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1COVID-19 백신의 포괄적 이해와 현장 적용

저자 : 최원석 ( Won Suk Choi )

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : Korean Journal of Medicine(구 대한내과학회지) 96권 3호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 155-159 (5 pages)

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2백신은 공공재인가 - 미·중 패권경쟁 사례를 중심으로 -

저자 : 은진석 ( Jinseok Eun ) , 이정태 ( Jung Tae Lee )

발행기관 : 한국외국어대학교 국제지역연구센터 간행물 : 국제지역연구 25권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 161-189 (29 pages)

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21세기를 살아가는 우리 모두는 코로나19 팬데믹의 경험을 영원히 기억할 것 같다. 인간 역사에 출몰한 자연과의 전쟁 가운데 가장 무섭고 혹독한 전쟁 중의 하나가 코로나19이다. 개인의 삶은 물론이고 사회적 동물인 인간의 존재를 궁지로 몰고 간 상대였다. 그러나 만물의 영장인 인간의 대응능력도 만만치 않았다. 백신의 개발과 항전 소식은 국제사회에 기대와 희망을 주었다. 의료선진국가들의 백신개발과 보급으로 코로나19에 대한 집단면역체계를 갖출 수 있다는 자신감이 생긴 것이다. 그러나 문제는 인간사회의 속성인 현실주의적 발상이 백신을 정치적 수단으로 삼는 상황을 발생시켰다는 점이다. 백신을 소유한 국가와 백신보급을 기다리는 국가 사이에 ‘백신이 공공재인가’라는 인식문제가 대두된 것이다. 규범적으로 볼 때 백신은 인류의 생존을 위해 공공재가 되는 것이 맞다. 그러나 현실은 자국우선주의와 국가이기주의로 인해 공공재가 아닌 상품이 되고 있다. 본 연구는 이러한 점에 착안하여 백신이 사적 상품이 되고 있는 상황에서 미국과 중국 사이의 패권경쟁 과정에서 백신이 공공재로 인식되고 보급될 것인지를 분석하고자 한다. 코로나 발생 후 잠시 소강상태에 빠진 미중 양국은 경제, 안보 중심의 패권경쟁 대신 백신이라는 새로운 가치를 중심으로 경쟁하고 있다. 이를 본 논문에서는 패권안정이론의 공공재(public goods) 개념을 적용하여 분석하려 한다. 패권안정이론에 따르면 공공재는 비경합성(nonrivalness)과 비배제성(nonexlusiveness)을 지니는 재화로서 패권국이나 패권에 도전하는 국가에게 공급자로서의 지위를 부여한다. 이러한 과정에서 패권국은 자국이 보유한 사적 자원을 공적 자원으로 전환시킨다. 이와 같은 논리에 비추어 볼 때 백신은 사유재로서의 성격을 보이고 있지만 미중패권경쟁의 향방에 따라 공공재로 인식될 수도 있다. 전개과정에서 ‘수요자’군에 속하는 수혜국가들의 행동도 영향을 미칠 수 있다.


Covid-19 will be part of our history. It does not only affect individual lives, but also pose economic and political challenge to our society as a whole. In the middle of this crisis, the news regarding the development of vaccines provides us with anticipation for the normalization of our life as well as concerns over politicization of the vaccines. This situation poses us following question. Are Covid vaccines pulic goods? Normatively, it is ideal if vaccine is used as public good for the purpose of protection against virus. However our reality suggests that it is more probable for the vaccines to be used as private goods. The Covid-19 vaccines are more likely to be used as private goods within the context of US-China hegemonic contest and anarchical nature of the itnernational relations. However we also suggest that vaccines can be used in the form of public goods based on how other nations respond. For the purpose of analysis, we use the concept of public goods - a concept that hegemonic stability theory heavily depends on. According to the theory, public goods refer values that are distributed based on the norm of nonrivalness and nonexlusiveness by hegemonic nations. A hegemon can gain support - a resource that is crucial for the maintenance of hegemonic order - from the beneficiaries of such goods, and this process is done by converting hegemon’s private goods for public use. This suggests that although vaccines are primarily private goods, the ‘beneficiaries’ can influence how it is used in the context of US-China hegemonic contest.

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3성인 염증성 장질환 환자에서의 SARS-CoV-2 백신 접종: 전문가 합의 권고문

저자 : 이유진 ( Yoo Jin Lee ) , 김성은 ( Seong-eun Kim ) , 박용은 ( Yong Eun Park ) , 장지영 ( Ji Young Chang ) , 송현주 ( Hyun Joo Song ) , 김덕환 ( Duk Hwan Kim ) , 양영주 ( Young Joo Yang ) , 김병창 ( Byung Chang Kim ) , 이재곤 ( Jae Gon Lee ) , 양희찬 ( Hee Chan Yang ) , 최미영 ( Miyoung Choi ) , 명승재 ( Seung-jae Myung )

발행기관 : 대한소화기학회 간행물 : 대한소화기학회지 78권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 117-128 (12 pages)

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel coronavirus, is threatening global health worldwide with unprecedented contagiousness and severity. The best strategy to overcome COVID-19 is a vaccine. Various vaccines are currently being developed, and mass vaccination is in progress. Despite the very encouraging clinical trial results of these vaccines, there is insufficient information on the safety and efficacy of vaccines for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients facing various issues. After reviewing current evidence and international guidelines, the Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Diseases (KASID) developed an expert consensus statement on COVID-19 vaccination issues for Korean IBD patients. This expert consensus statement emphasizes that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination be strongly recommended for IBD patients, and it is safe for IBD patients receiving immunomodulatory therapy. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2021;78:117-128)

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4국내 수산용 백신 개발 현황 및 발전 방향

저자 : 한현자 ( Hyun-ja Han ) , 김수진 ( Soo-jin Kim ) , 김태호 ( Tae-ho Kim ) , 김명석 ( Myoung-sug Kim ) , 조미영 ( Mi-young Cho ) , 최혜승 ( Hye Sung Choi )

발행기관 : 한국수산과학회 간행물 : 한국수산과학회지 54권 4호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 369-376 (8 pages)

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In Korea, fish is a major food source, and sustainable production of fish is critical for the aquaculture industry. Recently, infectious diseases have become an unavoidable problem in aquaculture and have caused serious economic losses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to overcome this challenge to increase productivity in aquaculture. Vaccination is the most effective and long-term measure for improving the management of a fish farm. Sales of fish vaccines in Korea have been steadily increasing, with a confirmed increase from 600 million won in 2007 to 3.4 billion won in 2018. As of 2021, 30 licensed fish vaccines, including both single and combination vaccines containing more than two inactivated pathogens, have been approved in Korea for 10 fish pathogens. Twenty-eight of these are used in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus; however, only two vaccines are used in starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, red seabream Ragrus major and rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus. Therefore, vaccine development is required not only for the olive flounder but also for other cultured fish species. The development of effective vaccines and vaccination programs for fish is a continuous requirement for a sustainable aquaculture industry.

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5누가 백신을 맞는가: 기술수용모형(TAM)으로 살펴본 중국인들의 COVID-19 백신접종 결정요인들

저자 : 손우비 ( Sun¸ Yufei ) , 호함경 ( Hu¸ Hanqing ) , 김태용 ( Kim¸ Taeyong )

발행기관 : 경희대학교 사회과학연구원 간행물 : 사회과학연구 47권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 61-92 (32 pages)

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본 연구는 기술수용모형을 이론적 틀로 삼아 접종의도의 개념과 그것에 영향력이 있을 것으로 예상되는 다양한 개념들을 측정하는 복수의 문항들로 구성된 설문을 통해 중국인들의 COVID-19 백신 접종의도를 결정하는 요인들이 무엇이었고 그 영향구조는 어떠한가를 규명하는 것을 목적으로 수행되었다. 중국 현지에서 수행된 조사 결과를 다각도로 분석한 연구자들은 다음과 같은 결론을 도출할 수 있었다: 첫째, 용이성은 무의미하며, 유용성 지각이 접종의도 형성에 중심역할을 한다. 백신은 분명 신기술이고 따라서 기술수용모형의 적용이 가능해야 하지만, 접종이라는 행동은 그 난이도가 현저히 낮아, 용이성이 큰 의미를 갖지 못한 것으로 해석된다. 둘째, 모든 영향의 원천은 건강관련 지식(헬스리터러시)과 위험지각(지각된 위험)으로 압축된다. 위험지각이 인간이 수집해 축적하는 관련 지식들에 의해 결정된다는 점을 상기할 때, 이는 대중을 대상으로 하는 국가 차원의 교육이 무엇보다 중요함을 시사한다. 셋째, 주관적 규범은 그 자체가 유용성과 접종의도에 미치는 영향에 더해, 헬스리터러시와 접종의도 그리고 지각된 위험과 접종의도 사이에서 의미 있는 중개역할을 한다. 또 하나의 주목할 만한 발견은 주관적 규범이 유용성에 미치는 긍정적 영향이 지각된 위험이 유용성에 미치는 부정적 영향보다 훨씬 크다는 사실이다. 본 연구는 기술수용모형이 백신접종 상황에도 적용이 가능하다는 점을 밝힌 이론적 의의에 더해, 정부가 ‘2021년 11월 국가 집단면역 완성’을 이루기 위해 무엇을 시도할 수 있는지를 제안해준 실무적 의의를 갖는다.


The present study was performed to identify what factors determine the intention of Chinese people to get a COVID-19 vaccine and its effect structure with the data collected from an on-line survey conducted in China by employing the Technology Acceptance Model(TAM). The present researchers carried out a series of analyses with the data to draw the conclusions as follows: First, perceived ease of use seems meaningless in the situation in which the target behavior was to get a vaccine, while perceived usefulness played a central role in the formation of such intention. Second, all the impacts seemed derived from people’s health literacy and perceived risk. Third, in addition to its own influence on usefulness and intention, subjective norm plays a significant mediating role between health literacy and intention and between perceived risk and intention. Finally, noteworthy is that the positive impact of subjective norm on usefulness is far greater than the negative impact of perceived risk, meaning that meeting the expectations of those they value and care is considered much more useful than avoiding the risk they are to face. In addition to the theoretical significance of revealing that the TAM can be applied to an inoculation situation, this study has practical significance suggesting what the government can do in order to achieve its goal of completing national immunity by November 2021.

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6사람유두종 바이러스 백신 미접종 관련 요인: 미국 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용한 단면연구

저자 : 김민주 ( Min-ju Kim ) , 임은선 ( Eunsun Lim ) , 박상신 ( Sangshin Park ) , 최남경 ( Nam-kyong Choi )

발행기관 : 한국보건정보통계학회 간행물 : 보건정보통계학회지 46권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 72-81 (10 pages)

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination proportion and the factors associated with HPV non-vaccination according to the characteristics of Americans. Methods: The 2015-2018 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHANES) data were analyzed. The subjects aged 9 to 26 were divided into subgroups according to age and sex. Results: The meaningful variables influencing HPV vaccination included birth country, health insurance, hepatitis A vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, routine place to go for healthcare and times receive healthcare last year. The factors associated with HPV non-vaccination were income, hepatitis A vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine and times receive healthcare last year. Conclusions: This study was based on a survey of Americans, so the factors associated with HPV non-vaccination may differ from those of Koreans.

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7Importance of Awareness and Treatment for Diabetes in Influenza Vaccination Coverage of Diabetic Patients under 65 Years: A Population-Based Study

저자 : Yu Mi Ko , Seung Hyun Ko , Kyoungdo Han , Yong-moon Park , Joon Young Choi , Shin Young Kim , So Hyang Song , Chi Hong Kim , Sung Kyoung Kim

발행기관 : 대한당뇨병학회 간행물 : Diabetes and Metabolism Journal (DMJ) 45권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 45-56 (12 pages)

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Background: Influenza is a global public health problem causing considerable morbidity and mortality. Although vaccination is the most effective way to prevent infection, vaccination coverage is insufficient in people with chronic disease under 65 years, especially diabetes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate influenza vaccination coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination in Korean diabetic adults under 65 years. Methods: Data were obtained from 24,821 subjects in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2014 to 2017). Socioeconomic, health-related, and diabetic factors were investigated for their relations with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Among 24,821 subjects, 1,185 were diabetic patients under 65 years and their influenza vaccination rate was 36.5%. Socioeconomic (older age, female gender, non-smoker, light alcohol drinker, lower educational level, and employed status), health-related factors (lower fasting glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level, good self-perceived health status, more comorbidities, recent health screening, more outpatient visits, and diet therapy), and diabetic factors (more awareness and getting treated) were associated with influenza vaccination. In multivariate analysis, more awareness and getting treated for diabetes were associated with influenza vaccination in diabetic patients under 65 years (odds ratio, 1.496 and 1.413; 95% confidence interval, 1.022 to 2.188 and 1.018 to 2.054, respectively). Conclusion: Influenza vaccination rate was low in diabetic patients under 65 years, especially in those with unawareness and not getting treated for diabetes. Active screening and treatment for diabetes may be helpful to improve the influenza vaccination rate in these patients.

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8How lessons learned from the 2015 Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak affected the response to coronavirus disease 2019 in the Republic of Korea

저자 : Tae Un Yang , Ji Yun Noh , Joon-young Song , Hee Jin Cheong , Woo Joo Kim

발행기관 : 대한내과학회 간행물 : The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine 36권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 271-285 (15 pages)

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The Republic of Korea (ROK) experienced a public health crisis due to Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2015 and is currently going through the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Lessons learned from the disastrous MERS outbreak were ref lected in the preparedness system, and the readiness capabilities that were subsequently developed enabled the country to successfully flatten the epidemic curve of COVID-19 in late February and March 2020. In this review, we summarize and compare the epidemiology and response of the ROK to the 2015 MERS outbreak and the COVID-19 epidemic in early 2020. We emphasize that, because further COVID-19 waves seem inevitable, it is urgent to develop comprehensive preparedness and response plans for the worst-case scenarios of the COVID-19 pandemic. Simultaneously strengthening healthcare capacity to endure the peak demand and implementing smart strategies to sustain social distancing and public hygiene are necessary until safe and effective therapeutics and vaccines against COVID-19 are available.

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9종합병원 보건의료인의 독감 예방접종 의도와 영향요인: 계획된 행위이론의 적용

저자 : 유지영 ( You Jiyoung ) , 양진향 ( Yang Jinhyang )

발행기관 : 한국지역사회간호학회 간행물 : 지역사회간호학회지 32권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 175-185 (11 pages)

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Purpose: Influenza immunization among health personnel is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with the influenza vaccination intention among health personnel based on the theory of planned behavior. Methods: The research was a cross-sectional, descriptive design using questionnaires. The participants were 131 health personnel in five general hospitals in two cities in South Korea. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and multiple regression with the SPSS 26.0 program. Results: There were statistically significant differences in influenza vaccination intention according to the high-risk group in the family, occupation, length of employment, and influenza vaccination status within a year. The influenza vaccination intention of these health personnel showed significant positive correlations with attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control towards influenza vaccination. Multiple regression analysis for influenza vaccination intention revealed that the significant predictors were attitude, subjective norms, influenza vaccination within a year and physician in occupation. These factors explained 41.4% of the variance. Conclusion: The results suggest a need to strengthen attitude and subjective norms. The findings also suggest that their characteristics through influenza vaccination status within a year and occupation should be considered for tailored interventions related to the intention. Furthermore, it is necessary to develop programs strengthening attitude and subjective norms to enhance influenza vaccination intention among health personnel.

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10COVID-19 Vaccine: Critical Questions with Complicated Answers

저자 : Mohammad Faisal Haidere , Zubair Ahmed Ratan , Senjuti Nowroz , Sojib Bin Zaman , You-jung Jung , Hassan Hosseinzadeh , Jae Youl Cho

발행기관 : 한국응용약물학회 간행물 : Biomolecules & Therapeutics(구 응용약물학회지) 29권 1호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-10 (10 pages)

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COVID-19 has caused extensive human casualties with significant economic impacts around the globe, and has imposed new challenges on health systems worldwide. Over the past decade, SARS, Ebola, and Zika also led to significant concerns among the scientific community. Interestingly, the SARS and Zika epidemics ended before vaccine development; however, the scholarly community and the pharmaceutical companies responded very quickly at that time. Similarly, when the genetic sequence of SARSCoV- 2 was revealed, global vaccine companies and scientists have stepped forward to develop a vaccine, triggering a race toward vaccine development that the whole world is relying on. Similarly, an effective and safe vaccine could play a pivotal role in eradicating COVID-19. However, few important questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development are explored in this review.

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