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한국학술연구원> Korea Observer> Getting Tickets for the Presidential Election in Korea

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Getting Tickets for the Presidential Election in Korea

Byong-kuen Jhee , Geiguen Shin
  • : 한국학술연구원
  • : Korea Observer 49권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2018년 06월
  • : 269-291(23pages)

DOI


목차

I. Introduction
II. Causes of Changing CSMs
III. Evolution from Appointment to the Open Primary
IV. Who Initiated the Adoption of the Open Primary?
V. Conclusion
References

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초록 보기


						
This study attempts to explain in what conditions political parties in Korea reshaped their old candidate selection method (CSM) and adopted open primaries. This study shows that open primaries were adopted by compromise between major and minor factions due to their electoral or factional benefits. Second, it shows that it was the electoral utility of open primaries, rather than the demand for party democratization, that drove the adoption of the new CSM. Third, it shows that the presence of popular presidential candidates is considerable leverage of minor factions in the negotiation for the adoption of open primaries. Finally, it shows that the extremely limited empowerment of party members, as well as personalized party politics, facilitated the radical reform of CSMs in Korea.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2018-300-004205321

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  • : 계간
  • : 0023-3919
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  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1985-2019
  • : 1027


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1Reunification on the Korean Peninsula: Is Social-reunification Feasible?

저자 : Andrew S. Millard

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 191-217 (27 pages)

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Detente is sweeping across the Korean Peninsula for the first time in over a decade following policies of engagement by both the North and South. How long and successful this detente will be is yet to be seen, however, it has once again sparked calls for reunification. Whilst the reunification of the two Koreas has been well-discussed most literature and discussions follow the same ideas; absorption of the North into the South and discussions on the economic and political repercussions. This paper, on the other hand, analyses the social divide between the two Koreas suggesting that it is reaching a point of inelasticity, namely a point where if the divide stretches even further the two peoples will never be able to successfully reunite, regardless of how reunification occurs. As such, in the case of a German-like, “surprise reunification” the governments must prepare a social reunification policy in advance.

2A Blatant Lie: The North Korean myth of Kim Il-sung liberating the country from Japan

저자 : Fyodor Tertitskiy

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 219-238 (20 pages)

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This article deals with one of the central historical constructs of North Korean official historiography: the myth of the Korean People's Revolutionary Army. North Korea claims that this army, led by the first ruler of North Korea Kim Il-sung, defeated the Imperial Japan. This claim is duly reflected in North Korean official publications and is taught to its citizens. The author examines origins, evolution and implications of this historical myth.

3The Perpetuated Hostility in the Inter-Korean Rivalry: A Theory of Multilevel Veto Players and the Persistence of South-North Korean Rivalry, 1954-2007

저자 : Chaekwang You , Kiho Hahn

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 239-268 (30 pages)

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The paper begins with the simple questions of why and how South-North Korean rivalry or inter-Korean rivalry has persisted for decades. To answer these questions, I develop a theory of multilevel veto players and test the hypotheses drawn from the theory for the case of the hostile relations between South and North Korea from 1954 to 2007. Central to the theory is that maintenance of the rivalry is the result of rival leaders' efforts to maximize either the national interests of their country or their own personal interest―staying in power―subject both to the external constraint of great power intervention and to the internal constraint of challenges by hardline veto groups. By applying this theory to the case of the inter-Korean rivalry from 1954-2007, the paper finds that the leaders of South and North Korea have maintained their hostile relations over the past five decades because they believe that maintaining the relations will help them either maximize their nation's security interest or increase their chances of remaining in power, subject to the constraints. Specifically, the constraints have prevented the rival leaders from resolving the issues in dispute on the battlefield or at a negotiation table, making the inter-Korean rivalry persist across time. The findings offer a contribution to an enhanced understanding of the maintenance process in international rivalries, most notably the inter-Korean rivalry.

4Getting Tickets for the Presidential Election in Korea

저자 : Byong-kuen Jhee , Geiguen Shin

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 269-291 (23 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

This study attempts to explain in what conditions political parties in Korea reshaped their old candidate selection method (CSM) and adopted open primaries. This study shows that open primaries were adopted by compromise between major and minor factions due to their electoral or factional benefits. Second, it shows that it was the electoral utility of open primaries, rather than the demand for party democratization, that drove the adoption of the new CSM. Third, it shows that the presence of popular presidential candidates is considerable leverage of minor factions in the negotiation for the adoption of open primaries. Finally, it shows that the extremely limited empowerment of party members, as well as personalized party politics, facilitated the radical reform of CSMs in Korea.

5South Korea's Annual State Inspection, Double-Edged Sword

저자 : Kwanpyo Bae , Taeyeon Kim

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 293-317 (25 pages)

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The Annual State Inspection by the National Assembly (ASI), which is not observed outside South Korea, is an institution that the National Assembly oversees the executive branch. This study shows how the ASI impacts the performance of the inspected public organizations and their goal ambiguity moderates the performance impact of the ASI. First, the stringent ASI would reduce the effectiveness of the inspected public organization. However, if the organizational goals were less ambiguous, the negative impact can be minor. Second, there is no statistically significant impact found for efficiency. Third, if the ASI became more stringent, the equity of the inspected public organization can increase, regardless of goal ambiguity. Because the ASI has both positive and negative impacts, it can be said that the ASI is a double-edged sword. These findings could be referred for the constitutional amendment debates and enhance our theoretical understanding of political control.

6Exclusionary Labor and Partially Inclusionary Marriage Immigration Incorporation: The Cases of Japan and Korea

저자 : Young-jin Choi

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 319-348 (30 pages)

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Globalization has brought about significant human mobility, along with developments in IT and transportation since the early 1990s, the case of East Asia is no exception. While a huge number of workers in developing countries have been migrating to work abroad, a growing number of women have been migrating, specifically seeking to marry men in East Asia. This paper aims to elucidate which migration theories illustrate labor and/or marriage migration and incorporation in East Asia, particularly in the cases of Japan and Korea, while also examining their overall migration and incorporation patterns. In turn it investigates which factors significantly and differentially affect each type of migration at multiple levels: the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Labor migrants are usually excluded from incorporation in their host countries, especially even the case of ethnic Korean from the former Soviet Union countries, Koryoins, as labor migrants have been excluded in such integration with the reality of the forgotten and disconnected history. On the other hand, marriage migrants have been occasionally included in such integration. Although there has been a significant transition in the migration system theory of labor migration, there is still room to develop the better and more supportive systems. At present taking into consideration the multi-level structures, the migration network theory seems better in explaining marriage migration into the host countries of East Asia. Overall, the differentiated migratory incorporation theory which I suggest could best account for the cases in Japan and Korea when we consider international migration and the extent of social integration. So as to systematically manage labor migration problems and address the problems of commercialized matchmaking business, it requires sharing ideas with grassroots organizations and making concerted efforts to implement anti-discrimination laws and develop policies between the local governments in Japan and Korea. At the same time, education and media can be utilized strategically to enhance the attitudes toward international migrants.

7Ownership and Planning Capacity in the Asian-Style Development Cooperation: South Korean Knowledge Sharing Program to Vietnam

저자 : Pil Ho Kim , Woojin Jung

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 349-368 (20 pages)

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The rise of Asian ODA donors - Japan, South Korea, China - and their divergence from traditional western donors put forward the question if a distinct Asian-style development cooperation is in the making. In this paper, we attempt to characterize the emergent Asian-style ODA based on donors' own development experiences and assess its effectiveness in terms of fostering “true” ownership of development partners. One particular case, South Korea's Knowledge Sharing Program to Vietnam, will illuminate the theoretical issues and practical challenges of the Asian-style ODA, which tends to avoid “political interference” while trying to increase capacities of development partners.

8Japan, South Korea, and the United States Nuclear Umbrella: Deterrence After the Cold War By Terence Roehrig, Columbia University Press, 2017, 272pages

저자 : Michael Cohen

발행기관 : 한국학술연구원 간행물 : Korea Observer 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2018 페이지 : pp. 369-371 (3 pages)

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