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중앙아시아학회> 중앙아시아연구> 중국 알타이 지역 카작 씨족의 집체화

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중국 알타이 지역 카작 씨족의 집체화

The Collectivization of Kazak Clans in the Chinese Altai

김우진 ( Kim Ujin )
  • : 중앙아시아학회
  • : 중앙아시아연구 24권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 06월
  • : 125-151(27pages)

DOI


목차

머리말
I. 알타이 카작 사회의 씨족 (1950년 이전)
II. 씨족의 분할과 合作社, 생산대, 인민공사의 조직 (1950-1959년)
III. 씨족장의 제거 (1958-1962년)
맺음말

키워드 보기


초록 보기


						
Prior to the Communist takeover of Xinjiang, Kazak pastoralists in the Chinese Altai were grouped into some 17 clan groups, each with its own hereditary leaders and geographic locations. According the official Chinese narrative of social transition among Altai Kazaks, the final abolition of the Altai Kazaks' age-old feudal system came with the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang in 1949. However, it remains unclear exactly how this transition happened. Based on the author’s long-term ethnographic fieldwork and extensive archival research focusing on local Altai historical records, this paper examines the processes by which Altai Kazak clans were disrupted during collectivization in the 1950s. There are two main aspects to these disruptions. First, the Altai Kazaks were collectivized in such a way as to create administrative units (mutual help teams, cooperatives, production teams, and communes) that failed by design to align with traditional clan territories. Each collective unit included previously separate clan groups, and individual clans were broken up to be incorporated into multiple units. Second, a series of political purges in the four-year period between 1958 and 1962 specifically targeted Altai’s major clan leaders, who had not only controlled their clan members and communal pastures, but also held influential official positions throughout the Republican era and the first decade of the People’s Republic of China. After these purges, clan groups found themselves without any clear leadership or unifying force, and became increasingly scattered across the landscape.

UCI(KEPA)

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 인문지리
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1738-0200
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1996-2019
  • : 262


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1알타이출토 고대 유목민 복식에 관한 연구

저자 : 김용문 ( Kim Yong Mun )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-30 (30 pages)

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Generally speaking, the culture of a specific ethnic group is closely related to their everyday life, and the same principle applies to costumes. The costumes of nomadic people priorities their mobility, and the origin of this characteristic comes from the horseback riding culture of the northern nomadic people. The region of Altai is defined by its high mountainous areas, and it is also surrounded by a glacier patch. This glacier patch created a permanent frost and thus preserved a significant amount of relics, including costumes from the past. Especially, as the Altaic people did not develop separate clothing for the deceased, the remaining objects enable us to examine the everyday attire of the ancient nomadic people.
This study examines these unearthed costume relics from the permafrost area, mostly that come from BCE 6C to BCE 2C. Frozen, but mainly remained intact for a long time, the following examination of these relics will enable us to reconstruct everyday attire of the ancient nomadic people and also highlight the aspects of East-West cultural exchange. Specifically, the study will focus on how these unearthed costumes came to their current form, and analyze the headgear, hairstyle, the upper garment, undergarment, jackets, long tights and boots, belts and accessories, as well as the fabric and its pattern. It will also examine these relics focusing on their expected function, materials, and accessories. In this process, I have personally reviewed the Sycthian and Persian costume depicted at the Persepolis, Susa and Bistoon, as well as the so-called golden-man of Issyk kurgan, the relics from the Pazyryk and Noyon-UUl currently housed at the Hermitage Museum, and the Mongolian and Kazakstanian relics recently displayed at special exhibitions hosted by the National Museum of Korea. The study has also thoroughly examined written sources, previously published catalogs, and other former studies.
Based on this examination, we can reconstruct a typical ancient nomad who would wear a cone-shaped hat with bird decorations, pants with gusset, Kaftan style jackets or coats with set-in sleeve, and put on boots or long tights. These are standard characteristics found in many ancient nomadic costume relics. Most of these costumes were made of leather or felt, and decorations were made of gold, applying methods of applique. Also, tattoos on the individuals also became part of the costumes.
Significant features of these costumes, such as the cone-shaped headgear, gold and gold decorations, flat open neck upper garment, animal style decorations, pants with gusset, set in sleeve, and Kaftans with tails all reflect that the unearthed costumes combined various elements of Scythian, Persians, Central Asia, and Siberian costumes. Notably, the existence of Griffin shapes reveals their close connections with the Achaemenid Persian empire, and other silk and copper mirrors discovered together also demonstrate the close East and West connections.

2한국의 돈황 불교미술 연구 동향 : 사고틀의 새로운 모색

저자 : 임영애 ( Lim Young-ae )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 31-55 (25 pages)

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It has been more than 30 years since Korean academia started studying the art history related to Dunhuang Caves. The research results have been derived since 1981, and it is precisely 39 years old. Although the period of research is quite long, the results of research on Buddhist arts of Dunhuang Caves were more than expected. There are about 120 studies that I have grasped to date. As a matter of fact, this number is not only for studies in the Buddhist art history perspective but rather for all of the research achievements of 'Dunhuang related research history', and 'costumes history, architects history, and conservation sciences for Dunhuang Buddhist arts'. Of the more than 120 research achievements, there are only 23 research achievements for the past 20 years from 1981 to 2000, and the remaining 100 are obtained from 2000 to 2018. In the meantime, it should be said that the studies on Buddhist arts in Dunhuang Caves started in earnest after year 2000 when exchanges between Korea and China became active and the field survey became easier after reform and opening.
In the latter half of the 20th century, when Mogao Grottos in Dunhuang first began to be interested, the mural paintings and sculptures of Mogao Grottos in Dunhuang, which were even unfamiliar to the intellectuals, have grown greatly into an international discipline that now has a deep interest in the general public. This article attempts to explore the perspectives of Korean researchers on Dunhuang Buddhist arts, a treasure house for Buddhist art researchers, and examine what they have accomplished and what they mean. This article also attempts to investigate how research of Dunhuang Buddhist arts in Korea is different from that of China and Japan. At this point, about 30 years since Korean academia started to get interested, it is said that looking back at research in the past is meaningful work to revitalize research in the future.

3호궤(胡跪)의 연원과 전개 - 인도 중앙아시아 중국 한국의 사례를 중심으로 -

저자 : 박은선 ( Park Eunsun )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 57-84 (28 pages)

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This study derived the definition, meaning, and usage examples of the term genuflect in foreign fashion (胡跪) from the literature and examined the visual development patterns of Northern Buddhist culture. The word genuflect in foreign fashion refers to the half-kneeling posture of respect, with the left knee upright and the right knee bent to touch the floor. While this term had been frequently used in Chinese literature since the 3rd century, Chinese Buddhist monks, such as Daoxuan and Yijing, especially noted the term in the mid- and late 7th century and defined it as the manners of non-Chinese northern tribes(胡人), which were different from China's traditions. The usage examples of genuflect in foreign fashion include the posture of respect toward Buddha and the posture used in a ritual, and such meanings are confirmed in visual materials as well. The traditions of this posture and term originating from India seem to have continued through Central Asia and early China; however, it developed in a different aspect in China. Among other statues, kneeling Bodhisattva with Hands in votive gesture is quite noteworthy, which was produced in rundplastik (round plastic), as it has no precedent in India or Central Asia. Interest in genuflect in foreign fashion grew after the mid-7th century and the posture became hugely popular because it was adopted as the posture of ordinary Buddhism worshipers. While it seems that this tradition from China has spread to Korea, the development of genuflect in foreign fashion in Korea was different from that in China, which seems to require more follow-up studies in the future. I hope that this study, which is the first study on genuflect in foreign fashion, would serve as an opportunity to take a step forward for the existing literature on the Goryeo dynasty's kneeling Bodhisattva with Hands in votive gesture.

4티무르조 역사서의 동물력과 한 해 첫날의 변화 재고(再考)

저자 : 이주연 ( Lee Ju-yeon )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 85-123 (39 pages)

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This study deals with the topic about the moment that the beginning of the year in animal calendar changed to vernal equinox. This topic has previous studies. Charles Melville said that Yazdi's Ẓafarnama has the evidence that the animal calendar start at the vernal equinox. But Isahaya didn't agree with this opinion and prove that in Yazdi's Ẓafarnama, Beginning of the year in animal calendar is at around Li-chun(立春), exactly the same as the solar-lunar calendar of China (or Turk-mongol). And using the date of animal calendar of 'Zami al-Tawarikh Hassani', he said that beginning of the year in animal calendar was changed at around mid fifteenth century.
In this article, I agree with Isahaya's analysis of Yazdi's Ẓafarnama, but I reanalyze the date of animal calendar of zami al-Tawarikh Hassani, which is the evidence of his second contention. And I suggest that there's possibility that until the late fifteenth century, beginning of the year in animal calendar was the same as the earlier time, not at the vernal equinox. Moreover, through several circumstantial evidences, I want to support my contention. First, through entire Ilkhanid-Timurid period, Annual tax was collected at different time points. Second, Azerbaijan, where the two financial calendar was mingled with each other, was not of territory of Timurid. Third, Jalali calendar, which start at vernal equinox, had been used along with animal calendar, but at that time there had been no change in the beginning of the year in animal calendar. Fourth, Kerman province, where the Zami al-Tawarikh Hassani was written, was located in the western frontier, and people of this province frequently fought with central government of Timurid, so it can not be the representative of Timurid dynasty. And last, the two Zij, that were written at the early fifteenth century, contain the conversion table of animal-hijri calendar, and these were used until the late fifteenth century.

5중국 알타이 지역 카작 씨족의 집체화

저자 : 김우진 ( Kim Ujin )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 125-151 (27 pages)

다운로드

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초록보기

Prior to the Communist takeover of Xinjiang, Kazak pastoralists in the Chinese Altai were grouped into some 17 clan groups, each with its own hereditary leaders and geographic locations. According the official Chinese narrative of social transition among Altai Kazaks, the final abolition of the Altai Kazaks' age-old feudal system came with the peaceful liberation of Xinjiang in 1949. However, it remains unclear exactly how this transition happened. Based on the author's long-term ethnographic fieldwork and extensive archival research focusing on local Altai historical records, this paper examines the processes by which Altai Kazak clans were disrupted during collectivization in the 1950s. There are two main aspects to these disruptions. First, the Altai Kazaks were collectivized in such a way as to create administrative units (mutual help teams, cooperatives, production teams, and communes) that failed by design to align with traditional clan territories. Each collective unit included previously separate clan groups, and individual clans were broken up to be incorporated into multiple units. Second, a series of political purges in the four-year period between 1958 and 1962 specifically targeted Altai's major clan leaders, who had not only controlled their clan members and communal pastures, but also held influential official positions throughout the Republican era and the first decade of the People's Republic of China. After these purges, clan groups found themselves without any clear leadership or unifying force, and became increasingly scattered across the landscape.

6반유목 하우람인의 임시 거주지와 고정 건축 - 팔란간을 중심으로 -

저자 : 최남섭 ( Choi Namsub )

발행기관 : 중앙아시아학회 간행물 : 중앙아시아연구 24권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 153-181 (29 pages)

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The Hawraman means a mountainous region where Hawramian people make up the majority of the population near the border of Iraq and Iran. Although the land geographically belongs to Kurdistan, they speak Hawrami different from other Kurdish dialects. Even though most of them have been semi-nomads like nearby Kurds, Hawramians have used specific settlement types unlike Kurdish tents in the summer. It could be thought that the Hawrami and their summer houses reflects their Hawramian identity. Nevertheless, the houses have never received much attention from researchers. So, this article studies on the meanings, characteristics and uses of Hawramian summer quarters and housing types.
For this, I selected a historical village in Iran, named Palangan, where some of the villagers have sustained a pastoral lifestyle in Mountain Shaho up to now. They have stayed at one place in the winter and optionally used nine quarters or more in the summer. The people call the summer quarter 'hawār' which means a temporary dwelling place in Hawrami. The meaning reflects the instable residential situations depending on the conditions of water sources and weather.
The people have built permanent houses at their summer quarters. The houses are commonly structured by stone walls with different roof styles. One is 'yāna' which means a house in Hawramian language. It has a solid roof structure made by wooden columns and beams like their winter houses. The other is 'kapr' which means a branch. The structure is covered by wooden branches similar to 'capr' which sedentary Kurds have used in the summer.
Because of abundant stones in Mt. Shaho, Palangan villagers would have built stone houses at the summer quarters. However, given that the neighbourhood Kurds have used the tent, it could be possible that there are other reasons. Hawrami belongs to the language family of sedentary Guran. Also, Hawramian summer houses are made by the same method of sedentary villagers' summer shelters. Besides, Martin Van Bruinessen recorded a part of Ahl-e Haqq's holy song, such as “Kurds are nomads who live in mountains, Hawramians are farmers who live in villages”. Considering these, It is not outside the realms of possibility that Hawramian permanent houses at temporary dwelling places were originated from the sedentary residential culture.

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