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한국영어영문학회> 영어영문학> Raced Body and Raced Space in Richard Wright’s Native Son

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Raced Body and Raced Space in Richard Wright’s Native Son

Mi Ok Sa
  • : 한국영어영문학회
  • : 영어영문학 66권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 03월
  • : 131-151(21pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. Introduction
Ⅱ. Black Space
Ⅲ. White Space
Ⅳ. A Person’s Body as Space
Ⅴ. Construction of Black Masculinity
Ⅵ. Conclusion
Works Cited

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Scholarship on Richard Wright’s Native Son has accepted the work differently. Some critics such as Irving Howe have read the novel as the reflection of Wright’s personal feelings. However, others have interpreted the novel as the warning of the devastating effects of racism. Focusing on the latter position, I point out one important aspect of the novel. That is, Wright shows whiteness through presenting the interconnection of space and race construction during the 1930s. Although racialized space set by Jim Crow laws was very pivotal in sustaining the racial hierarchy in the South at that time, it was formed in the North as well through different ways. That is, unlike the South, the North constructed racialized space customarily via racially restrictive covenants. What is remarkable is that Wright uncovers that whiteness created racialized space de facto in the North, which ultimately demonstrates that racialized space for white power and privilege was practiced during the Jim Crow era both in the North and in the South. In addition, through Bigger Wright portrays black subjectivity realistically facing the racial oppression in the raced space. Finally, I demonstrate that the novel shows that space is not just a physical place; a human body can be read as space. In sum, I demonstrate that Wright shows that racialized space was not confined to the South; it was a nation-wide phenomenon during the Jim Crow period; for whites, racialized space is not only for economic profits but also for the protection of white identity.

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1Sublime and Technology: Nietzsche / Kant / Heidegger

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Martin Heidegger's “Da-sein” (Being-there) is the ideal manifestation of the Nietzschean of “overman” in relation to the “will to power.” Overman is the potential human subject thrown in the world, and is concerned with the world. Dasein manages in the world with other fellow human beings in the world. Dasein is 'ek-sistent' (being ahead of itself) and sustains himself by looking ahead of the potentiality of the future anterior (will have been). In this trans-temporality of the gathering together of the simultaneity of past-present-future, this Dasein is the deconstruction of the Nietzschean human subject, thus anticipating the ontology of Being in the form of Nietzschean “trans-human” (human who overcomes himself/herself) and further of post-human (machinic human after human).”
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2Maugham and Woolf in Russia: Ashenden & Orlando

저자 : Ira Nadel

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Mixed with a general British fascination with Russia was the actual presence of Somerset Maugham in Moscow in 1917 acting as a foreign agent, later fictionalized in his popular novel of 1928, Ashenden. Virginia Woolf never went to Russia but she studied Russian, co-translated several Russian volumes and wrote about its literature in various essays and Orlando, also appearing in 1928, a banner year for English fiction devoted to Russia. Parallel approaches by these two early twentieth century novelists to the country is the subject of this essay which highlights satire as their common aesthetic practice. Each began with distant admiration but also skepticism, overstating Russia's characteristics and importance for comic purposes. Love, itself, became a satirical focus in both novels which also contain international intrigue if not danger. Biography is also a point of contact. Maugham was in Russia in 1917 and had to escape when his role as a British agent was discovered. He had also had an affair with a Russian princess before he arrived, so was familiar with the elements of Russian love. Woolf never went to Russia but had studied its history as a young woman and she admired its literature. She then learned the rudiments of its language, co-translated several Russian works and incorporated elements of Russian life in her writing, most dramatically in Orlando. The coincidental publication of both Ashenden and Orlando in 1928, and their co-reliance on satire as the means to address the internal repression and outward instability of Russia, marks a parallel and critical response to the Russian experiment.

3The Aesthetics of Distance: Space, Ideology, and Critique in the Study of World Literature

저자 : Robert T. Tally Jr.

발행기관 : 한국영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학 66권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 43-61 (19 pages)

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Although its pedigree is frequently traced back to the nineteenth century, world literature as an institution is a much more recent phenomenon, emerging along with the spatial turn in the humanities and social sciences in the era of globalization. During roughly this same period, we have witnessed the rise of the postcritical approaches to literature that would abandon critique in favor of mere description. One of the most innovative forms of this, Franco Moretti's “distant reading” project developed out of his attempts to reckon with the scope of world literature, but the project also implicates a political program. As a concept, genre, or field, world literature presents serious problems to readers in the twenty-first century; translation, cultural literacy, commodification, the book industry, and a sort of literary imperialism underlie the global market for world literature, and the reader is confronted with sometimes invisible obstacles to understanding. In a moment when so-called surface reading or postcritical approaches have been increasingly championed, Tally asserts that this sort of ideology-critique is needed more than ever, and that the spatially oriented critique made possible by geocriticism is particularly well suited to the crises and mystifications facing culture workers in the twenty-first century.

4Post-postmodern Theories, Modernism Redux and the Post-Postmodern Framework

저자 : Youngchul Suh

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저자 : Sangwook Kim

발행기관 : 한국영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학 66권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 89-105 (17 pages)

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6Reconfiguring Asian American Identity in Terms of the Post-Racial Aesthetics of Affectivity: A Study on David Hwang's M. Butterfly

저자 : Chang-hee Kim

발행기관 : 한국영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학 66권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-129 (23 pages)

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This paper discusses the decades-long debate over cultural nationalism and feminist pluralism in the literary production of Asian American identity. This part of the paper aims to show how the divided critiques of post-1970 Asian American identity politics indicate the implosive divergence and creolization of what it means to be Asian American in the US, an imperative of post-modernizing ways in which race and sexuality are represented in late-capitalist culture. What is at stake in the identity politics of Asian American literary studies is whether Asian American identily can have affective capacities to exceed the representational limits of social constraints and norms which confine it to the contradictory myths of either the “model minority” or the “Yellow Peril.” Having said that, this paper moves on to examine David Henry Hwang's M. Butterfly, focusing on ways in which the protagonists' racial and sexual subjectivities become transversal, transformative, and subversive of the dominant assumptions about Asian American raciality and sexuality in the US. This study investigates how Hwang's play bears witness to the ultimate vision of his post-racial aesthetics of Asian American identity―that the ontological embodiments of multicultural subjects are creolized as an assemblage of each body that affects and is affected by other bodies, while they negotiate both nationalist and assimilatory pressures in US society. Consequently, this textual, as well as theatrical, analysis has an objective to explore the affective potential for the Asian American subject to transcend its social and physical limits given in US society, reconfiguring what it means to be American in terms of race, gender, and sexuality.

7Raced Body and Raced Space in Richard Wright's Native Son

저자 : Mi Ok Sa

발행기관 : 한국영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학 66권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 131-151 (21 pages)

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Scholarship on Richard Wright's Native Son has accepted the work differently. Some critics such as Irving Howe have read the novel as the reflection of Wright's personal feelings. However, others have interpreted the novel as the warning of the devastating effects of racism. Focusing on the latter position, I point out one important aspect of the novel. That is, Wright shows whiteness through presenting the interconnection of space and race construction during the 1930s. Although racialized space set by Jim Crow laws was very pivotal in sustaining the racial hierarchy in the South at that time, it was formed in the North as well through different ways. That is, unlike the South, the North constructed racialized space customarily via racially restrictive covenants. What is remarkable is that Wright uncovers that whiteness created racialized space de facto in the North, which ultimately demonstrates that racialized space for white power and privilege was practiced during the Jim Crow era both in the North and in the South. In addition, through Bigger Wright portrays black subjectivity realistically facing the racial oppression in the raced space. Finally, I demonstrate that the novel shows that space is not just a physical place; a human body can be read as space. In sum, I demonstrate that Wright shows that racialized space was not confined to the South; it was a nation-wide phenomenon during the Jim Crow period; for whites, racialized space is not only for economic profits but also for the protection of white identity.

8The Representation of Kitchen Space in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin

저자 : Jieun Park

발행기관 : 한국영어영문학회 간행물 : 영어영문학 66권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 153-167 (15 pages)

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This paper focuses on a specific space: the kitchen represented in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852). There are at least three kitchen spaces Stowe presents: Aunt Chloe's in Shelby's, Rachel Halliday's Quaker kitchen, and Old Dinah's in St. Clare's but also a kitchenless space in Simon Legree's. Slightly departing from 1970s and 80s traditional feminist readings on Stowe redeeming her canonical status by proving the author's attempts to replace masculine and capitalist commercial marketplace with a maternal domesticity, my goal in this paper is to bring in and resurrect not only gendered but also racial space of kitchen which has been overlooked by Stowe critics. Along with the traditional concept of domestic spheres in the nineteenth century America and the role of kitchen in plantation houses, I aim to examine black inhabitants and their racial identities Stowe presents in the novel. Dinah's kitchen might be a great example which works as a battleground between the North and South, white and black, a lady and an enslaved cook. Her kitchen is the space where she, to a certain limited extent, performs her own autonomous 'labor' as a 'creative' work. For an enslaved woman, cooking is both a 'labor' and 'creation,' which produces possible resistance and autonomy although being limited and restricted within a liminal kitchen space. The kitchen becomes a space of borderland, especially for an enslaved woman, between autonomy and enforced labor, where she enacts her own form of subversion on the threshold.

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This essay investigates the construction of British female authorship within Harper's New Monthly Magazine in the latter half of the nineteenth- century in relation to American reprinting and American nationalism. By transplanting British authors and their realist works into American literary context, Harper's tried to “Americanize” British literature, especially through its editorial control and rearrangement of British texts. In its effort to become a major “family literary magazine” targeting middle-class readership, Harper's mobilized the presences of major British women writers in a distinctive way. Thus, the magazine constantly touted the literary reputation of Elizabeth Gaskell, Charlotte Brontë and Elizabeth Barrett Browning as a way to support its nationalistic project. Their names assumed high visibility within the magazine, and their realist authorship participated in the elevation of an American literary taste by providing American readers with sound forms of writing. In other words, these British women writers played an important role in constructing healthy readership for the magazine. This essay aims to make visible the magazine's close links with these British women writers, first, by exploring its signing policy for their works and, second, by analyzing its editorial reviews on these women writers. The magazine allowed several works by popular British women writers to be signed with their real names both at the volume index and in the main text, unlike other articles. It also made positive editorial commentaries on their works and personal characters.

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