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한국육종학회> Plant breeding and biotechnology> Genetic Diversity of Fatty Acids, Tocols, Squalene, and Phytosterols in Grains of 157 Rice Cultivars Bred in Korea

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Genetic Diversity of Fatty Acids, Tocols, Squalene, and Phytosterols in Grains of 157 Rice Cultivars Bred in Korea

Young-sang Lee , Kyu-won Kim , Yong-jin Park
  • : 한국육종학회
  • : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권4호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 12월
  • : 341-353(13pages)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
MATERIALS AND METHODS
RESULTS
DISCUSSION
REFERENCES

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초록 보기

To understand genetic diversity in nutritional properties, 157 accessions of Korean-bred rice varieties were cultivated in 3 separate fields and harvested brown rice were used for determination of tocopherols (T), tocotrienols (T3), squalene (SQ), campesterol (CA), sitosterol (SI), and stigmasterol (ST) contents as well as fatty acid compositions. The average contents of α-T, γ-T, α-T3, γ-T3, SQ, CA, SI, and ST were 11.9, 1.6, 10.0, 13.9, 35.2, 42.1, 163.5, and 20.0 μg/g, respectively, and total tocols, SQ, and total phytosterols contents ranged 26.8-54.9, 7.9-78.4, and 162.9-320.2 μg/g, respectively. Ecotype of rice significantly affected phytonutrient contents in that japonica-type showed significantly higher α-T and α-T3 contents and α-T/γ-T, α-T3/γ-T3, and T/T3 ratios compared to indicatype varieties. Total T, SQ and ST contents were also higher in japonica-types, while total T3, CA and SI contents were not affected by ecotypes. Linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were the 3 major fatty acids consisting 36.5, 35.8, and 22.9% of total fatty acids, respectively. Positive correlationships were observed among 3 phytosterols, while oleic acid showed negative correlation with palmitic (r = -0.662**) and linoleic (r = -0.810**) acids. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that phytonutrient profiles may effectively differentiate rice ecotypes, and α-T3/γ-T3, γ-T and α-T3 contents were the key components with highest variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. All these results showed diverse genetic and ecotype-dependent variations in phytonutrients in Korean-bred rice varieties, which can be further used for developing a superior rice variety with higher nutritional value.

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1Development of a Mutant Population of Micro-Tom Tomato Using Gamma-Irradiation

저자 : Jae-in Chun , Heejin Kim , Yeong Deuk Jo , Jin-baek Kim , Jin-ho Kang

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 307-315 (9 pages)

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Knowledge of genetic resources is essential for breeders to create new crop varieties with improved characteristics. In this respect, mutant populations may conveniently provide a powerful tool for identifying new functional genes. Therefore, we used the Micro-Tom tomato variety, which has a reduced size and a relatively short life-cycle compared to other commercial tomato cultivars, to construct a mutant population using gamma-ray radiation as a mutagen. To determine the optimal mutagenic intensity of gamma rays for tomato, dry seeds of Micro-Tom were irradiated with gamma-ray intensities from 0 to 1000 gray (Gy) with increments of 100 Gy. The germination rate of mutagenized seeds (M1 seeds) on MS media was not affected by the tested gamma-ray intensity range. However, seedling growth was severely reduced with increasing irradiation. Seedling growth rate at eight days after germination showed that the median gamma-ray doses for hypocotyl and root elongation were 600 and 300-400 Gy, respectively. The survival test for 300, 400, and 500 Gy-treated M1 seeds showed that survival rates significantly decreased with increasing irradiation. The survival rate of 400 Gy-radiated seeds was 48%, while that of 500 Gy-radiated seeds was only 25%, compared with the control treatment. Therefore, we concluded that gamma-ray irradiation at 300-400 Gy is best for tomato mutagenesis. To find new mutants, M2 seeds produced by M1 plants were grown. We found several mutants, including plants with varying cotyledon number, variegated or red leaves, and green hypocotyls.

2Trait Association, Genetic Analyses and Fatty Acid Profiles in Oilseed Producing Rapeseed-Mustard (Brassica spp.) Genotypes

저자 : Abir Ul Islam , Juthy Abedin Nupur , Arif Hasan Khan Robin

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 316-326 (11 pages)

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Short duration oilseed Brassica varieties are important to increase cropping intensity as well as total oilseed production. In this research, genetic and multivariate analyses were conducted for 19 morphological characters of 48 rapeseed and mustard genotypes. Evaluation of oil content and fatty acid profiles were done for ten selected rapeseed and mustard genotypes. Significant genotypic variations were observed for all morphological characters except 1000 seeds weight. Days to 50% flowering, plant height, total number of siliqua per plant, number of seeds per siliqua, length of siliqua and days to maturity exhibited high broad sense heritability along with high genetic advance. Length of primary branches, number of primary branches, number of secondary branches, total number of siliqua per plant, number of siliqua per main axis and number of siliqua per primary branches had a significant and positive correlation with yield per plant. According to principal component analysis and cluster analysis, BARI Sarisha-9, BD-110455, BD-7113, BD-6954 and BD-6953 were the earliest genotypes and BD-10112, M-395 and M-119-5 were comparatively high yielding genotypes. The genotypes BD-6953, BD-6954, BD-10455, BD-10112 and BD-7113 had comparatively lower erucic acid and saturated fatty acid profiles that are regarded as better edible oil characteristics. The selected genotypes and associated traits could be utilized for developing short duration, high yielding and edible quality rapeseed-mustard varieties.

3Genetic Analysis Reveals a Major Effect QTL Associated with High Grain Zinc Content in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

저자 : Shaikh J. Mohiuddin , Ashraful Haque , Manjurul Haque , Tofazzal Islam , Partha S. Biswas

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 327-340 (14 pages)

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Molecular mapping and application of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with a higher level of grain Zinc is a viable option to enhance zinc content in rice through breeding. An F2 population derived from a cross between a high yielding variety, BRRI dhan28, and a locally adapted Zn enriched cultivar, Kalobokri was used to map QTLs associated with higher levels of Zn in rice grain. The F2:3 progenies varied significantly (P < 0.0001) in Zinc contents with a mean value remarkably higher than those in the superior parent. Through marker by trait analysis using IciMapping, we detected a large-effect QTL, qGZn3 on chromosome 3 between RM5419 and RM1164 spanning 1.83 Mb interval at the 0.05 level of significance with a threshold LOD of 10.61. This QTL showed a21.1% (R2 value) contribution to the total phenotypic variation for zinc content in the unpolished rice grains with 4.68 μg/g additive effect of Kalobokri alleles. We also detected 11 metal homeostasis related genes within the interval of qGZn3. In-silico analysis showed that four expressed sequence tags of one candidate gene (LOC_Os03g22810) encoding Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, a metal-binding protein, are highly active in the endosperm as well as in the embryonic tissue of rice grain. Taken together, our results suggest that qGZn3 is a major QTL associated with high grain Zn content in the F2 progenies of rice. Our findings offer valuable genetic resources to facilitate breeding for high yielding and Zinc-enriched rice variety.

4Genetic Diversity of Fatty Acids, Tocols, Squalene, and Phytosterols in Grains of 157 Rice Cultivars Bred in Korea

저자 : Young-sang Lee , Kyu-won Kim , Yong-jin Park

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 341-353 (13 pages)

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To understand genetic diversity in nutritional properties, 157 accessions of Korean-bred rice varieties were cultivated in 3 separate fields and harvested brown rice were used for determination of tocopherols (T), tocotrienols (T3), squalene (SQ), campesterol (CA), sitosterol (SI), and stigmasterol (ST) contents as well as fatty acid compositions. The average contents of α-T, γ-T, α-T3, γ-T3, SQ, CA, SI, and ST were 11.9, 1.6, 10.0, 13.9, 35.2, 42.1, 163.5, and 20.0 μg/g, respectively, and total tocols, SQ, and total phytosterols contents ranged 26.8-54.9, 7.9-78.4, and 162.9-320.2 μg/g, respectively. Ecotype of rice significantly affected phytonutrient contents in that japonica-type showed significantly higher α-T and α-T3 contents and α-T/γ-T, α-T3/γ-T3, and T/T3 ratios compared to indicatype varieties. Total T, SQ and ST contents were also higher in japonica-types, while total T3, CA and SI contents were not affected by ecotypes. Linoleic, oleic, and stearic acids were the 3 major fatty acids consisting 36.5, 35.8, and 22.9% of total fatty acids, respectively. Positive correlationships were observed among 3 phytosterols, while oleic acid showed negative correlation with palmitic (r = -0.662**) and linoleic (r = -0.810**) acids. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that phytonutrient profiles may effectively differentiate rice ecotypes, and α-T3/γ-T3, γ-T and α-T3 contents were the key components with highest variable importance in projection (VIP) scores. All these results showed diverse genetic and ecotype-dependent variations in phytonutrients in Korean-bred rice varieties, which can be further used for developing a superior rice variety with higher nutritional value.

5Two Complementary Genes, SBE3 and GBSS1 Contribute to High Amylose Content in Japonica Cultivar Dodamssal

저자 : Cheryl C. Adeva , Hyun-sook Lee , Sun-ha Kim , Yun-a Jeon , Kyu-chan Shim , Ngoc Ha Luong , Ju-won Kang , Chang-soo Kim , Jun-hyeon Cho , Sang-nag Ahn

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 354-367 (14 pages)

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Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for the starch-related traits amylose content (AC) and resistant starch (RS) content have received much attention due to the potential benefits of grains high in these starch levels. In this study, QTLs associated with AC and RS content were identified using 92 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a cross between two closely related japonica cultivars 'Dodamssal' and 'Hwayeong'. One QTL on chromosome 2 for RS content and 2 QTLs for AC on chromosomes 2 and 6 were detected. The F2 population derived from a cross between Hwayeong and two selected RILs were used to analyze the interaction between starch branching enzyme 3 (SBE3) and granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1). The combined effect of SBE3 and GBSS1 in the F2 population suggested that these two genes behaved in an additive manner in increasing AC. Haplotype analysis based on two SNPs in GBSS1 classified 117 rice accessions into three groups. At the first SNP site, all indica, Korean landrace, and weedy rice accessions had the Wxα a allele at the 5' splice site of intron 1, whereas japonica accessions had the mutated Wxb allele. This suggests that this splice-donor mutation is prevalent in japonica cultivars, but rare or absent in landrace and weedy rice cultivars. Landrace or weedy rice accessions harboring the Wxα allele could be employed in breeding programs to manipulate AC in cultivated japonica rice considering the difficulty and time to introduce desirable indica traits into japonica due to reproductive barriers.

6Genetic Parameters and Multivariate Analysis to Determine Secondary Traits in Selecting Wheat Mutant Adaptive on Tropical Lowlands

저자 : Muh Farid , Nasaruddin Nasaruddin , Yunus Musa , Muhammad Fuad Anshori , Ifayanti Ridwan , Jekvy Hendra , Gatot Subroto

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 368-377 (10 pages)

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One of approaches to maintain the yield stability of the lowland tropical wheat is the use of secondary traits in the selection process. The identification of these characters requires a statistical approach in the form of genetic parameter analysis and multivariate analysis. The objective of this study was to determine the secondary traits of adaptive wheat mutants in the lowlands through the use of genetic parameters and multivariate analysis on the parameters. The study consisted of three field trials conducted in three different regencies, namely Jeneponto (135 m above sea level (asl)), Maros (100 m asl) and Bantaeng (125 m asl). The study used a nested design, where replications were nested in the environments. The genotype factors consisted of 20 genotypes repeated three times. 11 characters were observed including vegetative and reproductive characters. The analysis used consisted of repeatability, correlation, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis, and cross print analysis. The overall results of the analysis indicate that the number of productive tillers is the main secondary trait for the selection of adaptive wheat in the lowlands. The character can be recommended for selection criteria in testing wheat lines in the lowlands to make an effective selection.

7Genetic Analysis of Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Sterile Lemma and Apiculus in Rice

저자 : Woo-jin Kim , Cheryl Adeva , Hyun-sook Lee , Yun-a Jeon , Kyu-chan Shim , Sang-nag Ahn

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 378-388 (11 pages)

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Genetic analysis of genes that regulate the color pigmentation of sterile lemma and apiculus has been conducted. “Josaengjado” has small and round grains with purple leaf, sterile lemma and apiculus. In the F2 population from a cross between Josaengjado and Daeribbyeo 1, 246 and 182 plants exhibited purple and straw-white sterile lemma, respectively. It fitted a 9:7 segregation ratio indicating that two complementary genes control the pigmentation in sterile lemma and apiculus. Genetic analysis was performed using the F2:3 and KASP (Kompetitive Allele-Specific PCR) markers. Genes for the coloration of leaf sheath, ligule, sterile lemma, and apiculus were detected on chromosomes 1 and 6. Sequence comparison showed a single nucleotide substitution C (Josaengjado) to A (Daeribbyeo 1) in the second exon of the Rd gene on chromosome 1 leading to a premature stop in Daeribbyeo 1. In C1, a 3-bp deletion in the second exon was detected in Daeribbyeo 1. Haplotype analysis was performed in the Rd and C1 genes of the 78 rice accessions. 78 accessions were divided into 14 groups. A total of 11 and 1 mutation sites were detected in OsC1 and Rd, respectively. The haplotype analysis also confirmed that two complementary genes, Rd and OsC1 are necessary to express anthocyanin pigmentation in sterile lemma and apiculus. To our knowledge, this is the first report to identify genes for the coloration of sterile lemma in rice.

8FISH Karyotype Comparison of Platycodon grandiflorus (Jacq.) A. DC. 'Jangbaek' and Its Colchicine-Induced Tetraploid 'Etteumbaek'

저자 : Eliazar Alumbro Peniton Jr , Yurry Um , Hyun Hee Kim

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 389-395 (7 pages)

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Genome sequencing has been going on major medicinal plants, including Platycodon grandiflorus, which is commonly used as a functional food and medicinal resource in Korea. Molecular cytogenetic studies using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) show the chromosomal organization of specific DNA sequences. We analyzed the FISH karyotypes of P. grandiflorus 'Jangbaek' and a colchicine-induced tetraploid cultivar 'Etteumbaek' using 5S and 45S rDNA probes. As a result, 'Jangbaek' had chromosome length ranging from 2.34 ± 0.13 to 3.99 ± 0.197 μm with its karyotypic formula of 2n = 2x = 18 = 16m + 2sm (two satellites) whereas 'Etteumbaek' had chromosome length of 2.37 ± 0.08 to 4.20 ± 0.16 μm and a karyotypic formula of 2n = 4x = 36 = 24m + 12sm (four satellites). A pair of 5S rDNA signals observed interstitially in chromosome 3 and the co-localization of 5S and 45S rDNA signals occupying the nucleolar-organizing region (NOR) of chromosome 6 was observed in the diploid cultivar 'Jangbaek'. Doubling of both signals co-localized in the NOR of chromosome 6 were observed in the colchicine induced tetraploid cultivar. However, the tetraploid revealed a modified positioning of 5S rDNA signals on chromosome 3 interstitially, with observable vague dispersed signals in one chromosome of chromosomes 1 and 5. This result will be useful for further breeding program and chromosomal backbone for the Platycodon genome analysis.

9Detection of Whole-Genome Resequencing-Based QTLs Associated with Pre-Harvest Sprouting in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

저자 : Seong-gyu Jang , San Mar La , Hongjia Zhang , Ah-rim Lee , Ja-hong Lee , Na-eun Kim , So-yeon Park , Joohyun Lee , Tae-ho Ham , Soon-wook Kwon

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 396-404 (9 pages)

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Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the important traits that not only cause serious economic issues but also lead to reduction in grain quality and yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.). To analyze the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS tolerance, we evaluated PHS, seed dormancy (SD), and low-temperature germination (LTG) of 88 F2:3 populations and their parental lines. Genotypic analysis was performed by using 441 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected from re-sequencing data. Seed dormancy (SD) and low-temperature germination (LTG) were identified to exhibit a positive correlation with PHS. Under the field condition, two major QTLs for PHS, qPHS1-1FC and qPHS1-2FC were identified on chromosome 1. Under the growth chamber condition, qPHS1-1GC and qPHS1-2GC had the same regions on chromosome 1. QTLs of SD and LTG (qSD1-1, qSD1-2, qLTG1-1, and qLTG1-2) had the same regions; these results suggested that candidate QTLs demonstrate pleiotropy about PHS, SD, and LTG. The major QTLs detected in this study are hypothesized to provide an important resource for molecular breeding and gain a better understanding of the genetics of traits in rice.

10A New Approach for Glutinous Rice Breeding through Dull Genes Pyramiding

저자 : Ji-yoon Lee , Ju-won Kang , Su-min Jo , Youngho Kwon , So-myeong Lee , Dong Jin Shin , You-chun Song , Dong Soo Park , Jong-hee Lee , Jong-min Ko , Jun-hyeon Cho

발행기관 : 한국육종학회 간행물 : Plant breeding and biotechnology 8권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 405-412 (8 pages)

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Glutinous rice is a key grain quality trait occupying an important part during rice processing in most rice growing areas. In this study, a gene pyramiding approach was used to introduce two dull genes, responsible for low amylose content, for glutinous rice breeding using marker assisted selection (MAS). The genotyping results revealed that rice cultivar Milyang319 carries both dull genes on chromosome 6, derived from cv. Milky-queen (Wx-mq) and cv. LGS-soft (du12(t)), respectively. Milyang319 had a significantly low amylose content (9.0%) compared to those observed in donor parents Milky-queen (15.7%) and LGS-soft (14.5%). In addition, the amylogram analysis of Milyang319 showed a similar pattern of glutinous rice. Originally, Milyang319 had a low hardness and more stickiness compared to those recorded in cooked rice of both dull parental lines. Therefore, Milyang319 is proposed as a promising candidate rice cultivar that could be used as a new source of waxy germplasms with same physicochemical features of glutinous rice in further breeding programs.

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