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한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회)> 한국축산학회지> Dietary protease improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs

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Dietary protease improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs

Sangwoo Park , Jeong Jae Lee , Boung Mo Yang , Jin Ho Cho , Soyun Kim , Joowon Kang , Sejong Oh , Dong-jun Park , Rider Perez-maldonado , Jee-yeon Cho , Il-hun Park , Hyeun Bum Kim , Minho Song
  • : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회)
  • : 한국축산학회지 62권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2020년 01월
  • : 21-30(10pages)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
Materials and Methods
Results and Discussion
Conclusion
References

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초록 보기


						
This study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary protease (PR) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs. A total of 75 weaned pigs [7.06 ± 0.18 kg of average body weight (BW); 28 day old] were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (blocks = BW and sex): a diet based on corn and soybean meal to meet the requirement of crude protein (CP) as a positive control (PC; CP = 24.49%), a low protein diet as a negative control (NC; CP = 22.51%), and NC + 0.02% PR. The PR used in this study was a commercial product containing 75,000 protease units/g derived from Nocardiopsis prasina produced in Bacillus licheniformis. Pigs were fed the dietary treatments for 6 weeks and the diets containing 0.2% chromic oxide for the last week of this study. Blood, feces, ileal digesta, and ileum samples were collected from randomly selected two pigs in each pen on respective time points. Measurements were growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), CP, and energy, frequency of diarrhea, packed cell volume (PCV), and ileal morphology of weaned pigs. Pigs fed PC and PR had higher (p < 0.05) final BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) during overall experimental period than those fed NC. Pigs fed PC and PR had higher (p < 0.05) AID or ATTD of DM, CP, or energy than those fed NC. Moreover, pigs fed PR had higher ratio between villus height and crypt depth (p < 0.05) and number of goblet cells (p < 0.05) than those fed NC. Addition of PR decreased (p < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea for the first two weeks after weaning compared with PC and NC. In addition, pigs fed PR had lower (p < 0.05) PCV on d 14 after weaning than those fed PC and NC. In conclusion, addition of PR in nursery diets with a low protein level significantly improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 농학분야  > 축산
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCI,SCOPUS
  • : 격월
  • : 1598-9429
  • : 2055-0391
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1958-2020
  • : 4385


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1Reductive acetogens isolated from ruminants and their effect on in vitro methane mitigation and milk performance in Holstein cows

저자 : Seon-ho Kim , Lovelia L Mamuad , Mahfuzul Islam , Sang-suk Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-13 (13 pages)

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This study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of reductive acetogens isolated from ruminants on methane mitigation, and milk performance, respectively. Four acetogens, Proteiniphilum acetatigenes DA02, P. acetatigenes GA01, Alkaliphilus crotonatoxidans GA02, and P. acetatigenes GA03 strains were isolated from ruminants and used in in vitro experiment. A control (without acetogen) and a positive group (with Eubacterium limosum ATCC 8486) were also included in in vitro experiment. Based on higher acetate as well as lower methane producing ability in in vitro trial, P. acetatigenes GA03 was used as inoculum for in vivo experiment. Holstein dairy cows (n = 14) were divided into two groups viz. control (without) and GA03 group (diet supplied with P. acetatigenes GA03 at a feed rate of 1% supplementation). Milk performance and blood parameters were checked for both groups. In in vitro, the total volatile fatty acids and acetate production were higher (p < 0.05) in all 4 isolated acetogens than the control and positive treatment. Also, all acetogens significantly lowered (p < 0.05) methane production in comparison to positive and control groups however, GA03 had the lowest (p < 0.05) methane production among 4 isolates. In in vivo, the rate of milk yield reduction was higher (p < 0.05) in the control than GA03 treated group (5.07 vs 2.4 kg). Similarly, the decrease in milk fat was also higher in control (0.14% vs 0.09%) than treatment. The somatic cell counts (SCC; ×103/mL) was decreased from 128.43 to 107.00 in acetogen treated group however, increased in control from 138.14 to 395.71. In addition, GA03 increased blood glucose and decreased non-esterified fatty acids. Our results suggest that the isolated acetogens have the potential for in vitro methane reduction and P. acetatigenes GA03 strain could be a candidate probiotic strain for improving milk yield and milk fat in lactating cows with lowering SCCs.

2Effects of a nursing sound stimulus on performance of lactating sows and litters

저자 : Jung Hwan Jeon , Doo Hwan Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 14-20 (7 pages)

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The goal of this study was to determine an effective interval of playing a nursing sound stimulus. One hundred forty four lactating multiparous sows (Landrace; parity range: 2 to 7) and their litters (Landrace × Yorkshire) were divided into 3 block (48 each), each of which was randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups including control which had no call stimulus (n = 12 each). The call of nursing and suckling, plus a click sound, were used as a nursing sound stimulus that was played in the intervals of 35 min (T35), 40 min (T40) and 45 min (T45) right after the first parturition in each experimental group until the day of weaning. Nursing sound stimuli did not affect the sow feed intake and back fat thickness loss. No differences were detected among treatments in the percentages of sows returning to estrus within 5 days after weaning and sows without crushed piglets. However, the piglets' weaning weight and daily weight gain in T35 and T40 groups was greater (p < 0.01) than the controlled piglets. These results suggest that a nursing sound stimulus can improve the performance of suckling piglets, and that 35 or 40 min interval of playing a nursing sound could be the effective sound stimulus for nursing sows.

3Dietary protease improves growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs

저자 : Sangwoo Park , Jeong Jae Lee , Boung Mo Yang , Jin Ho Cho , Soyun Kim , Joowon Kang , Sejong Oh , Dong-jun Park , Rider Perez-maldonado , Jee-yeon Cho , Il-hun Park , Hyeun Bum Kim , Minho Song

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 21-30 (10 pages)

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This study was conducted to evaluate effects of dietary protease (PR) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs. A total of 75 weaned pigs [7.06 ± 0.18 kg of average body weight (BW); 28 day old] were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design (blocks = BW and sex): a diet based on corn and soybean meal to meet the requirement of crude protein (CP) as a positive control (PC; CP = 24.49%), a low protein diet as a negative control (NC; CP = 22.51%), and NC + 0.02% PR. The PR used in this study was a commercial product containing 75,000 protease units/g derived from Nocardiopsis prasina produced in Bacillus licheniformis. Pigs were fed the dietary treatments for 6 weeks and the diets containing 0.2% chromic oxide for the last week of this study. Blood, feces, ileal digesta, and ileum samples were collected from randomly selected two pigs in each pen on respective time points. Measurements were growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), CP, and energy, frequency of diarrhea, packed cell volume (PCV), and ileal morphology of weaned pigs. Pigs fed PC and PR had higher (p < 0.05) final BW, average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) during overall experimental period than those fed NC. Pigs fed PC and PR had higher (p < 0.05) AID or ATTD of DM, CP, or energy than those fed NC. Moreover, pigs fed PR had higher ratio between villus height and crypt depth (p < 0.05) and number of goblet cells (p < 0.05) than those fed NC. Addition of PR decreased (p < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea for the first two weeks after weaning compared with PC and NC. In addition, pigs fed PR had lower (p < 0.05) PCV on d 14 after weaning than those fed PC and NC. In conclusion, addition of PR in nursery diets with a low protein level significantly improved growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal morphology of weaned pigs

4The effects of dietary supplementation with 3-nitrooxypropanol on enteric methane emissions, rumen fermentation, and production performance in ruminants: a meta-analysis

저자 : Hanbeen Kim , Hyo Gun Lee , Youl-chang Baek , Seyoung Lee , Jakyeom Seo

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 31-42 (12 pages)

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The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of 3-nitrooxypropanol (NOP) on gas production, rumen fermentation, and animal performances depending on animal type using a meta-analysis approach. A database consisted of data from 14 studies, 18 experiments and 55 treatments. The supplementation of NOP linearly decreased methane (CH4) emissions [g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)] regardless of animal type and length of experimental period (beef, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.797; dairy, p = 0.0003, R2 = 0.916; and long term, p < 0.0001, R2 = 0.910). The total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration and the proportion of acetate, based on beef cattle database, were significantly decreased with increasing NOP supplementation (p = 0.0015, R2 = 0.804 and p = 0.0003, R2 = 0.918), whereas other individual VFAs was increased. Based on the dairy database, increasing levels of NOP supplementation linearly decreased proportion of acetate (p = 0.0284, R2 = 0.769) and increased that of valerate (p = 0.0340, R2 = 0.522), regardless of significant change on other individual VFAs. In animal performances, the DMI, from beef cattle database, tended to decrease when the levels of NOP supplementation increased (p = 0.0574, R2 = 0.170), whereas there was no significant change on DMI from dairy cattle database. The NOP supplementation tended to decrease milk yield (p = 0.0606, R2 = 0.381) and increase milk fat and milk protein (p = 0.0861, R2 = 0.321, p = 0.0838, R2 = 0.322). NOP is a viable candidate as a feed additive because of its CH4 mitigation effects, regardless of animal type and experiment period, without adverse effects on animal performances.

5Effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers

저자 : Ji Seon An , Won Yun , Ji Hwan Lee , Han Jin Oh , Tae Heon Kim , Eun Ah Cho , Gok Mi Kim , Ki Hyun Kim , Sung Dae Lee , Jin Ho Cho

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 43-51 (9 pages)

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of exogenous emulsifier supplementation on growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality in broilers. A total of 60 Ross 308 broilers were treated for two weeks. The three dietary treatments were: (CON) basal diet; (T1) basal diet + 0.1% exogenous emulsifier, and (T2) basal diet + 0.2% exogenous emulsifier. In Period 1 (0-7 days), broilers in the T2 group showed significantly higher body weight gain (BWG) (p < 0.05) and broilers in the T1 and T2 treatment groups had significantly lower feed conversion ratios (FCR) (p < 0.05). In Period 2 (8-14 days), broilers in the T2 treatment group had significantly higher feed intake (FI) (p < 0.05). Therefore, in this experiment (from days 0 to 19), BWG and FCR were affected (p < 0.05) by the T1 and T2 treatments. Additionally, the T1 and T2 treatments with added exogenous emulsifier in the broiler feed showed significantly higher energy digestibility (p < 0.05) than the CON treatment. Broilers fed the T2 diet had higher water-holding capacity (WHC) (p < 0.05) and cooking loss than the broilers fed the CON and T1 diets. Moreover, the shearing force in the meat was decreased (p < 0.05) in broilers fed the T2 diet. In conclusion, supplementation with exogenous emulsifier to broiler diets improved growth performance, energy digestibility, and meat quality. The optimal amount of exogenous emulsifier supplementation requires further investigation.

6Effects of nitrogen gas flushing in comparison with argon on rumen fermentation characteristics in in vitro studies

저자 : Kiyeon Park , Honggu Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 52-57 (6 pages)

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In rumen in vitro experiments, although nitrogen gas (N2) flushing has been widely used, its effects on rumen fermentation characteristics are not clearly determined. The present study is the first to evaluate the effects of N2 flushing on rumen fermentation characteristics in in vitro batch culture system by comparing with new applicable non-metabolizable gas: argon (Ar). The rumen fluid was taken from two Korean native heifers followed by incubation for 3, 9, 12, and 24 h with N2 or Ar flushing. As a result, in all incubation time, N2 flushing resulted in higher total gas production than Ar flushing (p < 0.01). Additionally, in N2 flushing group, ammonia nitrogen was increased (p < 0.01). However, volatile fatty acids profiles and pH were not affected by the flushing gases (p > 0.05). In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that N2 flushing can influence the rumen nitrogen metabolism via increased ammonia nitrogen concentration and Ar flushing can be used as a new alternative flushing gas.

7Comparison of sample preparation procedures of inductively coupled plasma to measure elements in dog's hair

저자 : Ju Lan Chun , Han Tae Bang , Sang Yun Ji , Jin Young Jeong , Minji Kim , Byeonghyeon Kim , Sung Dae Lee , Yoo Kyung Lee , Kondreddy Eswar Reddy , Ki Hyun Kim

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 58-63 (6 pages)

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The pre-treatment condition affects on the element analysis of inductively coupled plasma (ICP). In this study the pre-treatment condition of ICP has been studied to quantify elements in dog's hair. The hair samples were collected from twelve female Beagles by clipping them into 1 or 2 cm at the back neck. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of elements in hairs were performed by using ICP. By ICP nine elements were qualitatively detected and quantitatively analyzed (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Se, Zn). The measured amounts of elements were compared between 3 step and 2 step procedures which were with and without the acetone based washing step. The quantitative analysis showed that the concentrations of K, Na, P, and Se were significantly decreased in hair samples with acetone-based washing (p < 0.005 or 0.001) unlike those without the acetone-based washing. It implied that some minerals are lost by the acetone based washing during the sample preparation step. Therefore, the acetone based washing process is not suitable for quantifying elements in dog's hair. In addition, the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis were compared. Although there was a difference in absolute values of elemental contents in hair, the results of qualitative and quantitative analysis were significantly correlated each other. This finding suggested that the results of qualitative analysis can be used to monitor elemental contents in dog's hair.

8Comparing greenhouse gas emissions and nutritional values based on Korean suggested meal plans and modified vegan meal plans

저자 : Geun-woo Park , Ji-yung Kim , Min Hyeok Lee , Jung-im Yun , Kyu-hyun Park

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 64-73 (10 pages)

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Producing animal products from farm to table emits massive amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Modified meal plans, mainly including vegetables and grains, have been recommended to reduce GHG emissions. However, these meal plans have not been developed with regard to the micronutrient content, but rather with regard to the energy requirements of grains and vegetables, which could result in a nutritional imbalance. For this reason, we investigated a common Korean suggested meal plan (SMP) from the National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, in which nutritional conditions were considered, and evaluated its GHG emissions using the Life Cycle Assessment Inventory Database and nutritional values. The SMP, which included meat, was based on the Korean Nutrition Society for adult men age 19 to 29, and was changed to a vegan meal plan (VMP). Animal-based protein sources were substituted for meat alternatives, such as beans and tofu, for which carbon footprint data was available. To compare the nutritional differences, the 9th Korean Food Composition Tables I and II were consulted. To calculate GHG emissions, the carbon footprint data of the food was converted to a CO2 equivalent (CO2e) using a procedure from the Foundation of Agriculture Technology Commercialization and Transfer. It was found that GHG emissions per calorie were 18% lower for the VMP when compared to the SMP. However, if GHG emissions per total amino acids were evaluated, the VMP GHG emissions per total amino acids were 0.12 g CO2e/mg, while the corresponding value for the SMP was 0.06 g CO2e/mg. The Korean daily meat intake reported by the Korea Agricultural Statistics Service was 37.1% lower than in the SMP, but when converted to a protein intake the figure was 17.0% lower. It was found that each SMP resulted in more GHG emissions than the VMP, but when considered as GHG emissions per total amino acids, the opposite pattern was apparent. There is a need to conduct more detailed studies of the variation in GHG emissions with different meal plans, using the daily meat intake per person.

9Influence of carbon type and carbon to nitrogen ratio on the biochemical methane potential, pH, and ammonia nitrogen in anaerobic digestion

저자 : Yongjun Choi , Jeongwon Ryu , Sang Rak Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 74-83 (10 pages)

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Organic waste used as a feedstock in the anaerobic digestion (AD), it includes carbon and nitrogen. Carbon and nitrogen have an effect on the various digestive characteristics during AD, however, the study is rare about those of the interaction. This study investigates the influence of carbon type and carbon to nitrogens (C/N ratios) on the AD characteristics of organic waste. Experimental treatments involved a combination of three carbon types with three C/ N ratios. The AD tests were carried out using a 125-mL serum bottle at a constant temperature of 37℃ and moisture 95% for 18 days. Degradation pattern shows the difference among three-carbon treatments, the starch group was faster than other groups. Maximum methane production date was similar between starch (9.96 ± 0.05 day) and xylan group (10.0 ± 0.52 day), those of the cellulose group (14.6 ± 1.80 day) was slower than other groups (p < 0.05). The lag phase was only affected by the carbon type (p < 0.05). Ammonia nitrogen was mainly affected by nitrogen concentration regardless of carbon type (p < 0.05). This study showed that xylan is useful as feedstock in order to decrease the lag phase, and it showed that ammonia was independently affected by the nitrogen concentration.

10Pediococcus spp.-fermented chicken meat for dogs

저자 : Eunchae Lee , Ki-taek Nam , Kyung-woo Lee , Sang-rak Lee

발행기관 : 한국축산학회(구 한국동물자원과학회) 간행물 : 한국축산학회지 62권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 84-93 (10 pages)

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An experiment was conducted to evaluate Pediococcus spp.-fermented chicken meat as a snack for dogs. The fermented or non-fermented snacks used in this study were prepared through the following process; meat mixtures containing 52.8% MDCM, 35.2% chicken breast meat (CBM) and 9.7% corn starch were inoculated with or without Pediococcus spp., incubated at 37℃ for 24 h and then sterilized at 121℃ for 20 min. During the 24-h fermentation, the pH of fermented chicken snack dropped rapidly with concomitant increase in number of lactic acid bacteria. The nutritional composition was not altered by fermentation. In vitro pepsin nitrogen digestibility was higher (p < 0.05) in the fermented snack compared with the non-fermented snack. Upon storage at room temperature for 14 days, bacteria grew slowly in fermented vs. non-fermented snack samples. In a palatability trial, dogs preferred non-fermented over fermented snack food. In 12-d-long feeding trial, fecal ammonia content was lowered, but fecal lactic acid content was increased in dogs fed the fermented vs. non-fermented snack food. Our study shows that the fermented MDCM-based snack exhibited good preservability upon storage, and improved in vitro nitrogen digestibility and fecal characteristics in dogs.

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