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1하수처리시설의 에너지자립화 및 경제적 효과분석

저자 : 박기학 ( Kihak Park ) , 이호식 ( Hosik Lee ) , 하준수 ( Junsu Ha ) , 김극태 ( Keugtae Kim ) , 임채승 ( Chaeseung Lim )

발행기관 : 한국물환경학회 간행물 : 한국물환경학회지 37권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 128-136 (9 pages)

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It is generally known that a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) consumes immense energy even if it can produce energy. With an aim to increase the energy independence rate of WWTP from 3.5% in 2010 to 50% in 2030, the Korean government has invested enormous research funds. In this study, cost-effective operating alternatives were investigated by analyzing the energy efficiency and economic feasibility for biogas and power generation using new and renewable energy. Based on the US EPA Energy Conservation Measures and Korea ESCO projects, energy production and independence rate were also analyzed. The main energy consumption equipment in WWTP is the blower for aeration, discharge pump for effluent, and pump for influent. Considering the processes of WWTP, the specific energy consumption rate of the process using media and MBR was the lowest (0.549 kWh/m3) and the highest (1.427 kWh/m3), respectively. Energy-saving by enhancing anaerobic digester efficiency was turned out to be efficient when in conjunction with stable wastewater treatment. The result of economic analysis (B/C ratio) was 2.5 for digestive gas power generation, 0.86 for small hydropower, 0.49 for solar energy, and 0.15 for wind energy, respectively. Furthermore, it was observed that the energy independence rate could be enhanced by installing energy production facilities such as solar and small hydropower and reducing energy consumption via the replacement of high-efficiency operating.

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2액화천연가스(LNG)를 사용한 수소 생산 및 액화 공정 개발

저자 : 노원준 ( Wonjun Noh ) , 박시환 ( Sihwan Park ) , 이인규 ( Inkyu Lee )

발행기관 : 한국화학공학회 간행물 : 화학공학 59권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 200-208 (9 pages)

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액체 상태의 수소는 기체 상태의 수소에 비해 수송이 용이하고 에너지 밀도가 높으며 폭발 위험성이 낮다. 하지만 수소 액화 공정은 냉각 사이클에 많은 양의 에너지가 소모된다. 반면에 액화천연가스(LNG; Liquefied Natural Gas)는 재기화 과정에서 다량의 냉열이 버려진다. 따라서 LNG 냉열을 회수하여 수소 냉각에 활용한다면 공정 효율을 높일 수 있다. 또한, 천연가스 개질을 통한 수소 생산은 가장 경제성 있는 방법으로 평가받고 있으며, 이러한 측면에서 LNG를 수소 생산의 원료로 사용할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 LNG를 원료 및 냉열원으로 사용하여 수소를 생산 및 액화시키는 공정을 개발하고 열역학적 관점에서 공정을 평가하였다. 공정 개발을 위해 기존의 탄화 수소 혼합 냉매와 헬륨-네온 냉매를 이용한 수소 액화 공정을 비교 공정으로 선정하였다. 이후 LNG를 원료 및 수소 예냉의 냉열원으로 사용하는 새로운 공정을 설계하여 에너지 소모량 및 엑서지 효율 측면에서 기존 공정과 비교, 분석하였다. 제안된 공정은 기존 공정 대비 약 17.9%의 에너지 절감 및 11.2%의 엑서지 효율이 향상된 결과를 나타내었다.


Compare to the gaseous hydrogen, liquid hydrogen has various advantages: easy to transport, high energy density, and low risk of explosion. However, the hydrogen liquefaction process is highly energy intensive because it requires lots of energy for refrigeration. On the other hand, the cold energy of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) is wasted during the regasification. It means there are opportunities to improve the energy efficiency of the hydrogen liquefaction process by recovering wasted LNG cold energy. In addition, hydrogen production by natural gas reforming is one of the most economical ways, thus LNG can be used as a raw material for hydrogen production. In this study, a novel hydrogen production and liquefaction process is proposed by using LNG as a raw material as well as a cold source. To develop this process, the hydrogen liquefaction process using hydrocarbon mixed refrigerant and the helium-neon refrigerant is selected as a base case design. The proposed design is developed by applying LNG as a cold source for the hydrogen precooling. The performance of the proposed process is analyzed in terms of energy consumption and exergy efficiency, and it is compared with the base case design. As the result, the proposed design shows 17.9% of energy reduction and 11.2% of exergy efficiency improvement compare to the base case design.

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3수소생산을 위한 태양열 이용 메탄 분해 반응기 개발

저자 : 김하늘 ( Haneol Kim ) , 김종규 ( Jongkyu Kim )

발행기관 : 한국신·재생에너지학회 간행물 : 신재생에너지 17권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 40-49 (10 pages)

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This paper explains the development process of methane decomposition to hydrogen and carbon black using solar thermal energy. It also demonstrates the advantages and disadvantages of five different reactors for each development stage, including the reactor's experimental results. Starting with the initial direct heating type reactor, the indirect heating type reactor was developed through five modifications. The 40-kWth solar furnace installed at the Korea Institute of Energy Research was used for the experiment. In the experiment using the developed indirect heating reactor, an 89.0% methane to hydrogen conversion rate was achieved at a methane flow rate of 40 L/min, obtained at about twice the flow rate compared to previous advanced studies.

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4재생에너지 정책과 온실가스 감축분의 배출권 재활용 논쟁

저자 : 유종민 ( Jongmin Yu )

발행기관 : 한국환경정책평가연구원 간행물 : 환경정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 79-98 (20 pages)

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재생에너지 정책에서 저감되는 온실가스의 배출권거래제 활용을 두고 오랜 동안 피상적인 논쟁이 이어져 왔다. 발전 사업자는 재생에너지 진흥 정책에 따라 제공되는 경제적 이익 외에도 온실가스 저감을 인정할 경우 추가적인 정책 수혜를 받게 된다. 그러나 정책당국 입장에서는 국제 협약에의 저촉, 중복혜택, 배출권 시장 교란 혹은 실질가치(integrity) 훼손, RE100과의 혼동 등을 우려하고 있다. 본고에서는 온실 가스 저감 인정의 법적/경제적 추가성 개념과 배출권 할당제도를 종합하여 정책 간의 관계를 정리한 결과, 현재 배출권 할당정책 하에서는 신재생에너지의무화제도 및 RE100의 녹색프리미엄제 하 실적은 배출권으로 인정되기 어렵다고 결론 내린다


There has been a long debate about recycling the reduced emissions due to renewable energy policies. On top of the economic benefits resulting from renewable energy policies, power companies would also gain additional policy benefits if recycling was allowed. However, policymakers are concerned about potential violations of international agreements, overlapping policy benefits, disruptions of emission markets, an impairment of integrity regarding remission reductions, and additionality. Considering the legal and economic additionality of greenhouse gas reduction and the permit allocation system, the credits from the renewable portfolio standard (RPS) and the RE100's green premium system are difficult to include as emission permits.

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5초등 예비교사의 대체에너지에 대한 이해도와 대안개념 분석

저자 : 윤회정 ( Yoon Heojeong ) , 나지연 ( Na Jiyeon )

발행기관 : 한국초등과학교육학회 간행물 : 초등과학교육 40권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 36-54 (19 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to investigate pre-service elementary school teachers’ understanding about alternative energy and to identify their alternative conceptions. The two-tier instrument had been developed by Cheong et al. (2015) were used for this study. Twelve items from the instrument consisted of four categories: ‘source of alternative energy’, ‘greenhouse gas emission’, ‘cost in electricity and construction’ and ‘advantages and disadvantages’. One hundred and fifteen pre-service elementary school teachers were participated in online survey during the semester. The results analyzed using SPSS 26.0. were as follows: First, the correct response rate varied depending on the content of item. Items related to characteristics and advantages & disadvantages of alternative energy showed high percentage of correct answers. Whereas, items regarding the principles of alternative energy showed relatively low percentage of correct answers. Second, there are some items showing statistically meaningful differences according to students’ high school track. Nevertheless, there are no significant differences in overall. Third, we identified twelve alternative conceptions about alternative energy from students’ answer distribution. Educational implications were discussed based on the results.

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6자기-기계-전기 변환소자를 이용한 에너지 하베스팅 기술

저자 : 황건태 ( Geon-tae Hwang ) , 류정호 ( Jungho Ryu ) , 윤운하 ( Woon-ha Yoon )

발행기관 : 한국전기전자재료학회 간행물 : 전기전자재료학회논문지(J. Korean Inst. Electr. Electron. Mater. Eng.) 34권 5호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-282 (12 pages)

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The internet of things (IoT) technology is a key component for the advent of 4th industrial revolution, which is the network of home appliances, infrastructures, and vehicles to remotely investigate these systems. For the operation of compact IoT devices, batteries are widely used as electric power, and the limited lifetime of batteries inevitably leads to periodic replacement. Magneto-mechano-electric (MME) generators may be alternatives to batteries inside the IoT devices by converting stray magnetic field into electric energy, since we are always surrounded by ambient alternating current (AC) magnetic fields induced from electric power transmission lines everywhere. This article reviews the recent domestic research progress in high-performance MME generators and their application field for IoT and electronic devices.

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7재생에너지 변동성 대응을 위한 전기차 활용 방안 연구

저자 : 윤성권 ( Seonggwon Yun ) , 김윤성 ( Yunsoung Kim ) , 문효동 ( Hyodong Moon ) , 임현지 ( Hyunji Im ) , 권필석 ( Pilseok Kwon )

발행기관 : 한국신·재생에너지학회 간행물 : 신재생에너지 15권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 74-80 (7 pages)

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As renewable energy generation is expanding, technology (Electric Vehicles, Energy Storage Systems, etc.) is being developed to respond to the variability of renewable energy and improve the grid stability. This study analyzed the effects of EV expansion on both renewable energy variability and power system flexibility. The scenarios were based on the combined modeling for the electric and transport sector. As a result of modeling, EV expansion has contributed significantly to reducing curtailment. The RE20% (Renewable Energy Power Generation Share 20%) scenario did not result in curtailment when EV reached 3 million units. The RE30% Scenario showed that EV reached 7 million units or other ESS technologies should be applied together to reduce curtailment significantly. This modeling considered smart charging. In reality, other charging types are more common than smart charging. Various institutional devices and polices will be needed to realize that. In addition, it will be necessary to study the unique characteristics of transportation.

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8한국 재생에너지 기업의 혁신에 대한 정부정책 효과: 동태 패널 접근

저자 : 성봉석 ( Bong-suk Sunga ) , 송우용 ( Woo-yong Song )

발행기관 : 한일경상학회 간행물 : 한일경상논집 90권 0호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 31-41 (11 pages)

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Purpose: This study is to investigate the effects of government supports on firms’ innovation creation, taking into account interactions with their in-house R&D efforts. Research design, data, and methodology: Panel data for the Korean renewable energy technology manufacturing firms over the 30-year period from 1980 to 2019 are used to test the nexus between the variables, government R&D and non-R&D subsidy, firms’ in-house R&D expenditure, firm size, firm age, and industry competition. Considering the results of various panel framework tests to confirm the characteristics of the data, the empirical model, first-differenced dynamic panel vector autoregressive model, is established, and tested using one-step generalized method of moments estimator. Results: The study demonstrates the presence of dynamic path in firms’ innovation creation, showing that innovation creation in the pervious period significantly affects the enhancement of innovation in the next period. The study also shows that government R&D subsidy does not significantly affect firms’ innovation creation, but has a significant positive effect on firms’ innovation creation, by interacting with firms’ in-house R&D expenditure. Firms’ in-house R&D expenditure and firm size significantly contribute to enhancing their innovation. However, non-R&D subsidy from the government and firm age have significant negative effects on firms’ innovation creation. Implications: Under the situation where few studies has been conducted at the firm level, this study contributes to promoting an understanding of the nexus between government supports and firms’ innovation, especially considering interactions with firms’ in-house innovation efforts.

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9재생에너지 법정책의 현황과 개선과제

저자 : 박시원 ( Siwon Park )

발행기관 : 한국환경법학회 간행물 : 환경법연구 39권 3호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 73-116 (44 pages)

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기후변화 문제에 대응하는 국제적 노력이 확산되고, 에너지 안보에 대한 인식이 높아지는 한편 재생에너지 기술의 전반적인 가격 하락으로 전 세계적으로 태양광과 풍력을 비롯한 재생에너지 생산이 증가하고 있다. 우리나라도 재생에너지 확대를 위한 노력을 계속한 결과 2015년 이후 신ㆍ재생에너지 공급 비중이 증가하고, 전력생산 중 신ㆍ재생에너지가 차지하는 비중도 증가하는 추세이다. 2017년은 어느때보다 에너지에 대한 논의가 활발했던 해였다. 올해 5월 치러진 조기 대선에서 미세먼지, 탈핵 등 환경ㆍ에너지 이슈가 주요 대선 공약으로 논의되었기 때문이다. 새롭게 출범한 문재인 정부는 공약으로 제시하였던 ‘신규 원전 백지화’, ‘탈핵 시대’를 공식화 하고 재생에너지 전력공급 비중을 2030년까지 20%로 확대하겠다는 정책을 발표하였다. 본 논문은 재생에너지 확대에 대한 국민적 공감대가 높아진 지금, 재생에너지 현 법정책을 점검하고 에너지전환을 가속화할 수 있도록 정책제언을 제공하고자 한다. 재생에너지의 현재 미진한 상황을 고려할 때 새 정부는 목표를 달성하기 위해서는 전면적인 법제도, 사고방식의 전환이 필요하다. 이를 위해 III장에서는 이를 개선하기 위한 법정책적 제안을 제시한다. 에너지 계획, 에너지 가격체계, 지방정부 역할 재정립이라는 세 가지 과제는 에너지 정책의 근본적인 변화를 요구하는 정책제언이며, RPS 제도 개선과 주민 수용성이라는 두 가지 과제는 보다 미시적인 조정을 위한 정책제언이라고 할 수 있다.


Renewable energy is the key policy tool to address climate change issues and energy security. Due to the cost decrease of renewable energy, the worldwide production of renewable energy such as solar panels and wind turbines have been rapidly increased. Korea has also increased renewable energy more rapidly since 2015. In 2017, energy policy issues were hotly debated in Korea as nuclear energy and air pollution issues were key presidential pledges during the election. The new administration has announced to phase out nuclear power and to increase renewable energy significantly. This article discusses the current renewable policies and laws and provides policy suggestions to better increase renewable energy. To rapidly increase renewable energy, we need to fundamentally change the current policies. In chapter III, the article suggests the change of energy policy planning strategies and priorities, energy pricing policy, the role of local governments, the improvement of the RPS system and the increase of social acceptance of renewable energy.

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10에너지전환 정책하에 전기차 수요자원의 경제적 가치 분석: 9차 전력수급계획 중심으로

저자 : 전우영 ( Wooyoung Jeon ) , 조상민 ( Sangmin Cho ) , 조일현 ( Ilhyun Cho )

발행기관 : 한국환경경제학회·한국자원경제학회 간행물 : 자원·환경경제연구 30권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 237-268 (32 pages)

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에너지전환 정책의 가속화로 변동성 재생에너지가 가파르게 증가하면서 계통수용비용이 빠르게 상승하고 있다. 변동성 재생에너지 증가는 기존 전통적 발전자원의 이용률을 하락시켜서 전력공급에 비효율성을 가중시키는데 이에 대한 해결책으로 수요자원이 주목받고 있다. 본 연구에서는 수요자원 중 큰 잠재력을 가지고 있는 전기차 수요가 재생발전에 대한 유연성 자원으로 활용될 경우 전력공급비용을 얼마나 경감시킬 수 있는지 9차 전력수급계획을 반영하여 분석하였다. 분석모형으로 재생발전의 확률적 특성을 사실적으로 반영할 수 있는 확률적 전력시스템 최적화 모형을 적용해서 재생에너지가 유발하는 비용과 전기차 수요자원의 편익을 분석하였다. 분석결과 계시별 요금제보다 가상발전소 기반의 직접제어방식이 편익이 더 높고, 발전구성에서 재생에너지의 비중이 높아질수록 편익이 더 높아지는 것으로 나타났다. 전기차 수요자원의 구현비용인 중개사업자 수수료와 배터리마모비용을 고려한 순편익 추정결과, 충방전이 가능한 가상발전소 방식의 경우 월평균 운행비용의 67~85% 수준으로 나타났다. 이러한 수요자원 순편익이 소비자에게 효과적으로 분배되는 요금체계가 적용될 경우 시장참여유인이 높을 것으로 추정된다.


As variable renewable sources rapidly increase due to the Energy Transition plan, integration cost of renewable sources to the power system is rising sharply. The increase in variable renewable energy reduces the capacity factor of existing traditional power capacity, and this undermines the efficiency of the overall power supply, and demand resources are drawing attention as a solution. In this study, we analyzed how much electric vehicle demand resouces, which has great potential among other demand resources, can reduce power supply costs if it is used as a flexible resource for renewable generation. As a methodology, a stochastic form of power system optimization model that can effectively reflect the volatile characteristics of renewable generation is used to analyze the cost induced by renewable energy and the benefits offered by electric vehicle demand resources. The result shows that virtual power plant-based direct control method has higher benefits than the time-of-use tariff, and the higher the proportion of renewable energy is in the power system, the higher the benefits of electric vehicle demand resources are. The net benefit after considering commission fee for aggregators and battery wear-and-tear costs was estimated as 67% to 85% of monthly average fuel cost under virtual power plant with V2G capability, and this shows that a sufficient incentive for market participation can be offered when a rate system is applied in which these net benefits of demand resources are effectively distributed to consumers.

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