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서울대학교 한국행정연구소> Korean Journal of Policy Studies> Agency Politicization and the Decline of Neutral Competence: The Case of OMB in the United States

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Agency Politicization and the Decline of Neutral Competence: The Case of OMB in the United States

Jae Young Lim
  • : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소
  • : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2019년 04월
  • : 1-22(22pages)

DOI


목차

INTRODUCTION
THEORETICAL JUSTIFICATIONS FOR THE PRESIDENT AS CHIEF POLITICIAN
THE OMB’S EVOLUTION FROM AN AGENCY OF NEUTRAL COMPETENCE TO A POLITICIZED INSTITUTION
ASSESSMENT OF POLITICIZED OMB
CONCLUSION
REFERENCES

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초록 보기


						
The modern presidency is heavily politicized. The president is expected to be the chief legislator, chief economist, chief psychiatrist, and chief diplomat for the nation and is the cog around which national affairs revolve. However, a politicized presidency signals the downfall of the managerial presidency that was buttressed by agencies with neutral competence. This article traces the evolution of an American budgetary agency, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) from its inception to the present, documenting the baleful impact of the politicized presidency on the OMB. Amid politicization, the OMB lost its professional reputation for neutral competence and was replaced by the Congressional Budget Office as the foremost authority on national budgetary matters. This article, in essence, presents a cautionary tale of agency politicization in modern bureaucracy.

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1Agency Politicization and the Decline of Neutral Competence: The Case of OMB in the United States

저자 : Jae Young Lim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-22 (22 pages)

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The modern presidency is heavily politicized. The president is expected to be the chief legislator, chief economist, chief psychiatrist, and chief diplomat for the nation and is the cog around which national affairs revolve. However, a politicized presidency signals the downfall of the managerial presidency that was buttressed by agencies with neutral competence. This article traces the evolution of an American budgetary agency, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) from its inception to the present, documenting the baleful impact of the politicized presidency on the OMB. Amid politicization, the OMB lost its professional reputation for neutral competence and was replaced by the Congressional Budget Office as the foremost authority on national budgetary matters. This article, in essence, presents a cautionary tale of agency politicization in modern bureaucracy.

2Higher Public Service Motivation for Accepting Public Sector Pension Reform? Evidence from Korean Government Organizations

저자 : Yunho Kim , Yunjin Jung , Dongwook Seoh , Tobin Im

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 23-42 (20 pages)

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Organizational reforms that employees do not voluntary accept are likely to negatively affect organizational effectiveness in the long term. We conducted an empirical analysis with survey data by reviewing related studies on public service motivation (PSM) and acceptance of organizational changes, the goal being to verify the relationship between government employees' PSMand their acceptance of public sector pension reform in Korea. Results show that public servants highly driven by PSM are willing to accept this pension reform even though it reduces their own benefits. This study is distinguished from existing literature of PSM and responses to organizational changes because it reduces the possibility of endogeneity problems.

3Metropolitan Governance Matters: The Low Economic Performance of Metropolitan Cities in South Korea

저자 : Sung-bae Kim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 43-72 (30 pages)

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This study undertakes an empirical analysis to identify the determinants of the low economic performance of major metropolitan cities in Korea. Using panel data of the metropolitan cities between 2000 to 2016, I carried out ageneralized least square estimation and obtained the following results. First, traditional explanatory variables such as capital investment, labor force, and R&D investments are highly significant with positive expected signs. Second, nationallevel governance arrangements for the metropolitan cities have negative impacts on the economic performance of the cities. Last, the impacts of subnational governance arrangements on economic performance are not entirely conclusive. These pieces of evidence suggest that improving the economic performance of the metropolitan cities may require a restructuring of the current framework of metropolitan governance.

4Policy Coordination in South Korea

저자 : Hyunjung Lim

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 73-97 (25 pages)

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Coordination has been one of the major problems in the field of public administration (Pressman & Wildavsky, 1984; Peters 1998; Bouckaert, Peters, & Verhoest, 2010). However, as the complexity of policy problems increases and the policy environment changes, coordination is becoming more of a serious challenge to administration than ever before (Peters, 2018; Roberts, 2011). The failure of policy coordination can greatly undermine administrative capacity, so a serious approach to coordination is necessary not only theoretically but also practically. This study reviewed policy coordination theories and analyzed prior studies on current Korean policy coordination. In particular, I focused on the concepts, dimensions, mechanisms, and performance of policy coordination. What I found is that the number and variety of coordination studies in Korea is low. Most prior studies on coordination have focused on coordination between central ministries, and their methodology has primary taken the form of a literature review. Empirical studies on coordination performance have been few and far between. Based on these findings, I suggest several implications.

5Comparing the Arrangements of Governance and Sustainable Development in OECD Countries: Coupled or Decoupled?

저자 : Taewook Huh

발행기관 : 서울대학교 한국행정연구소 간행물 : Korean Journal of Policy Studies 34권 1호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 99-117 (19 pages)

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This study attempts to analyze to what extent governance and sustainable development (SD) empirically appear compatible in the thirtyfive OECD countries through the fuzzy-set ideal type analysis, and identify which ideal types appear coupled or decoupled, and then reveal which countries belong to the coupled types or to the decoupled types. In short, twenty-two countries (including Sweden (fuzzy score, 0.953), Denmark (0.920), Finland (0.914), Norway (0.911) in Type 1 (G*S, 'strong G-S coupled countries'); and Turkey (0.906), Greece (0.833), Mexico (0.828) in Type 4 (g*s, 'lite g-s coupled countries') are in line with the accepted conventions regarding the compatible relationship between governance and SD. On the other hand, the rest of thirteen countries (including USA (fuzzy score, 0.815), Luxembourg (0.721), Australia (0.660) in Type 2 (G*s, 'G-s decoupled countries'); and Slovenia (0.728), France (0.644), Czech Rep. (0.625) in Type 3 (g*S, 'g-S decoupled countries') may indicate that the relationship of governance and SD is in fact experiencing tensions in the national contexts. These findings are characterized by the substance (of SD) and procedure (of governance) divide. Considering the results, this study focuses on the idea of reflexivity or reflexive capacity.

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