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한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회)> Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology> Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

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Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

Dae-gyun Ahn , Hye-jin Shin , Mi-hwa Kim , Sunhee Lee , Hae-soo Kim , Jinjong Myoung , Bum-tae Kim , Seong-jun Kim
  • : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회)
  • : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 03월
  • : 313-324(12pages)

DOI


목차

Introduction
Epidemiology
Diagnosis
Antiviral Therapies
Nucleoside Analogs
Chloroquine
Protease Inhibitors
Current Status of COVID-19 Vaccine Development
Summary
Acknowledgements
Conflict of Interest
References

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China. The etiological agent of COVID-19 has been confirmed as a novel coronavirus, now known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is most likely originated from zoonotic coronaviruses, like SARS-CoV, which emerged in 2002. Within a few months of the first report, SARS-CoV-2 had spread across China and worldwide, reaching a pandemic level. As COVID-19 has triggered enormous human casualties and serious economic loss posing global threat, an understanding of the ongoing situation and the development of strategies to contain the virus’s spread are urgently needed. Currently, various diagnostic kits to test for COVID-19 are available and several repurposing therapeutics for COVID-19 have shown to be clinically effective. In addition, global institutions and companies have begun to develop vaccines for the prevention of COVID-19. Here, we review the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development for COVID-19.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 자연과학분야  > 생물
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 월간
  • : 1017-7825
  • : 1738-8872
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1991-2020
  • : 5495


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1Current Status of Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Therapeutics, and Vaccines for Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)

저자 : Dae-gyun Ahn , Hye-jin Shin , Mi-hwa Kim , Sunhee Lee , Hae-soo Kim , Jinjong Myoung , Bum-tae Kim , Seong-jun Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 313-324 (12 pages)

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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which causes serious respiratory illness such as pneumonia and lung failure, was first reported in Wuhan, the capital of Hubei, China. The etiological agent of COVID-19 has been confirmed as a novel coronavirus, now known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is most likely originated from zoonotic coronaviruses, like SARS-CoV, which emerged in 2002. Within a few months of the first report, SARS-CoV-2 had spread across China and worldwide, reaching a pandemic level. As COVID-19 has triggered enormous human casualties and serious economic loss posing global threat, an understanding of the ongoing situation and the development of strategies to contain the virus's spread are urgently needed. Currently, various diagnostic kits to test for COVID-19 are available and several repurposing therapeutics for COVID-19 have shown to be clinically effective. In addition, global institutions and companies have begun to develop vaccines for the prevention of COVID-19. Here, we review the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccine development for COVID-19.

2Methyl Linderone Suppresses TPA-Stimulated IL-8 and MMP-9 Expression Via the ERK/STAT3 Pathway in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cells

저자 : Jae-hwan Yoon , Thu-huyen Pham , Jintak Lee , Jiyon Lee , Hyung-won Ryu , Sei-ryang Oh , Jae-wook Oh , Do-young Yoon

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 325-332 (8 pages)

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Methyl linderone (ML), a cyclo-pentenedione, was isolated from the fruit of Lindera erythrocarpa Makino (family Lauraceae). This plant has well-known anti-inflammatory effects; however, the anti-cancer effects of ML have not yet been reported. Thus, in the present study we investigated the effects of ML on the metastasis of human breast cancer cells. We used 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated MCF-7 cells as the cell model to study the effects of ML on invasion and migration. ML was found to reduce the invasion and migration rate of TPA-stimulated MCF-7 cells. Moreover, it inhibited two metastasis-related factors, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and interleukin-8 (IL-8), at the mRNA and protein expression levels, in TPA-treated MCF-7 cells. The mechanism by which ML exerted these effects was through the inhibition of translocation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3), mediated via phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Taken together, our findings indicated that ML attenuated the TPA-stimulated invasion and migration of MCF-7 cells by suppressing the phosphorylation of ERK and its downstream factors, AP-1 and STAT3. Therefore, ML is a potential agent for the treatment of breast cancer metastasis.

3Phloretin Protects Macrophages from E. coli-Induced Inflammation through the TLR4 Signaling Pathway

저자 : Anil Kumar Chauhan , Mihee Jang , Yangmee Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 333-340 (8 pages)

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Macrophages are the cells of the first-line defense system, which protect the body from foreign invaders such as bacteria. However, Gram-negative bacteria have always been the major challenge for macrophages due to the presence of lipopolysaccharides on their outer cell membrane. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of phloretin, a flavonoid commonly found in apple, on the protection of macrophages from Escherichia coli infection. RAW 264.7 cells infected with standard E. coli, or virulent E. coli K1 strain were treated with phloretin in a dose-dependent manner to examine its efficacy in protection of macrophages. Our results revealed that phloretin treatment reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO) and generation of reactive oxygen species along with reducing the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines induced by the E. coli and E. coli K1 strains in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, treatment of phloretin downregulated the expression of E. coli-induced major inflammatory markers i.e. cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), in a concentration dependent manner. Moreover, the TLR4-mediated NF-κB pathway was activated in E. coli-infected macrophages but was potentially downregulated by phloretin at the transcriptional and translational levels. Collectively, our data suggest that phloretin treatment protects macrophages from infection of virulent E. coli K1 strain by downregulating the TLR4-mediated signaling pathway and inhibiting NO and cytokine production, eventually protecting macrophages from E. coli-induced inflammation.

4Comparative Genomic Analysis of Food-Originated Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus: Analysis of Conserved Core Genes and Diversity of the Pan-Genome

저자 : Sojeong Heo , Jung-sug Lee , Jong-hoon Lee , Do-won Jeong

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 341-351 (11 pages)

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To shed light on the genetic differences among food-originated coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), we performed pan-genome analysis of five species: Staphylococcus carnosus (two strains), Staphylococcus equorum (two strains), Staphylococcus succinus (three strains), Staphylococcus xylosus (two strains), and Staphylococcus saprophyticus (one strain). The pan-genome size increases with each new strain and currently holds about 4,500 genes from 10 genomes. Specific genes were shown to be strain dependent but not species dependent. Most specific genes were of unknown function or encoded restriction-modification enzymes, transposases, or prophages. Our results indicate that unique genes have been acquired or lost by convergent evolution within individual strains.

5Co-immunomodulatory Activities of Anionic Macromolecules Extracted from Codium fragile with Red Ginseng Extract on Peritoneal Macrophage of Immune-Suppressed Mice

저자 : Ji Eun Kim , Chaiwat Monmai , Weerawan Rod-in , A-yeong Jang , Sang-guan You , Sang-min Lee , Seok-kyu Jung , Woo Jung Park

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 352-358 (7 pages)

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In this study we investigated the immune effects of oral administration of anionic macromolecules extracted from Codium fragile (CFAM) and red ginseng extract mixture on the peritoneal macrophage cells in immune-suppressed mice. Cyclophosphamide (CY) induces the immune-suppressed condition. CY-treated mice were orally fed with different concentrations of CFAM supplemented with red ginseng extract and the peritoneal macrophages collected. CY treatment significantly decreased the immune activities of peritoneal macrophages, compared to the normal mice. The administration of CFAM mixed with red ginseng extract significantly boosted the viability of macrophage cells and nitric oxide production of peritoneal macrophages. Further, the oral administration of CFAM mixed with red ginseng extract up-regulated the expression of iNOS, COX-2, and TLR-4 as well as cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ more than the red ginseng-treated group. This study showed that CFAM enhanced the immune activity of red ginseng extract in the peritoneal macrophage cells of immune-suppressed mice. Furthermore, CFAM might be used as a co-stimulant of red ginseng extract through the regulation of macrophage cells for the enhancement of human health and immunity.

6Neuroprotective Effects of Phlorotannin-Rich Extract from Brown Seaweed Ecklonia cava on Neuronal PC-12 and SH-SY5Y Cells with Oxidative Stress

저자 : Jin Ah Nho , Yong Sub Shin , Ha-ram Jeong , Suengmok Cho , Ho Jin Heo , Gun Hee Kim , Dae-ok Kim

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 359-367 (9 pages)

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Neurodegenerative disorders in the elderly are characterized by gradual loss of memory and cognitive function. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species is associated with progressive neuronal cell damage and death in Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. An edible brown seaweed, Ecklonia cava, contains a variety of biologically active compounds such as phlorotannins. In this study, we comparatively evaluated the total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and neuroprotective effects of the phlorotannin-rich extract from E. cava (PEEC). The total phenolic content of PEEC and dieckol was 810.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g and 996.6 mg GAE/g, respectively. Antioxidant capacity of PEEC was 1,233.8 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE)/g and 392.1 mg VCE/g determined using ABTS and DPPH assays, respectively, while those of dieckol were 2,238.4 mg VCE/g and 817.7 mg VCE/g. High-performance liquid chromatography results revealed 48.08 ± 0.67 mg dieckol/g of PEEC. PEEC had neuroprotective effects in pheochromocytoma (PC-12) and human neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells against H2O2- and AAPH-induced oxidative damage, partly due to reduced intracellular oxidative stress. PEEC treatment inhibited acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these findings suggest that PEEC is a good source of antioxidants and neuroprotective materials.

7Effect of Probiotic Clostridium butyricum NCTC 7423 Supernatant on Biofilm Formation and Gene Expression of Bacteroides fragilis

저자 : Da-seul Shin , Ki-jong Rhee , Yong-bin Eom

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 368-377 (10 pages)

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Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) is the main pathogen causing severe inflammatory diseases and colorectal cancer. Its biofilm plays a key role in the development of colorectal cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonistic effects of cell-free supernatants (CFS) derived from Clostridium butyricum against the growth and biofilm of ETBF. Our data showed that C. butyricum CFS inhibited the growth of B. fragilis in planktonic culture. In addition, C. butyricum CFS exhibited an antibiofilm effect by inhibiting biofilm development, disassembling preformed biofilms and reducing the metabolic activity of cells in biofilms. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy, we found that C. butyricum CFS significantly suppressed the proteins and extracellular nucleic acids among the basic biofilm components. Furthermore, C. butyricum CFS significantly downregulated the expression of virulence- and efflux pump-related genes including ompA and bmeB3 in B. fragilis. Our findings suggest that C. butyricum can be used as biotherapeutic agent by inhibiting the growth and biofilm of ETBF.

8Metabolomic Investigation on Fermentation Products of Achyranthes japonica Nakai by Lactobacillus plantarum

저자 : Chang-wan Lee , Do Yup Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 378-381 (4 pages)

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Fermentation has recently re-emerged as an approach for improved functionality of food products in addition to the traditional roles such as shelf life, taste, and texture. Here, we report dynamic changes in the metabolite profiles of Achyranthes japonica Nakai by Lactobacillus plantarum fermentation, primarily, the significant increases in representative functional ingredients, 20-hydroxyecdysone and 25S-inokosterone. Additionally, untargeted metabolite profiling showed 58% of metabolites underwent significant alteration. The most dynamic change was observed in cellobiose, which showed a 56-fold increase. Others were sugar alcohols and amino acids, while lyxitol and erythritol that were among the most dynamically down-regulated.

9Analogs of Periplanetasin-4 Exhibit Deteriorated Membrane-Targeted Action

저자 : Heejeong Lee , Jae Sam Hwang , Dong Gun Lee

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 382-390 (9 pages)

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Periplanetasin-4 is an antimicrobial peptide with 13 amino acids identified in cockroaches. It has been reported to induce fungal cell death by apoptosis and membrane-targeted action. Analogs were designed by substituting arginine residues to modify the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions accordingly and explore the effect of periplanetasin-4 through the increase of net charge and the decrease of hydrophobicity. The analogs showed lower activity than periplanetasin-4 against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Similar to periplanetasin-4, the analogs exhibited slight hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Membrane studies, including determination of changes in membrane potential and permeability, and fluidity assays, revealed that the analogs disrupt less membrane integrity compared to periplanetasin-4. Likewise, when the analogs were treated to the artificial membrane model, the passage of molecules bigger than FD4 was difficult. In conclusion, arginine substitution could not maintain the membrane disruption ability of periplanetasin-4. The results indicated that the attenuation of hydrophobic interactions with the plasma membrane caused a reduction in the accumulation of the analogs on the membrane before the formation of electrostatic interactions. Our findings will assist in the further development of antimicrobial peptides for clinical use.

10Enzymatic Biotransformation of Ginsenoside Rb2 into Rd by Recombinant α-L-Arabinopyranosidase from Blastococcus saxobsidens

저자 : Ju-hyeon Kim , Jung-mi Oh , Sungkun Chun , Hye Yoon Park , Wan Taek Im

발행기관 : 한국미생물생명공학회(구 한국산업미생물학회) 간행물 : Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 30권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 391-397 (7 pages)

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In this study, we used a novel α-L-arabinopyranosidase (AbpBs) obtained from ginsenosideconverting Blastococcus saxobsidens that was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and then applied it in the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb2 into Rd. The gene, termed AbpBs, consisting of 2,406 nucleotides (801 amino acid residues), and with a predicted translated protein molecular mass of 86.4 kDa, was cloned into a pGEX4T-1 vector. A BLAST search using the AbpBs amino acid sequence revealed significant homology with a family 2 glycoside hydrolase (GH2). The over-expressed recombinant AbpBs in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) catalyzed the hydrolysis of the arabinopyranose moiety attached to the C-20 position of ginsenoside Rb2 under optimal conditions (pH 7.0 and 40°C). Kinetic parameters for α-L-arabinopyranosidase showed apparent Km and Vmax values of 0.078 ± 0.0002 μM and 1.4 ± 0.1 μmol/min/mg of protein against p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinopyranoside. Using a purified AbpBs (1 μg/ml), 0.1% of ginsenoside Rb2 was completely converted to ginsenoside Rd within 1 h. The recombinant AbpBs could be useful for high-yield, rapid, and low-cost preparation of ginsenoside Rd from Rb2.

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