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서울대학교 통일평화연구원> Asian Journal of Peacebuilding> Human Security, Peacebuilding, and the Responsibility to Protect in East Asia

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Human Security, Peacebuilding, and the Responsibility to Protect in East Asia

Brendan Howe
  • : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원
  • : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 11월
  • : 183-218(36pages)

DOI


목차

Introduction
East Asian Perspectives on Human Security, Peacebuilding, and the R2P
East Asian Human Security Promotion in Practice
Conclusion
References

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초록 보기


						
East Asia is a region deeply affected by colonial, ideological, and national wars. At the level of international governance, security organizations in the region have looked to minimize the worst manifestations of interstate conflict through emphasizing non-intervention; while domestic governance has emphasized national interest and strength in terms of security and economic growth. East Asian challenges to normative universalism can be defined in cultural, economic, and political terms. This article, however, considers not only the threats to human security in East Asia, but also the roles that East Asian actors play in protecting and promoting human security, noting that under certain conditions, East Asian perspectives may be able to secure, in terms of human security, better results than could be achieved through extra-regional intervention.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 정치/외교학
  • : KCI후보
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 2288-2693
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2013-2019
  • : 111


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1Human Security after 25 Years: Some Introductory Remarks and Critical Reflections

저자 : Sorpong Peou

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 161-181 (21 pages)

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After 25 years, the global vision for human security as a concept and a policy commitment remains unfulfilled in most parts of the world. In fact, more and more evidence points to the growing reality that the idea of securing people has once again succumbed to the traditional concepts of state security and regime security, as it did after World War II. Part of the problem can be found in some major policy instruments adopted by proponents of human security. Military intervention for human protection, economic sanctions and judicial punishment or threats thereof, which have been regarded as policy instruments to protect people or promote human security, have proved to be either insufficient or ineffective, and at worst counter-productive.

2Human Security, Peacebuilding, and the Responsibility to Protect in East Asia

저자 : Brendan Howe

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 183-218 (36 pages)

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East Asia is a region deeply affected by colonial, ideological, and national wars. At the level of international governance, security organizations in the region have looked to minimize the worst manifestations of interstate conflict through emphasizing non-intervention; while domestic governance has emphasized national interest and strength in terms of security and economic growth. East Asian challenges to normative universalism can be defined in cultural, economic, and political terms. This article, however, considers not only the threats to human security in East Asia, but also the roles that East Asian actors play in protecting and promoting human security, noting that under certain conditions, East Asian perspectives may be able to secure, in terms of human security, better results than could be achieved through extra-regional intervention.

3Governance Perspectives of Human Security in Africa

저자 : Kwesi Aning , Ernest Ansah Lartey

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 219-237 (19 pages)

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Human security should not be considered as a mere academic rhetoric―it is, in fact, a political tool aimed at transforming individuals from conditions of exploitation and domination to that of political participation and accountability. This paper adopts political governance perspectives to analyze human security in Africa. It argues that without accountable democratic governance, the expressed objectives of human security would be difficult to achieve in Africa. By this focus, the paper adopts a broader view of human security, satisfying both the governance and development prerequisites of the concept, which has underpinned [in] security in Africa. The overall estimation of human security in Africa is that only a marginal improvement has been made in the region, especially over the last decade.

4Revisiting the “Responsibility to Protect” and the Use of Force

저자 : Mats Berdal

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 239-264 (26 pages)

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Efforts to “operationalize” the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) continue to encounter resistance from key member states. Where it matters most, among vulnerable civilian populations caught up in war, the R2P appears to be making scant difference. Rising geopolitical tensions have added to a growing sense of pessimism among R2P advocates. Unsurprisingly, the most contentions aspect of the R2P concept continues to revolve around the question of the use of force for humanitarian purposes. It is a subject on which states, for an admixture of historical and political reasons, remain deeply divided. Nonetheless, as a politically significant norm, the R2P has come to command growing support from states, even though the degree to which the R2P norm has been truly internalized across international society varies greatly.

5Why 'Smart' Sanctions Still Cause Human Insecurity

저자 : Sorpong Peou

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 265-285 (21 pages)

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This article seeks to answer the questions of whether sanctions are 'smart' as designed and why if they are not. Evidence appears to suggest that smart sanctions are not 'intelligent' enough to change political leaders' alleged violent behavior or to protect innocent civilians from direct or physical as well as indirect or structural violence. Targeted government officials can always find ways to outsmart the sanction sender actors by resisting the latter's coercive efforts because of their willingness and ability to take repressive action against their people and find alternative trading partners as well as support from powerful undemocratic states. Instead of minimizing human suffering, sanctions tend to exacerbate regime insecurity and perpetuate international alliance politics. The cases of Myanmar and North Korea validate this proposition.

6Transitions without Transitional Justice in Asia

저자 : Sung Chull Kim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 287-310 (24 pages)

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This article addresses the underexplored question of why some state violence cases in Asia are not followed by transitional justice even during a democratic transition. It explicates the two factors that obstruct or delay seeking truth and accountability and thus bring impunity for perpetrators. One is the context in which the violence took place, and the other is longevity of the violent regime. If the violence occurs during a period of conflation of state construction and regime building, and if the perpetrators' power persists long enough to be institutionalized, transitional justice is least likely to take place. Five cases of violence violence which were committed by anticommunist regimes during the Cold War in four Asian countries are explored.

7International Regulation of “Lethal Autonomous Weapons Systems” (LAWS): Paradigms of Policy Debate in Japan

저자 : Daisuke Akimoto

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 311-332 (22 pages)

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Civil society organizations have warned that if “lethal autonomous weapons systems” (LAWS) are created, such weapons would cause serious problems with regards to human rights. Although “fully autonomous” weapons do not exist at this stage, several countries are thought to have developed “semi-autonomous” weapons equipped with artificial intelligence. LAWS related issues have been a part of international discussions in the United Nations, and the Japanese government has actively participated in these conferences. Japanese politicians have also discussed issues related to LAWS in the National Diet since 2015. This article provides multiple paradigms of Japan's policy toward LAWS from the perspectives of international relations theory, and attempts to explore possible solutions to the international regulation of LAWS in international law.

8ASEAN and the BRI: The Utility of Equidistant Diplomacy with China and the US

저자 : Hiro Katsumata , Shingo Nagata

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 333-348 (16 pages)

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The aim of the present study is to shed light on the diplomatic achievements of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), by exploring the way in which it has dealt with the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) implemented by China. ASEAN is little more than an association of minor powers with insignificant military and economic capabilities. However, in its dealings with the BRI, it has proactively advanced its own interests by skillfully conducting equidistant diplomacy with China and the US, without becoming too remote from or too close to either one of them, thereby reaping benefits from its favorable relations with each of them.

9Is NGO Peacebuilding Risk-Free? A Case Study on Bangladesh

저자 : Anurug Chakma

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 349-367 (19 pages)

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The official end of armed hostilities between insurgents and the Bangladesh military in 1997, post-conflict development interventions by international donors and the Government of Bangladesh, along with a greater emphasis on local ownership over peacebuilding interventions, as expressed in the Rangamati Declaration (1998), have given birth to the onset of NGO peacebuilding in the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT). This article argues that the aid flow has not only transformed community-based organizations into project-based local NGOs, but has also bred a new generation of profit-oriented and donor-driven local NGOs. This article concludes that NGO implementation of development projects and advocacy for human rights, despite being mostly effective in its identification of local needs, is severely affected by three major risk factors: legitimacy, security, and sustainability.

10Post-Communist Systemic Change: Lessons for East Asia

저자 : László Csaba

발행기관 : 서울대학교 통일평화연구원 간행물 : Asian Journal of Peacebuilding 7권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 369-385 (17 pages)

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With the North Korean waves of armament race in 2017-19, noted by the diplomacy of the Trump Administration, de-nuclearization has become a top priority for the Korean peninsula. In the meantime potentials for economic reforms in North Korea, perhaps even to the point of systemic change, are still open issues, as the need to feed people and improve the dismal economic performance remains high on the agenda. What lessons might be learned from the systemic change of Central and Eastern Europe for the context of East Asia? Implications based on International Relation (IR) theory are suggested.

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