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영미문학연구회> 안과밖> 스트롱맨의 척추해부학 : 신자유주의와 남성성의 정치

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스트롱맨의 척추해부학 : 신자유주의와 남성성의 정치

The Anatomy of Strongmen: Crisis of Masculinity in Neo-Liberalist Society and Its Implications

서동진 ( Seo Dong-jin )
  • : 영미문학연구회
  • : 안과밖 47권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 11월
  • : 12-42(31pages)

DOI


목차

1. 여기, 세명의 남자가 있다
2. 다시, 『권위주의적 인성』으로?
3. 상징화의 위기와 신자유주의적 남성(성)
4. 음경과 남근 사이에서: 결론에 대신하여

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초록 보기


						
This article aims to examine the dominant ways of reflecting masculinity by resisting sociologically determined Strongman symptoms across neo-liberal societies. It is divergent from the constellation of gender conflict in Korean society, in that it refuses to reduce the Strongman symptom to the dichotomies of gender. In order to re-articulate masculinity in terms of dialectics of individual and society, it utilizes critical theory and psychoanalysis appropriated by historical materialism, which tried to analyse the emergence and cultivation of authoritarian personality in fascist Germany and liberalist USA. In addition, it analyzes theoretical and political problematic to reveal neo-liberalist psychotic economy to threaten the symbolic sujectivation/subjection for making individual to choose freedom and asks to combine it with the understanding of masculinity as a terrain which the antinomy of individual and society is conducted.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 어문학분야  > 영문학
  • : KCI등재
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  • : 1226-3761
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2019
  • : 858


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1스트롱맨의 척추해부학 : 신자유주의와 남성성의 정치

저자 : 서동진 ( Seo Dong-jin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 12-42 (31 pages)

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This article aims to examine the dominant ways of reflecting masculinity by resisting sociologically determined Strongman symptoms across neo-liberal societies. It is divergent from the constellation of gender conflict in Korean society, in that it refuses to reduce the Strongman symptom to the dichotomies of gender. In order to re-articulate masculinity in terms of dialectics of individual and society, it utilizes critical theory and psychoanalysis appropriated by historical materialism, which tried to analyse the emergence and cultivation of authoritarian personality in fascist Germany and liberalist USA. In addition, it analyzes theoretical and political problematic to reveal neo-liberalist psychotic economy to threaten the symbolic sujectivation/subjection for making individual to choose freedom and asks to combine it with the understanding of masculinity as a terrain which the antinomy of individual and society is conducted.

2기사가 미칠 때 : 광기, 남성성, 사랑의 문명

저자 : 김현진 ( Kim Hyonjin )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 41-69 (29 pages)

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The Freudian concept of “cultural superego” provides a nice interpretive framework for love madness in the medieval Arthurian romance. In the Prose Lancelot, the initial and foundational branch of the thirteenth-century Old French Lancelot-Grail trilogy, courtly love functions as a cultural superego and the civilization par excellence. As such, it imposes oppressive demands on the masculine chivalric ego. If more than what Lancelot can endure is demanded of him, “a revolt will be produced in him or a neurosis,” and “he will be made” insane. He will regress to his primitive aggressiveness. This formula is readily applicable to the first two cases of Lancelot's madness. In his third and last spell of insanity situated near the end of the narrative, however, the civilizing power of love is compromised by the specter of the Grail, and love itself is all but dismissed as madness. This startling shift may indicate the superimposition of an anti-courtly perspective at a later stage of composition, or more likely the ultimate manifestation of the latent yet persistent tension between two conflicting ideologies. As courtly love evolved into western romantic love in the following centuries, the medieval civilization of love contributed much to the construction of the modern heterosexual male subject.

3로스트 보이와 올드 보이 : 학교 서사를 통해 『피터와 웬디』 속 소년성 읽기

저자 : 김소연 ( Kim Soyoun )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 68-98 (31 pages)

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J. M. Barrie's novel Peter and Wendy (1911) reflects the dicourse over boyhood and boyishness presented in English boarding school narratives. In nineteenth-century English society, boyhood was closely associated with the national agenda for the imperial expansion. The figure of the boy who would not grow up was idealized as the empire replaced its vision of the mature nation with that of the nation that maintains boyish energy. By borrowing the literary conventions of boys' boarding school narratives, Peter and Wendy both represents and questions the ideal of perpetual boyhood. On the one hand, Neverland, the setting of the novel, betrays Lost Boys' desire to challenge the dominant discourse that glorifies growing up. On the other hand, the impossibility of remaining as boys for ever is presented through the Old Boy figure that plays a make-believe play both in Peter and Wendy and in English boarding school narratives. Through contrasting Peter Pan with Captain Hook, the Old Boy, Barrie suggests that the boarding school system led the empire's male subjects to cling to their memories of boyhood and that boyish men's obsession with endless play/game became the cause of innumerable deaths/losses during the wartime.

4『오스까 와오의 짧고 놀라운 삶』의 남성성 비판의 정치학

저자 : 강의혁 ( Kang Euihuack )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 97-130 (34 pages)

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Junot Diaz's The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao has garnered different responses, some in favor, some against. The diverging point of these widely different reading lies in the author's invention of the complicated character as narrator, Ynior. I propose that the key to understanding and assessing the political as well as aesthetic meaning of the text is a close examination of the formal structure where the narrator constructs a linear narrative notwithstanding the apparent fragmentary writing. While the narrator overtly critiques the Dominican masculinity by trying to give voice to the social others, the linear narrative subsumes their voices in a way in which only the traces of their lives are represented. This linear narrative construction is, in turn, generated by the narrator's own Diasporic identity which is itself configured as a schizophrenic and overlapping narrative space of many incommensurable aspects such as hyper-masculinity, a sense of otherness, pop-cultural sensitivity, and self-referential vulgarity. In sum, the paper argues that the political ambiguity as well as efficacy are inscribed and informed by its formal structure.

5번역과 시 : 살아 있는 참새 또는 박제된 독수리?

저자 : 안선재 ( Brother Anthony )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 130-151 (22 pages)

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Edward Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam is a prime example of non-literal poetic translation and Fitzgerald justified his way of translating by saying that a translated poem “must live.” He was not an exception, all the celebrated English translations of classical European literature of the past were made with considerable freedom, not following “faithfully” the originals. Today translations are being made of contemporary poetry from all over the world, but we need always to recall that there is no author in a literary text. Walter Benjamin's essay “The Task of the Translator” is a vibrant affirmation of the autonomous life possessed by a literary work, continuing as its “on-going life” (not “afterlife”) over centuries. The dead poets of literary history need to be presented to students in the company of today's living world writers. Creative writing courses are not the best way of encouraging new generations of writers, but potential writers should be reading fine works that live from past and present. If Korean writers (and readers) of all generations are to be in touch with World Literature today, they need living translations, which should be produced by the most qualified scholars, who should be able to include translation in their professional record. The greatest problem today in Korea is the lack of any vivid awareness of the writers of the outside world, and perhaps even a lack of interest, which is sad.

6세계문학 장에서 '한국시-하기'의 일

저자 : 정은귀 ( Chung Eun-gwi )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 150-176 (27 pages)

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Dealing with a wide range of realistically important issues embedded in literary translation including the interest of publishers and readers, financial supports from the government, and copyrights, this paper examines the 'on-going life' of Korean poetry in the field of world literature. Rather than acknowledge and strengthen the fixed relationship between the original text and the secondary translated text, it goes on to explore the possibility of constructing the third space of translation, where translators, poets, and readers all actively participate in the works of 'doing- Korean poetry. Poetry translation is not a matter of choice between “living sparrows” and “stuffed eagles” in the literary history. Residing in the in-between space where translations and original works meet, it is to ignite never-ending conversations between different languages and cultures. The task of translators beginning from the minor language needs to be set in the lively critical discussion of the original text as visible and invisible participants of world literature. Going beyond the findings of linguistic equivalents between the source language and the target language, it reaches the formation of commons where 'doing-Korean poetry' in the field of world literature is finally realized.

7인공지능시대 인문학의 새 화두들

저자 : 이중원 ( Lee Jungwon )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 176-209 (34 pages)

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The AI era can be said to be the age of de-border between man and machine. In particular, the abilities (sensitivity, reason, autonomy etc.) considered unique to humans can be implemented in non-human machines, so that machines no longer stay in a tool box as an mere object passively operated by humans. They can be (at a certain level) an autonomous agent, a subject who can think and act like human beings. This humanization tendency of machines throws new topics that we have not noticed in the past. In this paper, I will consider these topics in the following order. First of all, I will describe the cognitive power and behavioral abilities of artificial intelligence (robot) that emerges in the present or near future, and examine the technical foundations to enable these capabilities. Next, I will discuss the identity of artificial intelligence (robot), especially the ontological nature. I will focus on the possibility of being a non-human person in the sense of J. Locke, and the issues of autonomy, morality and responsibility emerging in artificial intelligence (robot), and how to give personhood elements as attributes to the artificial intelligence (robot). I will also discuss ways to build personhood in terms of social relationships. Finally, I would like to ask again about the human and humanities in the AI era. I will examine the changes in the relationship between human and machine, a new understanding of human identity, a change to a de-humanistic humanism, and the future tasks that humanities must deal with in this context. These are all important topics in humanities that require new reflection in the age of AI.

8젠지, 진정성, 'K'BTS의 성공이 보여주는 것들

저자 : 이규탁 ( Lee Gyu Tag )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 208-236 (29 pages)

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Globally known K-Pop boy band BTS is an exceptional case that they have become popular not firstly by its domestic fan but global fan. It has constructed the strong fan base internationally, and its success is mostly due to that fandom achieved slowly but steadily. Besides its global success, BTS also is considered 'Next Generation Leader' by global media and fans alike, because its popularity mostly come from the global cyber space where 'Generation Z (Gen Z)' is the main player. BTS can evoke sympathy from Gen Z by its music and message, direct communication method via new internet media platforms, and actualizing the myth of 'rags to riches' - all of which are what Gen Z expects but cannot easily achieve. Among others, BTS's attitude of 'being authentic' or in other words 'being sincere' has played the most important role for its global success and raised it onto the cultural symbol of the era. However, its sincerity has been based on the continuous and even excessive effort to make 'everything about BTS' a sort of product. It can be too stressful and burden for them that needs an extreme emotional labour. Also, BTS's ambivalence as a Korea local band and a global pop star is now constructing conflicts between domestic and international fans, and between its Korean and transnational identities in itself.

91819년의 영국 : 피털루와 셸리

저자 : 박찬길 ( Park Chankil )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 235-277 (43 pages)

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1819 is remembered as the year of Peterloo in British history. Peterloo was the worst massacre of unarmed civilians committed by the government in modern Britain. 1819 was also “a miraculous year” for the Romantic poets such as Shelley, Byron, and Keats because it was during this year that they composed or published a lot of their major poems: Prometheus Unbound, “Ode to the West” by Shelley, the first two cantos of Don Juan by Byron, and his famous odes and “The Eve of St. Agnes” by Keats. This paper is an attempt to explain why the year 1819 became such a decisive moment in the political history of modern Britain as well as in the movement of British romanticism. My argument is that it was basically the same Zeitgeist of the 1810s that gave rise to both occurrences. It was “the spirit of age” of that decade defined by Hazlitt as “the progress of intellectual refinement, warring with our natural infirmities.” John Stuart Mill redefined it a few years later, in Patrick Story's phrases, as “a transitional process of fearful conflict between the tide of progressive expectations reawakened by international peace, and the opposing reaction of 'existing institutions',” which I think is more useful for me to collocate Peterloo and the prolificacy of the romantic poets in a historically significant manner. There has been no serious objection among historians to E. P. Thomson's view that Peterloo was “a formative experience” in the history of modern Britain. Peterloo, then, is the most indubitable expression of the “fearful conflict” between the “progressive expectations” and “the opposing reaction” in the 1810s. Shelley, in this context, is making an ideal case of poetically embodying the 'spirit' of the year 1819 since he composed “The Mask of Anarchy” and “A Philosophical View of Reform” right after Peterloo as a reaction to the unprecedented government brutality from a reformer's point of view. In this paper, I analyse those two works to illuminate Shelley's earnest commitment to the cause of the British reform movement of the 1810s.

109·11 소설의 도전과 한계 : 소설의 매체성과 서사의 다원성

저자 : 조충환 ( Joe Chung Hwan )

발행기관 : 영미문학연구회 간행물 : 안과밖 47권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 277-304 (28 pages)

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Novelists who narrate 9/11 have often struggled with two different issues. The first is a common dilemma of writing about real events. The writer must keep in mind their moral responsibility to portray the disaster, which resulted in the sacrifice of innocent lives, in such a way that does not re-traumatize those who survived and respects those who are deceased. The second is 9/11's unique characteristics as a visual event which was broadcast live all over the world. Novelists need to overcome the visual spectacle of the event while trying to adopt visual elements and while temporality highlighting everyday life at the same time.
To begin, novelists adopted experimental methods and alternative narrative strategies to portray Americans' trauma from 9/11. Extremely Loud & Incredibly Close takes advantage of visual elements such as pictures, editing style and numbers. Windows on the World describes the victims who were trapped in the World Trade Center in chapters which each represent a minute. Falling Man narrates the survivor's story in the form of twisted timeline like the Mobius strip. In addition to that, the novels such as A Disorder Peculiar to the Country, The Writing on the Wall and Self Storage portray individuals who didn't experience 9/11 directly but have been affected by the aftermath of 9/11 with a detailed description about their everyday life.
However, these novels were criticized because they mainly reflected the perspective of white Americans. Conversely, novels such as The Reluctant Fundamentalist, Home Boy, Netherland and Once in a Promised Land all narrate 9/11 from the point of view of non-white American immigrants and shows how 9/11 has affected minority immigrants' everyday lives. Another example is The Submission which portrays diverse and complicated responses to 9/11 by describing various characters from different races, classes and genders. All of these novels shed light on the aftermath of 9/11 through the eyes of immigrants.
As fifteen years have passed since 9/11, the tragedy has changed from a contemporary event to a historical one. American young adult fiction has provided interpretations of 9/11 for its target audience that doesn't recall 9/11 as a personal experience, either because they were not yet born or too young to remember their own experience.

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