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한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회)> 한국수처리학회지> 수중의 세슘처리를 위한 수처리 기술 동향 및 개선방안

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수중의 세슘처리를 위한 수처리 기술 동향 및 개선방안

Trend and Improvement of Water Treatment Technology for Cesium Treatment in Water

정우창 ( Woochang Jeong ) , 여우석 ( Wooseok Yeo ) , 이병락 ( Beong Rak Lee ) , 김종규 ( Jong Kyu Kim )
  • : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회)
  • : 한국수처리학회지 25권5호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2017년 10월
  • : 99-114(16pages)

DOI

10.17640/KSWST.2017.25.5.99


목차

1. 서론
2. 세슘의 생성 및 거동
3. 수중의 세슘 처리 방법
4. 자성체
5. 결론 및 개선방안
사사
References

키워드 보기


초록 보기


						
Cesium-137 is one of the most dangerous and ubiquitous radionuclides that has been released to the eco system and human being. Many treatment methods have been used to remove cesium particles, such as adsorption, ion exchange, filtration, coagulation and precipitation. Recently, various studies have been carried out using Prussian blue which has a high adsorption effect not only in the eco system but also on the removal of cesium absorbed in the human body. However, despite the excellent effect of removing cesium, Prussian blue has a disadvantage in separation and reuse due to its difficulty in recovering from water because of its high water-solubility characteristics. In order to overcome this disadvantage, a post-treatment process such as a separate filtration process or a secondary adsorption process is required, which is not efficient in terms of environmental and economic aspects. Recently, a research study combining a magnetic materials and Prussian blue showed that cesium particles in water were effectively removed. However, when the external magnetic field is present, the recovery rate is kept high, but the recovery rate is decreased due to the inability to magnetize itself. Therefore, if a super magnetic material having a magnetic force higher than that of a conventional magnetic material and a ferromagnetic material magnetizing itself after application of an external magnetic field are actively studied, it will be possible to effectively remove cesium from the water in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

ECN

I410-ECN-0102-2018-500-000651934


UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2018-500-000651934

간행물정보

  • : 공학분야  > 환경공학
  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 격월
  • : 1225-7192
  • : 2289-0076
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1993-2018
  • : 1233


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1제올라이트의 양이온 교환 용량 및 용액의 화학적 특성에 따른 박테리아의 거동 특성 비교

저자 : 김문주 ( Mun-ju Kim ) , 이창희 ( Chang-hee Lee ) , 유수철 ( Soo-cheul Yoo ) , 박성직 ( Seong-jik Park )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 3-11 (9 pages)

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Bacteria attachment on zeolite with different cation exchange capacity (CEC) was investigated, and zeolite with low CEC (LC-ZL), zeolite with medium CEC (MC-ZL), and zeolite with high CEC (HC-ZL) were used. Column experiments were performed varying column length (10-15 cm), pH (4-8), and ionic strength (0-80 mM). As the increase of the column length, removal percentage was increased but sticking efficiency was not dependent on the column length. The increase of pH decreased both removal percentage and sticking efficiency. Bacteria attachment onto zeolite was increased as the increase of the ionic strength from 0 to 20 mM but it was decreased above 20 mM of the ionic strength. At long (20 cm) or short (10 cm) column length, the differences of removal percentage of LC-ZL, MC-ZL, and HC-ZL were not observed. The bacteria attachment onto MC-ZL and HC-ZL was not significantly different at high ionic strength. Solution chemistry should be considered when the selection of appropriate zeolite for the removal of bacteria.

2MBR공정에 있어서 수리학적 거동이 막여과에 미치는 영향

저자 : 이형옥 ( Hyeong-ok Lee ) , 정훈섭 ( Hun-seob Jung ) , 현길수 ( Kil-soo Hyun )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 13-18 (6 pages)

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Stirred dead-cell filtration has been widely used for fundamental studies on membrane fouling caused by soluble and colloidal matter during membrane filtration. In this study, the performance of MBR using a dead-end stirrer cell was conducted to investigate the removal of dissolved organic matters from real mixed liquor in aeration tank and transmembrane pressure (TMP) with hydraulic behavior on the membrane surface. Applied stirring rate as a hydraulic behavior index ranged from 100 to 1000 rpm. Influent water qualities were in the range of MLSS < 10,000 mg/L, UV254 < 0.3 cm-1, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) < 45 mg/L, and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) <2.5 L/mg.m, respectively. As a result, the membrane biofiltration achieved higher efficiencies of TOC and DOC except UV254 having lower efficiency < 40% regardless of the hydraulic shear force. An increase in the hydraulic shear force resulted in a decline in TMP. This indicates that higher hydraulic shear force is needed to improve TMP in operating a long-term filtration of MBR having a suitable permeate flux to enhance dissolved organic matter removal efficiency.

3침전 가속화제로서 열처리 탈수 케익을 이용한 하수처리장 미생물의 침강성 개선 평가

저자 : 김연권 ( Youn Kwon Kim ) , 윤수연 ( Su Yeon Yun ) , 김성필 ( Sung Pil Kim )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 19-28 (10 pages)

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It has been considered that a lot of informations for a affecting parameters and operating techniques are required to meet the water quality standards of effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs). As a technical diagnosis point of view, the condition and performance of the clarifier is one of an important parameters directly affecting the water quality of effluent in STPs. The solid-liquid separation capability in clarifier is strongly dependent on the microbial settleability. As a result, the performance in STPs where microbial settleability reductions may cause deteriorates in the solid-liquid separation capability at the clarifier, and gradually deteriorates the water quality of effluent. This study was conducted to increase and stabilize the microbial settleability within a short period of time by dosing the thermal-treated sludge cake (TSC) as sedimentation accelerating additives when the microbial settleability deteriorates in STPs. All the results with the TSC were compared with magnetite samples as weighted coagulation Additives (WCA). The settling velocity of sludge formed with the TSC is almost 2 times faster than that of control sample. In the result, the TSC was proved to be the promising material for efficient sedimentation accelerating additives (SAA), because it led to similar sedimentation than other WCA.

4UV-LED/TiO2 고도산화공정을 이용한 천연유기물질 분해

저자 : 오혜철 ( Hye-cheol Oh ) , 김석구 ( Seog-ku Kim ) , 이동석 ( Dong-seok Rhee )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 29-35 (7 pages)

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TiO2 has been used as a clean and non-toxic photocatalyst for mineralization of natural organic matter, and also well known as an effective photocatalyst for treatment of various pollutants such as trihalomethanes (THMs), organic acids, heavy metals, pesticides, microorganism, and NOx etc. This study was evaluated to photocatalytic degradation of humic acid by UV-LED/TiO2 system. In this research, the characteristics of photocatalytic degradation of humic acid, one of natural organic matter(NOM), by UV-LED/TiO2 system were evaluated. To obtain the optimum operating conditions for the effective humic acid decomposition, rate of inflow (50-800 mL/min), TiO2 concentrations (0-2000 mg/L) and initial pH (3-11) were varied in each experiments. Humic acid solution was collected every hour for analyzing pH changes, DOC removal rate and UV254 reduction rate. The results of NOM decomposing characteristics evaluation in UV-LED/TiO2 advanced oxidation process (AOP), rate of inflow 200 mL/min, TiO2 concentration of 1,000 mg/L and initial pH of 7 showed the highest photocatalyst decomposition efficiency which considered to be applicable for water treatment. Further researches of finding the optimum operating conditions of UV-LED/TiO2 advanced oxidation process in field application need to proceeded.

5제강전로슬래그를 이용한 도금폐수 내 크롬(VI)의 제거 특성에 관한 연구

저자 : 이혜진 ( Hae-jin Lee ) , 신현무 ( Hyun-moo Shin ) , 임수빈 ( Soo-bin Yim )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 37-46 (10 pages)

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This study was conducted to investigate the removal characteristics of Cr(VI) from metal plating wastewater by converter slag. Approximately 60% of 100 mg/L Cr(VI) was removed by converter slag in strongly alkaline condition over pH 12. The pHzpc(zero point of charge) 11.0 of converter slag implies that anionic Cr(VI) species could be adsorbed on the surface of converter slag in acid and neutral pH conditions. Most of Fe species eluted from converter slag was found to be Fe(II), indicating that it could function as a reducing agent for the Cr(VI) in aqueous solution. It was found that the remonal of Cr(VI) by converter slag occurred very fast. The experimental results of this study suggested that converter slag could eliminate the Cr(VI) in aqueous solution through simultaneous reaction of adsorption and/or reduction.

6Al 전극을 이용한 폐절삭유의 COD 제거

저자 : 장성호 ( Seong-ho Jang ) , 정영빈 ( Young-been Jeong ) , 배종명 ( Jong-myeong Bae ) , S. Sivakumar , 정은상 ( Eun-sang Jung ) , 박제성 ( Je-sung Park ) , 홍순헌 ( Soon-heon Hong ) , 이승훈 ( Seung-hun Lee )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 47-56 (10 pages)

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In general, the electrochemical treatments, organic materials by oxidation and reduction on electrode surfaces, are regarded as simpler and faster processes for removal of pollutants compared to other wastewater treatments. In this study, The removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of Wasted Soluble Cutting Fluids was investigated using electrochemical treatment Aluminium (Al) as electrode. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of current density, the concentration of supporting electrolyte (NaCl, Na2SO4) on removal efficiency. Experimental data in relation to current density and concentration of electrolyte are outlined. As a result of analyzing the COD removal efficiency according to the current density without electrolyte addition, the final removal rates were 48.33% (40 A/㎡), 65.63% (60 A/㎡) and 78.28% (80 A/㎡). As the current density increased, the COD removal rate increased. When adding electrolytes in all current density conditions, the removal rate was increased. however, Compared with before and after electrolyte addition, NaCl addition increased the average removal rate by 7.86% and Na2SO4 increased by 5.18%.

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In this study, we used clinoptilolite, which is a natural zeolite and abundant in Korea, as an absorbent material to treat the tar-containing wastewater, which generated from a biomass gasification plant. The clinoptilolite was synthesized with the Mg/Al double hydroxide (LDH) to maximize the adsorption ability. The chemical species in the tar-containing wastewater was analyzed to find a more effective way of the wastewater treatment. Seventeen chemical species were detected from the analysis, and they were classified into three large groups: (1) phenols, (2) guaiacols, and (3) carbohydrates. There were 7.0 - 16.0% of the adsorption efficiency improvement in all chemical species by using the MG/AL-LHD synthesized clinoptilolite. The phenol components, among the three species, had the highest removal rate, 92%, and it is the 16% improvement of the adsorption efficiency by using the Mg/Al-LDH impregnation on clinoptilolite. In the case of o-cresol as well, 88% was removed, showing the improvement of removal efficiency by 15.8 %. Therefore, if Mg/Al-LHD is impregnated to natural zeolites, there will be the positive effect when treating tar-containing wastewater. In addition, the results of the phenol isothermal adsorption experiment were better explained with the monomolecular adsorption properties of the Langmuir adsorption formula rather than with the Freundlich isothermal adsorption formula.

8High Rate DAF를 위한 플록형성공정의 설계와 기포발생시스템의 운전조건 결정

저자 : 김상범 ( Sangbeom Kim ) , 이승욱 ( Seunguk Lee ) , 이승호 ( Seungho Lee ) , 한무영 ( Mooyoung Han ) , 박현주 ( Hyun-ju Park ) , 김충일 ( Tschung-il Kim )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 67-75 (9 pages)

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To increase the loading rate in a dissolved air flotation (DAF) process, the flocculation basin was removed, and new methods that use the hydraulic energy of the contact zone were devised. Although the highest treatment efficiency was shown at the conventional flocculation basin, when a certain treatment target percentage was set, the new methods proved to be effective at increasing the hydraulic loading rate and reducing design and operational costs. The DAF process usually uses a deep bubble bed depth to attain higher treatment efficiency, however, as hydraulic loading increases, the treatment efficiency tends to decrease because of the increase in downward current. To solve this problem, bubble bed compactness was introduced as a new index. Pressure could be used to control the bubble bed compactness, and the treatment efficiency increased at high compactness even though the size of the generated bubbles was relatively large.

9미생물 성장 저해 조건에 따른 호흡률 변화 특성

저자 : 김성필 ( Sung Pil Kim ) , 윤수연 ( Su Yeon Yun ) , 김연권 ( Youn Kwon Kim )

발행기관 : 한국수처리학회(구 한국수처리기술연구회) 간행물 : 한국수처리학회지 25권 5호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 77-86 (10 pages)

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The supply of sewage treatment facility in rural areas is important to protect the quality of water sources such as rivers and lakes. A small scale wastewater treatment system had a wide range of inflow concentration. Therefore, it is important to accurately identify the characteristics of the influent and respond properly to operate the system stably. Hence, research has been conducted on methods to detect and respond in advance to the influent sewage. The method includes studying of microbial respiration rate. In this study, we analyzed the respiration rate of activated sludge in the condition that the microorganism became autocatalytically oxidized under an empty load condition, and the sewage containing the toxic substance(NaOCl) was the biggest problem of the distributed small-scale sewage treatment plant(D-SSTP). Oxygen Uptake Rate (OUR), Specific Oxygen Utilization Rate (SOUREndo.), and Specific Substrate Utilization Rate (SSUR) were measured and analyzed. As a result, The concentration of DO did not affect the autocatalytic oxidation of microorganism. Moreover, as concentration of NaOCl increased, concentration of SOUREndo tends to decrease as expected. Also, the increase in concentration of NaOCl resulted in the decrease in that of the SSUR. It is determined that NaOCl injection affects the microbial activity.

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This study analyzed the effect of ammonium salts on the growth of methanotrophs and manifestation of reactive metabolites, nitrogen compounds and enzymes in aerobic water conditions. It was conducted to understand the basic characteristics required for the application of methanotrophs to bioremediation based on the results. Ammonium salts did not inhibit the specific growth rate of methanotrophs, however, methane consumption was decreased because certain percent of MMO (methane monooxygenases) was used for oxidation of ammonium salts. Ammonium salts did not give negative effects on the proliferation of aggregated methanotrophs community. This was due to different preferences methanotroph Type 1 and II each had in ammonium salts, which rather had positive effect on the comprehensive growth of methanotrophs in cluster level. Nitrite, the final product of ammonium salts oxidation caused by methane monooxygenases, was consistently accumulated, and the generation of methanol and formaldehyde decreased due to decrease of methane monooxygenases which were relatively available. The decreasing rate at this time was 10.7% for COD, 34.8% for methanol, and 24.8% for formate. The decrease in the generation of methanol was found to be the most remarkable. In addition, sMMO(soluble methane monooxygenases) was not manifested at certain level (50 mM as NH4Cl) of concentration of ammonium salts.

12
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