislative measures to effectively regulate microplastics in an integrated and comprehensive manner. Therefore, this paper first outlines the seriousness of microplastics pollution by reviewing the concept and type of microplastics, current status of its emission, and its impact on the environment and human body, and then the examination on domestic legislative approaches follows. Furthermore, focusing on legislation and policies of the European Union, overseas legal measures to cope with the microplastic pollution are reviewed, and institutional implications are drawn from them. Finally, based on the studies above, a bill for reduction and management of microplastics is proposed.

KCI등재

2국내 재활용 처리 시설 발생 부산물 중 미세플라스틱 분석 연구

저자 : 조수진 ( Soojin Cho ) , 최자형 ( Jahyung Choi ) , 강영렬 ( Youngryeol Kang ) , 전태완 ( Taewan Jeon ) , 엄남일 ( Namil Um )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 239-255 (17 pages)

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Microplastics (MPs) are being widely detected in various ecosystems, including aquatic and terrestrial environments, which highlights the importance of MP management. MPs are released into the marine environment in various ways. Therefore, our study sought to characterize MPs discharged from different waste treatment facilities. This study focused on by-products of recycling facilities for synthetic polymer, synthetic fiber, rubber, and tire waste. The MPs in the samples were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed using TED-GC-MS and FTIR. The TED-GC-MS analysis results were as follows: Waste of Synthetic Polymer 2.02 μg/g (PP 1.46 μg/g, PE 0.56 μg/g), Waste of Synthetic Fiber 66.75 μg/g (PET 66.75 μg/g), Waste of Rubber N.D., Waste of Tyre 18.71 μg/g (PP 17.79 μg/g, PS 0.74 μg/g). The FTIR analysis results were divided into three sections: 0.02-0.1 mm (Section 1), 0.1-0.5 mm (Section 2), and 0.5-5.0 mm (Section 3). The number of microplastics for each sample was analyzed for WSP 24.01 ea/g (Section 1: 19.11 ea/kg, Section 2: 3.92 ea/ kg, Section 3: 0.98 ea/kg), WSF 501.44 ea/g, (Section 1: 302.40 ea/kg, Section 2: 187.02 ea/kg, Section 3: 12.02 ea/kg), WRB 10,510.01 ea/g (Section 1: 6,320.58 ea/kg, Section 2: 3,661.20 ea/kg, Section 3: 528.23 ea/kg), WTY 311.52 ea/ g (Section 1: 205.53 ea/kg, Section 2: 104.61 ea/kg, Section 3: 1.38 ea/kg). Therefore, a managements plan for waste treatment facilities must be prepared to reduce microplastics in Korea. Our findings provide a basis for the creation of such a plan in the future.

KCI등재

3UV 광풍화에 의한 미세플라스틱 기원 유기물 용출과 형광 특성: 자연유래 유기성 입자와의 비교

저자 : 최나은 ( Na Eun Choi ) , 이윤경 ( Yun Kyung Lee ) , 허진 ( Jin Hur )

발행기관 : 한국물환경학회 간행물 : 한국물환경학회지 38권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 72-81 (10 pages)

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Numerous studies have investigated the occurrence and fate of microplastics in the environment; however, only limited effort has been devoted to exploring the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from microplastics. In microplastic (MP)-contaminated environment, MPs are typically mixed with naturally-occurring particles, which interferes with their detection in the environment. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish between the DOM leached from MPs and those leached from natural particles and also to characterize their properties. This study investigated DOM leaching behavior from MPs (polystyrene: PS, polyvinylchloride: PVC) and natural particulates (forest soil: FS, litter leaves: LL) under light, which is considered one of the main weathering processes that affect MPs in the environment. The leached DOM concentrations and fluorescence characteristics were compared under dark versus light conditions. Regardless of the origins, UV light promoted DOM release from all the particulates. More DOM was released from natural particles than from MPs under both conditions. However, the effect of promoting DOM release by UV was more pronounced for MPs than for natural particles. It was observed from fluorescence spectra that the intensity of the humic-like region was substantially reduced when MP-derived DOM was exposed to UV light, whereas the change of intensity was very little for natural particles. Under light conditions, the ratio of protein-like to humic-like fluorescence of MP-derived DOM was higher than that of DOM from natural particles. This study implies that a substantial amount of DOM could be leached from MPs even in MP-polluted environment under UV irradiation. Protein/humic fluorescence ratio could be utilized as a fast probing indicator to separate the two sources of Numerous studies have investigated the occurrence and fate of microplastics in the environment; however, only limited effort has been devoted to exploring the characteristics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) leached from microplastics. In microplastic (MP)-contaminated environment, MPs are typically mixed with naturally-occurring particles, which interferes with their detection in the environment. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish between the DOM leached from MPs and those leached from natural particles and also to characterize their properties. This study investigated DOM leaching behavior from MPs (polystyrene: PS, polyvinylchloride: PVC) and natural particulates (forest soil: FS, litter leaves: LL) under light, which is considered one of the main weathering processes that affect MPs in the environment. The leached DOM concentrations and fluorescence characteristics were compared under dark versus light conditions. Regardless of the origins, UV light promoted DOM release from all the particulates. More DOM was released from natural particles than from MPs under both conditions. However, the effect of promoting DOM release by UV was more pronounced for MPs than for natural particles. It was observed from fluorescence spectra that the intensity of the humic-like region was substantially reduced when MP-derived DOM was exposed to UV light, whereas the change of intensity was very little for natural particles. Under light conditions, the ratio of protein-like to humic-like fluorescence of MP-derived DOM was higher than that of DOM from natural particles. This study implies that a substantial amount of DOM could be leached from MPs even in MP-polluted environment under UV irradiation. Protein/humic fluorescence ratio could be utilized as a fast probing indicator to separate the two sources of particles under light.particles under light.

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본 연구는 플라스틱 소재 합성섬유가 야기하는 미세플라스틱 배출을 저감하는 친환경적 소재 의류에 대한 소비자들의 수용성과 지불의사를 조건부가치측정법을 적용하여 측정하였다. 2021년 2월 초에 전국 16개 시·도 거주자들의 지역별, 연령 그리고 성별에 비례한 1,052명을 대상으로 웹기반-설문조사를 실시하였다. 표본의 75% 이상이 합성섬유 의류 대신에 미세플라스틱 배출저감 의류를 구매할 의도가 있었고, 이들 중 80% 이상이 추가로 가격을 지불할 의사가 있다고 응답하였다. 친환경 소재 의류 구매의도 여부를 추정하는 프로빗모형을 표본선택 함수로 보고, 응답자들의 추가 지불의사 여부를 일종의 Heckman 표본선택모형의 변형인 이변량 프로빗모형으로 추정하였다. 응답자들에게 제시된 추가 가격에 대해서는 민감하게 반응하는 반면에, 미세플라스틱 배출 저감 수준에 상관없이 친환경적 소재의류에 대한 수용성과 진술선호가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 순환경제 시대의 소비자들의 미세플라스틱 배출저감 의류에 대한 지불의사는 의류 1벌 당 41,000원에서 51,000원의 범위로 측정되어, 합성섬유 제품에 비해 40-50% 비싸게 지불할 의사가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 또한 미세플라스틱 배출저감 정도가 50%에서 80%로 높아짐에 따라 지불의사 표본평균이 41,000원~50,500원에서 42,000원~51,700원의 범위로 통계적으로 유의하게 높아지는 것으로 나타났다.


This study is to investigate consumers' acceptance and their willingness to pay for clothes made of materials with low microplastic emissions as an alternative to synthetic fibers made of plastics by applying the contingent valuation method. A nationwide web-based survey was conducted for 1,052 respondents proportional to region, age, and gender during February 2021. More than 75% of the sample expressed intentions to purchase microplastic emission-reducing clothing instead of synthetic fiber clothing, and more than 80% of them have stated their willingness to pay for additional prices. A variation of Heckman's sample selection model was adopted to estimate factors affecting respondents’ intentions to pay for additional prices, in which the probit model of intentions to purchase the clothing with alternative materials was used as a sample selection equation. While respondents were sensitive to the amounts of price increases suggested in the CV scenario, they expressed high acceptance and preferences for eco-friendly materials regardless of the microplastic emission-reducing levels. Consumers in the circular economy were willing to pay for the range of 41,000 to 51,000 won for a pair of clothing made with microplastic emission-reducing materials. In addition, as the microplastic emission-reducing rate has increased from 50% to 80%, the willingness to pay estimates were also significantly increased, ranging from 41,000~50,500 to 42,000~51,700 won.

KCI등재

5해양 미세플라스틱 모니터링을 위한 원격탐사 적용 가능성 검토

저자 : 박수현 ( Suhyeon Park ) , 김창민 ( Changmin Kim ) , 정성우 ( Seongwoo Jeong ) , 장성간 ( Seonggan Jang ) , 김수빈 ( Subeen Kim ) , 하태정 ( Taejung Ha ) , 한경수 ( Kyung-soo Han ) , 양민준 ( Minjune Yang )

발행기관 : 대한원격탐사학회 간행물 : 대한원격탐사학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 835-850 (16 pages)

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전 세계적으로 모든 해양 환경에서 발견되는 미세플라스틱이 환경 문제로 대두되면서 해양 미세플라스틱을 모니터링 하기 위한 연구가 국내외적으로 활발히 수행되고 있다. 최근 국외에서는 대규모의 실시간 관측이 가능한 원격탐사 기술을 해양 플라스틱 모니터링에 적용하기 위한 활발한 연구가 진행되고 있다. 그러나 국내에서 해양 미세플라스틱 원격탐사 관련 연구는 매우 미비한 실정이며 중대형 해양 플라스틱 원격탐사 연구만 일부 수행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 국내와 국외에서 수행된 해양 플라스틱 원격탐사와 관련된 대표적인 연구사례를 통해 국내외 연구 동향을 파악하고, 해양 미세플라스틱 모니터링 시 원격탐사 기술의 적용 가능성에 대해 고찰하여 앞으로 국내에서의 연구 방향성에 대해 제안하고자 한다.


Microplastics have arisen as a worldwide environmental concern, becoming ubiquitous in all marine compartments, and various researches on monitoring marine microplastics are being actively conducted worldwide. Recently, application of a remote detection technology that enables large-scale real-time observation to marine plastic monitoring has been conducted overseas. However, in South Korea, there is little information linking remote detection to marine microplastics and some field studies have demonstrated remote detection of medium- and large-sized marine plastics. This study introduces research cases with remote detection of marine plastics in South Korea and overseas, investigates potential feasibility of using the remote detection technology to marine microplastic monitoring, and suggests some future works to monitor marine microplastics with the remote detection.

KCI등재

6미세플라스틱 표면에 형성된 담수 유래 생물막 군집 고찰

저자 : 최우단 ( Woodan Choi ) , 히엔티뉴옌 ( Hien Thi Nguyen ) , 김은주 ( Eun-ju Kim ) , 조경진 ( Kyungjin Cho )

발행기관 : 대한상하수도학회 간행물 : 상하수도학회지 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2022 페이지 : pp. 97-106 (10 pages)

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Recently microplastic (MP) biofilm is being attracted as an important environmental issue because it can act as a pollutant carrier in aqueous system. Therefore, this study investigated the MP biofilm communities originated from freshwater. The results showed the bacterial community structure of MP biofilm was distinctively different from the freshwater regardless of biofilm-forming condition and MP type. For MP biofilm communities exposed to raw freshwater, Solimonas variicoloris-like microbe, Frigidibacter albus-like microbe, Nitrospirillum amazonense-like microbe, and Pseudochroococcus couteii-like microbe became abundant, while Acinetobacter johnsonii, Macellibacteroides fermentans, and Sedimentibacter acidaminivorans-like microbe were found as major bacteria for MP biofilm communities exposed to organic rich condition. The results of this study suggest that the unique freshwater biofilm community could be formed on the MP surface.

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7수환경 내 미세플라스틱 검출분석법 최신 동향 연구

저자 : 오수림 ( Soorim Oh ) , 이도균 ( Do Gyun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국화학공학회 간행물 : 화학공학 59권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 316-325 (10 pages)

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인간의 편의를 위해 생산된 플라스틱은 500년 이상 썩지 않고 생태계로 유입되어 육상 및 수생태계를 위협하고 있다. 2025년까지 2억 5천만 톤의 플라스틱이 바다로 유입될 것으로 예상되고, 2015년부터 미세플라스틱 관련 연구가 기하급수적으로 급증하고 있지만, 전 세계적으로 미세플라스틱 정의 및 분석 방법에 대한 표준화가 이뤄지지 않고 있다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 미세플라스틱 분석방법 표준화를 위해 우선적으로 수환경에서의 미세플라스틱 분석방법의 최신 연구동향을 조사하여 프로세스 순으로 제시하였으며, 이에 대한 분석방향을 제시하고자 하였다. 추후 미세플라스틱 표준화를 위한 기초자료로써 활용 가능하며, 표준화 이후 더욱 효과적인 미세플라스틱 관리 정책이 마련될 것으로 기대한다.


Human-made plastics takes more than 500 years to break down and have been introduced into the ecosystem, threatening terrestrial and aquatic organisms. By 2025, there will be more than 250 million tons of plastics in the ocean. Although studies regarding microplastics have been exponentially increasing since 2015, international standards for defining the size classification for microplastics, as well as methods for qualitative/quantitative analysis have not been concluded yet. Thus, in this study, the latest trends in analytical methodologies have been reviewed. Further, the study suggests directions for future research approaches can be taken to analyze aquatic microplastics, which could be as useful information for establishing effective microplastic management policy via standardization in microplastic analysis.

KCI등재

8해양 (미세)플라스틱이 기후인자에 미치는 영향에 관한 고찰

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim ) , 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 38권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 377-386 (10 pages)

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Although the effects of marine microplastics on living organisms and their roles as carriers of organic pollutants to living organisms and the marine environment have already been studied, this paper focuses on the effects of marine microplastics on climate that haven’t been studied yet. Microplastics in the oceans absorb more solar radiation and alter the biophysical properties of the surface microlayer, resulting in an increase in the sea surface temperature (SST). An increase in the SST and the concentration of microplastics that cover the surface layer, interrupts the physical interaction between seawater and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Consequently, the solubility of carbon dioxide in seawater is lowered, and thereby increases the retention time of CO2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, plastics that are in the ocean can be decomposed by solar radiation, such as UV-B rays and directly release greenhouse gases such as methane, ethylene, ethane, and propylene, and thereby accelerates the greenhouse effect. Therefore, considering the marine microplastics as a new factor in the ocean- atmosphere coupled model, the extent of the impact of microplastics on weather should be quantitatively reviewed.

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9미세플라스틱 분리를 위한 미세기포 부상공정에서 개체군수지를 이용한 초기 부착 계수 및 부상특성의 평가

저자 : 정흥조 ( Heung Joe Jung ) , 이재욱 ( Jae Wook Lee ) , 곽동희 ( Dong Heui Kwak )

발행기관 : 한국물환경학회 간행물 : 한국물환경학회지 37권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 10-19 (10 pages)

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In the flotation process to remove microplastic (MP) particles, the attachment and separation efficiency is determined by the basic physicochemical characteristics of MP particles as well as bubbles. To evaluate the flotation characteristics of MP particles, we carried out a series of simulations using the population balance (PB) model. The initial attachment coefficient (αo) of MP particles was in the range of 0.2-0.275, and it was slightly lower than that of typical particles, such as clay, debris and algae particles, which exist in water bodies, αo, 0.3-0.4. The relative bubble number (RBN) attached to the surface of the typical number of bubbles was 0.30 and 0.32 for MP 30 μm and MP 58 μ m, respectively. In comparison, the RBN of larger MP particles (138 μm) was as high as 0.53. Furthermore, smaller microbubbles were required to separate properly or additional treatment needed to be applied to enhance collision and attachment efficiency since the flotation of MP particles was found to be difficult to treat as high-rate. As a result of comparing the removal rate (experimental value) of MP particles obtained from the batch-type flotation apparatus and the flotation removal rate (predicted value) of MP obtained through the PB model, the final particles by the particle size of MP overall except for the initial separation time area. With respect to the removal efficiency, the observed and predicted values were similar, and it was confirmed that the floating separation characteristics and evaluation of the MP particles through the PB model could be possible.

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10생물에 의한 미세플라스틱의 섭취(ingestion), 체내 이동(translocation), 배설(egestion)에 관한 고찰 -생물은 미세플라스틱을 섭취 후 배설하는가?-

저자 : 김용진 ( Yong-jin Kim ) , 정승미 ( Seung-mi Jeong ) , 이혜성 ( Hye-sung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회(구 한국폐기물학회) 간행물 : 한국폐기물자원순환학회지 37권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 219-234 (16 pages)

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In this review, data on the ingestion, translocation and egestion of microplastics by different organisms are analysed and summarized to predict the behaviour of microplastics in human body. Microplastics translocation from the gastrointestinal tract to the circulatory system or tissue are associated with the species and groups of organisms and the size of microplastics. Ingested microplastics are translocated to thoracic lymph nodes via macrophages and to the liver, kidney, spleen, heart, brain and secondary target organs via systemic circulation. In the ingestion, translocation, and egestion of microplastics by mammals, particles of >150 μm are rarely translocated or absorbed by organs (except the gut), characterized by a localization effect on the immune system or gut infection. Although microplastics <150 μm are linked to systemic exposure, their absorption remains limited with intense absorption restricted to particles <1.5μ m. Existing studies have focused on laboratory experiments to investigate microplastic concentrations in food, the type of plastics, and morphology (e.g., free or aggregate state, particle size, and shape). To further understand the behaviours of microplastics, systematic and comprehensive studies should be continued.

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