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한국몽골학회> 몽골학> 한·몽 외교 관계 30년 회고와 전망에 관한 연구

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한·몽 외교 관계 30년 회고와 전망에 관한 연구

The 30 year history of diplomatic relations between Korea and Mongolia: Retrospect and Prospect

송병구 ( Byeong-gu Song ) , 류병재 ( Byung-jae Yoo )
  • : 한국몽골학회
  • : 몽골학 60권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 02월
  • : 154-198(45pages)

DOI


목차

1. 들어가며
2. 한·몽 외교 관계
3. 몽골의 외교 관계에 대한 이해
4. 미래 지향적 한·몽 외교 관계를 위한 전략적 협력방안
5. 나가며
참고문헌

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초록 보기


						
On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Korea and Mongolia, this research aims to review the development of Korea and Mongolia relations focusing on the top-level relations in politics and diplomacy and summarize the current situation. In addition, to understand Mongolian diplomacy, this study seeks to examine the characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy and the process of developing relations with major bilateral diplomatic countries and explore new elements of cooperation in diplomacy between Korean and Mongolia.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Korea and Mongolia on March 26, 1990, Korea and Mongolia have been expanding their relations to all areas of the two countries through three rounds of heightened relations. In 1999, during President Kim Dae Jung’s visit to Mongolia, the two countries set up ‘Mutually Complementary and Cooperative Relation in the 21st century, and in 2006, during President Roh Moo Hyun’s visit to Mongolia, they set up ‘Good-Neighbor Friendship Cooperation Partnership’ Lastly, in 2011, during President Lee Myung Bak’s visit to Mongolia, they established the current ‘Comprehensive Partnership’.
The characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy can be summarized by three key words: neutral diplomacy, balanced diplomacy, multilateral diplomacy. Through the analysis and understanding of the characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy, this research set goals for future-oriented Korean-Mongolia diplomatic relations and examined their implementation.
This research is essential in the practical sense in that the two countries have not yet been engaged in ground-breaking bilateral cooperation compared with the complementary benefits and the traditional emotional ties of the two countries, which can not be found in other neighboring countries. In this regard, it is hoped that the discussions of this research will pave the way for the two countries to prepare for the next 30 years by summarizing the past 30 years of relations.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 동양사
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 계간
  • : 1229-7097
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  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2020
  • : 653


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1현대몽골어와 한국어의 의문문 대조 연구

저자 : 강남욱 ( Kang Nam-wook ) , 김기성 ( Kim Ki-sung )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-30 (30 pages)

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Interrogative sentences in modern Mongolian appear through interrogative words (асуух төлөөний уг), interrogative particles (асуух сул уг) and intonation (аялга), and out of these, interrogative words and interrogative particles are the most prevalent. Meanwhile, Korean interrogative sentences generally appear through interrogative words, interrogative word endings (sentence-closing ending) and intonation. While Mongolian and Korean are both SOV languages, whereas Mongolian expresses questions by connecting interrogative particles to the end of sentences (declarative sentences), Korean uses various interrogative sentence-closing endings in the place of interrogative particles. That is, interrogative sentence-closing endings are used instead of declarative sentence-closing endings for changes (conjugations) in the verb endings. In this aspect, the interrogative sentences in the two languages show fundamental differences.
While the interrogative sentences in modern Mongolian have different interrogative particles at the end of the sentences based on whether there are interrogative words in the interrogative sentence, this is not the case in Korean. This is because the interrogative sentences in Korean are formed through the changes (conjugations) in the verb endings at the end of the sentence regardless of whether there are interrogative words. In addition, in the case of Korean interrogative sentences, interrogative sentences are realized through changes in the verb endings based on the level of honorifics. Therefore, Mongolian students who study Korean have difficulties in properly understanding and learning the levels of interrogative endings in verbs in the honorific system based on the relationship between the speaker and the listener.
In both modern Mongolian and Korean, it is possible to make a sentence (declarative sentence) into an interrogative sentence by rising the intonation in the situations where there are no interrogative words or interrogative particles (in the case of Mongolian), or there are no changes in the verb ending (in the case of Korean) that make an interrogative sentence. This can be considered as a similar point of the two languages. In addition, there are no ways to make an interrogative sentence by changing the position of the predicate (change in word order).
In both modern Mongolian and Korean, it is impossible to understand the various possible meanings of sentences with ambiguity simply through sentence form or syntactic structure form. It is necessary to consider the various semantic and pragmatic elements including the intonation and tone of the speaker, changes in word order, surrounding environment, situation of the conversation, preceding and following context and conversational context. There should be proper understanding of the meanings from both languages to select and use the appropriate response forms.

2A Character of a Woman Shown in Mongolian Heroic Epic

저자 : B. Norovnyam

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 31-51 (21 pages)

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In Mongolian heroic epic, a woman appears with three images such as a female hero, a hero's spouse, and a negative woman. Among these women, a shape of a woman as a hero's life partner, who has divine ability, is outstanding. The divine ability is specified as, first, a prophet, second, a therapist who can revive the dead, third, a capable person who can use a transformation technique, and fourth, the function dubbed the goddess of light. This not only shows the aspect of goddess(女神) but also is the function of shaman. A woman, who combines all of these, is a male hero's spouse and helper, thereby making the male hero a true hero. Meanwhile, what makes a competent woman a life partner shows a male hero's capability. There are few special comments on the external shape of a female hero who indicates ability like a male hero. This is interpreted to be more emphasized a female hero's heroic move than a female hero's appearance. A female hero displays 'physical prowess' same as a male hero. The capacity of a female hero includes archery, wrestling and horse riding. Like the positive female image, a negative woman in the Mongolian heroic epic has special ability, is beautiful, or has an ugly image of a witch as well. A conflict between a hero and a woman is analyzed as a material that represents a struggle for power between men and women in the process of being implemented into a male-dominated society from a matriarchal society. The image in the goddess of light was transformed from generation to generation, thereby having been turned into a woman who satisfied the standard of medieval beauty in a woman, and into a female image that well performs a woman's role in realistic life.
Ultimately, a woman's image, which is understood in the Mongolian heroic epic, shows two aspects that are very ideal and realistic at the same time. What is proposed as omnipotence is its ideal shape. On the other hand, the realistic shape is to be presented as a male hero's companion and adviser while being in charge of the household chores as a housewife. The ideal woman's shape is related to the origin of the Mongolian heroic epic. The ideal woman's shape expresses the aspect, which was changed into a realistic female image, with losing its function gradually.

3항파두리성(缸波頭里城)은 태평양 탐라국(耽羅國) 홍바투성(洪拔都城)

저자 : 주채혁 ( Zhu Chae-hyok )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 53-99 (47 pages)

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태평양 탐라국(耽羅國) 항파두리성(缸波頭里城)에 관한 견해는 몇 가지가 있어오지만, 이를 재론하기보다는 여기서는 당시의 주된 역사적인 상황을 되짚어가며 그 실상을 되새겨보는 데에 주력하려 한다. 이 성은 대체로 팍스 몽골리카의 극성기인 1273~1374년 경에 현존했던 것으로 보이는 만큼 크게는 스텝 몽골유목세계제국의 해양세력 확보와 직관되는 존재 목적을 가졌던 것으로 추정된다. 태평양 탐라국 항파두리성의 초대 성장(城將)은 스텝 몽골유목세계제국 '정동(征東) 도원수'인 칭기스칸의 충직한 이부·동모·동성·말제(異父·同母·同姓·'末弟') Borjigin Temuge Odcigin의 6세손인 황족 힌두(Borjigin Hindu: 忻都 또는 忽敦)이었다가 그가 어떤 사정으로 거세되고 1277년부터 고려계 몽골인 홍복원(洪福源)의 아들 홍다구(洪茶丘) 일가가 그 자리를 점유하면서 홍바타르성(洪baatar城: 洪拔都'Batu'城)으로 성명(城名)이 정착되었을 수 있다고 추정된다. 홍다구의 뒤를 이은 성장이 그의 조카 스텝 몽골유목세계제국 정동 도원수홍파두아(洪波豆兒: Hong Baatar-洪拔都'Hong Batu':홍영웅, 장군)로 명명되고 있어서 그럴 가능성을 보여준다. 당해(當該) 출처 사료들이 모두 고려측 사료이어서 더욱 그러하다. 반군(叛軍) 삼별초(三別抄)가 몽·려 연합군에게 멸절된 후의 스텝 몽골유목세계제국 '정동(征東) 도원수로 명명(命名)·기록되고, 세습되는 그들 홍(洪)씨일가 성장(城將)이 Hong Baatar(洪波豆兒: 洪拔都'Hong Batu')로 불리는 것은 대체로 무난한 일이기 때문이다.
다만 쿠빌라이 대칸의 쿠데타는 이로부터 완성돼 팍스 몽골라카를 구가했으나 동시에 몽골세계제국이 내외로 붕괴되는 치명적인 불씨를 심은 것도 사실이라 하겠다. 다만 해양 몽골세계제국화 중심기지 태평양 탐라국 항파두리성-홍발도성(洪拔都'Batu'城)의 해양사 상 최첨단의 최대 태평양세계대전을 시도한 결과가 조선조의 거북선(龜船; 1413년)으로 결실됐을 수 있다는 가능성을 열어보여주는 것으로 보이는 유물들이 관계 해전유적일대에서 근래에 발굴되고 있는 일이 주목된다.
쿠빌라이 대칸 휘하 최고위 인물중의 일인이었다 할 스텝 몽골유목세계제국 '정동 도원수' 홍다구 바투(洪茶丘 拔都)는 1274년 쿠빌라이 대칸의 칙명(勅命)으로 정일(征日) 감독조선관군민총관(監督造船官軍民摠管)을 직접 맡아 정일조선공사(征日造船工事)를 몸소 총주관했기 때문이다.

4몽골제국 카안울루스에서의 말과 일상의 변화·충돌·조정 ― 비싸고 짓밟고 늙고 병들고 잃고 ―

저자 : 설배환 ( Paehwan Seol )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 100-153 (54 pages)

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This paper examines the spread of equestrian culture and knowledge in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and its effects on daily life in the Qa'an ulus―namely, China's Yuan dynasty―within the Mongol empire.
Previous works have greatly contributed to our understanding of horse production and management in Mongolia, China, and Goryeo (especially Tamla 耽羅, or present-day Jejudo) in both military and economic affairs and the operation of horse ranches in East and West Asia. The Mongols were excellent at raising and riding horses and able to nurture and supply high-quality horses within the context of the efficient labor of pastoral nomadism. However, researchers have paid little attention to the effect of horses on the society, culture, and daily life in both urban and rural areas, including the Mongol steppe. As a consequence, we overlook the varieties in equestrian culture across the empire and the culture's multifaceted ties with its people.
Historical sources provide great potential for deeper understanding of equestrian culture's relationship with society under the Mongol Empire. This is especially true for China, which published horse know-how in a number of agricultural books. For example, the Nongsang jiyao 農桑輯要 (Essentials of agriculture and sericulture) provided instruction for feeding horses, as well as diagnosing diseases and prescribing treatments. The Jujia biyong shilei quanji 居家必用事類全集 (Complete collection of classified affairs essential for those living at home), one of many encyclopedias produced during the rule of the Mongol Yuan dynasty, elaborates on general methods of breeding and raising livestock, including horses. The existence of such manuals encouraged the spread of horsemanship and the elevation of equestrian knowledge throughout China as a result. Interestingly, these manuals do not necessarily reflect a standardization of methods. In the 1230s, for example, Chinese practices differed greatly from Mongol practices, and their horses often got sick. Ignorance and lack of equestrian knowledge among many in China continued through the sixteenth century.
The Mongols established administrative offices for the stable supply and management of horses in China, including the Quanmu suo 群牧所 (Office of imperial horse-raising and harnesses and Taipu si 太僕寺 (Office of imperial horses). The intense demand for horses as a consequence of the Mongols' continuous military campaigns stimulated a widespread need for broader knowledge about horse raising, which prompted its spread. The imperial encouragement of horse ownership and cultivation across their giant domain created widespread consequences for multiple facets of aspects of daily life among the subject population in many regions of the empire, like China. In contrast with other livestock, for example, people could not easily eat horses and cattle. People considered horse-riding a privilege, and they projected this attitude upon horse-rearing as well. Unlike crops, rearing horse could often create a greater burden on the people who undertook it, which invited greater state intervention. Livestock was often lost, which increased their cost. The Mongol government established bularghuchis, namely officials that oversaw lost livestock and slaves, and their offices. The economy of horse raising often encouraged illegal behavior among farmers or nomads.
The increased consumption of land for horse-rearing lands in China often adversely affected the availability of farmland and agricultural yields. Horses sometimes treaded upon crops or ate them. Horse fields protected the eggs and larvae of locusts in the autumn and winter, which could cause locust plagues in the next year. In cities and towns, increased horse riding could cause accidents on streets and in alleyways. The Mongol government adopted a variety of administrative measures to try to solve these problems. Thus, the horse became not only an important actor in the Mongol enterprise of empire-building, but it also acted as a long-term igniter to stimulate locust plagues and people's evasion from the empire.

5한·몽 외교 관계 30년 회고와 전망에 관한 연구

저자 : 송병구 ( Byeong-gu Song ) , 류병재 ( Byung-jae Yoo )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 154-198 (45 pages)

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On the occasion of the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between Korea and Mongolia, this research aims to review the development of Korea and Mongolia relations focusing on the top-level relations in politics and diplomacy and summarize the current situation. In addition, to understand Mongolian diplomacy, this study seeks to examine the characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy and the process of developing relations with major bilateral diplomatic countries and explore new elements of cooperation in diplomacy between Korean and Mongolia.
Since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Korea and Mongolia on March 26, 1990, Korea and Mongolia have been expanding their relations to all areas of the two countries through three rounds of heightened relations. In 1999, during President Kim Dae Jung's visit to Mongolia, the two countries set up 'Mutually Complementary and Cooperative Relation in the 21st century, and in 2006, during President Roh Moo Hyun's visit to Mongolia, they set up 'Good-Neighbor Friendship Cooperation Partnership' Lastly, in 2011, during President Lee Myung Bak's visit to Mongolia, they established the current 'Comprehensive Partnership'.
The characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy can be summarized by three key words: neutral diplomacy, balanced diplomacy, multilateral diplomacy. Through the analysis and understanding of the characteristics of Mongolian diplomacy, this research set goals for future-oriented Korean-Mongolia diplomatic relations and examined their implementation.
This research is essential in the practical sense in that the two countries have not yet been engaged in ground-breaking bilateral cooperation compared with the complementary benefits and the traditional emotional ties of the two countries, which can not be found in other neighboring countries. In this regard, it is hoped that the discussions of this research will pave the way for the two countries to prepare for the next 30 years by summarizing the past 30 years of relations.

6몽골 철도의 건설과 협력 방안에 대한 고찰 - 타반톨고이~주웅바양 구간을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김보라 ( Bora Kim )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 199-227 (29 pages)

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This study aims to examine the Tavantolgoi-Zuunbayan railway construction and draw up proposals for cooperation with Mongolia in connection with this railway construction. It first examines the Tavantolgoi-Zuunbayan railway and its construction process. Next, it analyzes the purpose of the Tavantolgoi-Zuunbayan railway construction. Lastly, it draws up proposals for cooperation with Mongolia based on the purpose analysis of the Tavantolgoi-Zuunbayan railway construction.
As a result of study, it draws up seven proposals for cooperation with Mongolia: (1) proposal for cooperation on development of mines with exploitation licences in the southern Mongolia, (2) proposal for cooperation on railway lines connected to the railroads of Mongolia, Russia and China, (3) proposal for cooperation through ports in the Russian Far East, North China and Northeast China, (4) proposal for cooperation on transit transportation connecting Asia and Europe, (5) proposal for cooperation with Mongolia on construction of the railways, which the Mongolian government is planning to build, (6) proposal for cooperation on processing and export of minerals in the Sainshand county of Dornogovi province, and (7) proposal for cooperation on the Khangi-Mandal border checkpoint.

7旅游開發與共享發展: 一個獵民村社會轉型經驗的啓示

저자 : 包英華 ( Yinghua Bao )

발행기관 : 한국몽골학회 간행물 : 몽골학 60권 0호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 229-251 (23 pages)

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Via a case study on the transformation of a hunters' tribe, this paper attempts to illustrate the current living condition of “previous hunters” after experiencing industrial transformation from hunting to tourism. Under the perspective of tourism development and the concept of “development for the benefit of all”, the appreciative inquiry was adopted as the main method to explore the establishment of a top-down and bottom-up combination of tourism development models and dialogue mechanisms. By doing so, it is hoped to achieve the social effects of sharing the fruit of tourism development among different stakeholders.

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72권 0호 ~ 72권 0호

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선사와 고대
62권 0호 ~ 62권 0호

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동양학
79권 0호 ~ 79권 0호

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125권 0호 ~ 125권 0호

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45권 0호 ~ 45권 0호

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67권 0호 ~ 67권 0호

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82권 0호 ~ 82권 0호

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37권 0호 ~ 46권 0호

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대구사학
138권 0호 ~ 138권 0호

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36권 0호 ~ 52권 0호

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56권 0호 ~ 56권 0호

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78권 0호 ~ 78권 0호

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60권 0호 ~ 60권 0호

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124권 0호 ~ 124권 0호

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