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한일민족문제학회> 한일민족문제연구> 히가시우에노(東上野) 친선마켓의 형성과 변용

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히가시우에노(東上野) 친선마켓의 형성과 변용

The Formation and Transformation of Koreatown after Liberation -The Case of Goodwill Market in Higashi Ueno-

박미아 ( Park Mi-a )
  • : 한일민족문제학회
  • : 한일민족문제연구 37권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 12월
  • : 67-103(37pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 머리말
Ⅱ. 해방 이후 우에노 암시장과 재일조선인
Ⅲ. 친선마켓의 형성과 변용
Ⅳ. 맺음말

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As a microcosm of the fierce postwar struggle for survival, the black markets connote various aspects. After liberation, the large scale of repatriation to Korea and serious unemployment had led to a major change of the life of Koreans in Japan. Ueno was one of the most crowded black market in Tokyo, Zainich Korean also gathered here for more profit and became significant power group in Ueno. However, conflicts continued steadily due to disputes over interests in black markets and mutual checks based on national sentiment. In response, the police and Daito-ku(台東區) district office proposed separation Korean from Ueno and helped to find replacement.
Higashi Ueno became the base of the Zainich Korean with the result that the project had been accomplished. Higashi Ueno was a place for commerce and housing, which was called the Goodwill Market. It had become known as Tokyo’s representative Koreatown after liberation, mainly focused on the necessities of the life of Zainich Korean.
The Korean villages in Japan of pre-liberation era, which were mainly formed in places with inconvenient traffic and poor environment, lasted similar aspects even after liberation. On the other hand, Higashi Ueno was a place where land was purchased in a legal manner, and here, commercial and living rights of the people were guaranteed. It means that the Zainich Korean could lead a stable life in a guaranteed place and also reflected the change of life style after liberation.
Higashi Ueno has been the representative Koreatown of Tokyo over 70 years, however, as generations change, the region is also undergoing changes. Since the 2000s, exchanges between Korea and Japan have expanded further, and a new Koreatown has been formed around Shin- Okubo near Shinjuku. Thus, the uniqueness of the Higashi Ueno has been much smaller than before. Higashi Ueno reflects more than 100 years of Zainich Korean history, which could be called a barometer for predicting the future of Korean society in Japan.
日本の敗戦により、在日朝鮮人は解放を迎えた。解放後、多くの在日朝鮮人が帰国したが、様々な状況のためすぐに帰国できなかった人々も多く、戦時産業に従事した在日朝鮮人は大量失業状態に陥った。
職を失った在日朝鮮人たちは戦後に現れた闇市で生活の方策を求めようとした。東京の交通要衝地の一つである上野にも戦後の闇市が入った。在日朝鮮人はより良い収益を期待して上野闇市に集まり、戦争以前にはコリアン·コミュニティの機能が大きくなかった上野駅周辺は闇市を通じて在日朝鮮人の活動の中心地になっていった。敗戦後の一定時期までは在日朝鮮人が「治外法権」的存在として認識されており、在日朝鮮人の活動が際立って浮き彫りになっていた上野闇市の在日朝鮮人も、自分たちのそうした権利を当然のことと考える傾向があった。
しかし闇市の内の利権争い、民族的感情による相互牽制などは絶えず葛藤を引き起こした。これに対し警察と台東区役所は在日朝鮮人を別々に分離することを提案し、その結果、上野闇市から大路を面した東上野地域を払い下げることとなった。東上野地域は「国際親善マーケット」と呼ばれる住商複合空間であり、在日朝鮮人の独自の商業と生活圏域として形成された。
解放以前、日本全域に存在した在日朝鮮人村は主に肉体労働、鉱山、工場労働者が中心になっていた場所で、交通が不便であり生活環境が非常に劣悪な場所が多かった。解放後にも同様の様相を見せた。一方、東上野は合法的方式で土地を買い取り、商圏と生活圏を形成した場所で、解放以降在日朝鮮人の変化したライフ·スタイルを反映する場所でもあった。親善マーケットは在日コリアンを相手にする衣食住事業を中心に、東京の代表的なコリア·タウンとして知られるようになった。
東上野は70年間東京を代表するコリア·タウンだったが、世代が変わり、この地域も変化を経験している。2000年代以降、韓日両国の交流がさらに拡大されて韓国から新たに流入された人々は新宿付近の新大久保を中心にコリア·タウンを形成した。したがって東上野のユニークさも以前に比べてかなり縮小された。東上野は100年以上の在日コリアンの歴史を反映しており、この地域の変化は結局、在日コリアン社会の将来を予測するバロメーターとも言えるだろう。

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 정치/외교학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1598-8414
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2001-2019
  • : 314


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1해방 직후 재조일본인의 한미 이간 공작 음모

저자 : 이상호 ( Lee Sang-ho )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-35 (31 pages)

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The purpose of this study is to examine the perception of the situation of the Japanese Government General of Korea, the Japanese settlers in colonial Korea toward Japan defeat, and the intention of the conflict between South Korea and the US by the Japanese return group, especially the Japanese Relief Society, during the period of US military in South Korea.
The Japanese government decided that the sovereignty of the Korean peninsula remained in Japan until it ratified a peace treaty that would define Japan's postwar status, and informed the Japanese Government General of Korea on August 24 1945. The Japanese government retained the conventional view that Japan's sovereignty over colonial territories, including the Korean Peninsula, was not in the signing of the Potsdam Declaration to surrender to the Allies, but in a signing of a treaty with the Allies even after the defeat.
After the defeat, the Japanese Military Police and the Tokodai movement was very significant. They were planning to form a subterranean secret organization to distract South Korea's order, and to alienate between the US military and Koreans.
Another secret organization was under investigation by the US military intelligence agency in October 1945, when a clandestine group of former military policemen, who led the operation of the US-Korea separation after US occupation, was being caught by the US military's CIC. The object was the organization of Japanese Relief Society. These groups advocated private organizations aiming for the safe return of Japanese citizens, but they were formed with enormous financial support and support from the Japanese Government General of Korea and the Japanese Military Command in Korea.
In addition, the 'Kim Ke Cho incident' was revealed. Kim Ke Cho, a pro-Japanese leader sponsored by the Japanese Government General of Korea, was brought to trial after being caught by the US military in preparation for the work between Korea and the United States in connection with the Japanese Relief Society. In other words, this event can be evaluated as showing that the space of liberation was not free from the influence of Japanese imperialism, and thus the space of continuity is stronger than disconnection.

2한일어업협정의 체결에 따른 '평화선'의 소멸

저자 : 최영호 ( Choi Young-ho )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 37-65 (29 pages)

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This paper arranges on the basis of the published documents about fishery negotiations of Korea and Japan diplomats during normalization process clarifying what were the issues of the 'peace line' proclaimed unilaterally by Rhee Syngman government and how the line was dissipated in the process of establishment of fishery agreement in 1965. President Rhee declared abroad the 'marine sovereignty' in the Busan temporary government building on Jan. 18th, 1952. Subsequently he began to seize the Japanese fishing boats for the reason of invading the boundary under promulgation of an enforcement ordinance 'capture and Judgement' on Oct. 4th. According to the ordinance, capturing tribunal had the first judgement under the article 2 and high capturing tribunal had the second under the article 24 without verbal trial. Further more governmental draft of 'fishery resources protection law' as a follow-up measure passed the parliament on Dec. 1st, 1953. This paper remarks mainly on the result of the investigation about provision of fishery agreement as the final phase of sustentation of 'peace line' analyzing mainly the diplomatic negotiation documents for differentiation to the preceding researches. I utilize the documents of diplomatic negotiation between Korea and Japan for investigating the content of negotiations and I refer to the other researching results for expressing the structures of the line and agreement.

3히가시우에노(東上野) 친선마켓의 형성과 변용

저자 : 박미아 ( Park Mi-a )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 67-103 (37 pages)

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As a microcosm of the fierce postwar struggle for survival, the black markets connote various aspects. After liberation, the large scale of repatriation to Korea and serious unemployment had led to a major change of the life of Koreans in Japan. Ueno was one of the most crowded black market in Tokyo, Zainich Korean also gathered here for more profit and became significant power group in Ueno. However, conflicts continued steadily due to disputes over interests in black markets and mutual checks based on national sentiment. In response, the police and Daito-ku(台東區) district office proposed separation Korean from Ueno and helped to find replacement.
Higashi Ueno became the base of the Zainich Korean with the result that the project had been accomplished. Higashi Ueno was a place for commerce and housing, which was called the Goodwill Market. It had become known as Tokyo's representative Koreatown after liberation, mainly focused on the necessities of the life of Zainich Korean.
The Korean villages in Japan of pre-liberation era, which were mainly formed in places with inconvenient traffic and poor environment, lasted similar aspects even after liberation. On the other hand, Higashi Ueno was a place where land was purchased in a legal manner, and here, commercial and living rights of the people were guaranteed. It means that the Zainich Korean could lead a stable life in a guaranteed place and also reflected the change of life style after liberation.
Higashi Ueno has been the representative Koreatown of Tokyo over 70 years, however, as generations change, the region is also undergoing changes. Since the 2000s, exchanges between Korea and Japan have expanded further, and a new Koreatown has been formed around Shin- Okubo near Shinjuku. Thus, the uniqueness of the Higashi Ueno has been much smaller than before. Higashi Ueno reflects more than 100 years of Zainich Korean history, which could be called a barometer for predicting the future of Korean society in Japan.

4한국전쟁기 재일조선인의 기억과 재현 -『조선평론(朝鮮評論)』 수록 전화황(全和凰) 작품을 중심으로-

저자 : 한정선 ( Han Jung-sun )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 105-133 (29 pages)

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This paper sheds light on poetry and paintings during the Korean War that have been excluded from the research on Chun Hwa Hwang. Although research outputs have been made with the recent accumulation of research Zainichi' art regarding the life and artworks of Chun Hwa Hwang, the first generation Zainichi artist.
The first objective of this research is to discover and introduce primary documents that were omitted from the research on Chun Hwa Hwang research. This study also intends to examine how he was associating himself with the Zainichi society based on the data. In other words, this study is an attempt to clearly identify how Chun Hwa Hwang shared experiential bond of empathy and collective expression with Zainichi organization during the Korean War while clearly examining what he was particularly observing. To be more specific, this research probes into how Chun was viewing the Korean War by focusing on the five poetry works, cover pages, and illustrations he published on “Chosun Critique” during the Korean War, and recovers his activities during the Korean War that have been neglected in discussions. By doing so, the study aimed to complement the research on Chun Hwa Hwang that has been limited and shed a new light on the activities of Zainichi artists during the Korean War. This paper is a research on Chun Hwa Hwang, a Zainichi artist, and examines how Zainichi who are minority of the Japanese society have remembered and reproduced the Korean War.

51990년 이후 재일잡지미디어 지형 고찰

저자 : 이승진 ( Lee Seung-jin )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 135-166 (32 pages)

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This study aimed to summarize the genealogy of the magazines that Zainichi Koreans have published since 1990, and to examine the significance of the trends of change that can be observed. The consciousness of the members of Zainichi Korean community became individualized in the 1990s, when the magazine media of Zainichi Koreans played a remarkably lesser role as a forum for discourse. In the past, such magazines had exerted a dominant cultural influence on various areas of the community, but they gradually lost their dominance in almost all areas, including literature, politics, history and popular culture. In terms of the number of magazines published, many Zainichi Korean magazines were still published even in the 1990s, including the in-house magazines or journals of various organizations, and lifestyle magazines. As the general literary magazines, however, which had played a pivotal role in the world of Zainichi Korean magazines, had markedly less influence on the community, the areas such magazines covered began to be sharply limited from this time. This change in the circumstances of the magazine media was a phenomenon that the Japanese publishing market was also experiencing. This is because the market was reorganizing to focus on fashion magazines, a trend that meant the magazines in the general literature, current affairs, and politics sectors were gradually reduced, which indicates a change in the function of Japanese magazine media.
On the other hand, the launching of Zainichi Korean magazines has not only been rapidly declining since the 2000s, but they also no longer function as a forum for discourse to bind together the Zainichi Korean community. This seems to be because the distinctiveness of the 'Zainichi Korean' media failed to embrace these changes, and instead served as rather obvious limits on them, as the consciousness of Zainichi Koreans was diversified by generation. This strongly supports the argument that the role and function of Zainichi Korean magazines started on the downward path irretrievably in the 1990s, which was a turning point. On the other hand, another perspective is also considered to be reasonable that the influence Japanese magazines maintain over Japan society may open up the possibility of a new consumption trend for Zainichi Korean magazines. This is because new experiments in the Zainichi Korean magazine market are currently underway; e.g. in the early 2000s, the first women's general literary magazine, Chinihuneokoge (地に舟をこげ) was founded; and in 2015 Koro (航路) was launched, which aimed to rehabilitate the Zainichi Korean general literary magazine. Many Zainichi Korean Magazines are now seeking a solution given the changes faced by the Zainichi Korean community.

61920년대 초 재일본 조선인 유학생의 사회주의 활동과 코스모구락부(コスモ俱樂部)

저자 : 김진웅 ( Kim Jin-wung )

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 167-208 (42 pages)

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This article attempts to restore the facet of early socialist activity of Choseon students in Japan by tracking the formation of Cosmo-Club and members' trends. Cosmo-Club was mere a social gathering originally established for the purpose of socialist research and exchange among international students. However, in June 1921, members such as Won Jongrin and Jung Taesin, who were involved in the plan of establishing the Communist Party of Japan, became a “Small International” of socialist international students by publishing 「Declaration」 based on the ideology of The Third International and taking an action. 
Since then, Cosmo-Club was operated with priority given to Choseon members. Members developed an active movement in close connection with the Gyomin Communist Party. This made Cosmo-Club position as one of the strong socialist groups in Japan. Cosmo-Club, however, was gradually declining since the second half of 1923, since major members changed the activity base. The suppression of Japanese imperialism, arrested and imprisoned and accelerated this by intimidating the members' activities. Eventually, Cosmo-Club was extinguished in 1925 since Kwon-Huiguk and Won Jongrin who were original members abandoned the international solidarity ideology based on socialism and transformed it into right-wing ideology. The beginning and end showed aspects of early socialism activities of Choseon students in Japan and the process of its division.

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8국가기록원 소장 고 김광열 기록물의 기본 현황

저자 : 정혜경

발행기관 : 한일민족문제학회 간행물 : 한일민족문제연구 37권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 217-237 (21 pages)

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