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한국형사정책학회> 형사정책> 빅데이터 형사정책의 현안과 과제

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빅데이터 형사정책의 현안과 과제

Criminal Law and Policy on the Issues of Big Data

김한균 ( Kim Han-kyun )
  • : 한국형사정책학회
  • : 형사정책 29권2호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2017년 08월
  • : 33-60(28pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 문제상황과 문제제기
Ⅱ. 빅데이터 형사정책의 쟁점현안 :
개인정보보호 법제
Ⅲ. 빅데이터 형사정책의 쟁점현안 :
예측적 범죄대응
Ⅳ. 결론
참고문헌

키워드 보기


초록 보기

빅데이터와 인공지능 기술이 결합된 기회와 위험의 시대1)가 도래하고 있다. 형사정책의 시대적 과제는 개인정보 침해로부터의 안전, 그리고 빅데이터활용 범죄예방을 통한 안전, 두 가지로 전망해 볼 수 있다. 이 글에서는 빅데이터 기술발전과 관련된 문제상황을 점검하고, 개인정보보호, 그리고 예측적 범죄대응(predictive policing) 정책 두 가지 쟁점현안을 통해 형사정책이 담당할 개인과 사회 안전보장 과제를 살펴보고자 한다. 이에 따라 빅데이터의 긍정적 효과를 활용하고 부정적 영향에 대응하기 위한 개인정보보호법제상 규제정비, 그리고 예측적 범죄대응프로그램의 효과적 활용과 관련한 정책과 쟁점을 검토한다.
This essay studies those issues of criminal law and policy on big data-based criminal legislation and crime prevention programs, including data privacy protection and predictive policing. Big data technology provides new kinds of future prospective based on the analysis of various data, and thus supports policy decision and measures against social problems, including crimes. Big data-based
policy, however, has its own risk or limitation when data or algorithm used does not secure its own credibility. It may results no legitimacy or effectiveness, especially in criminal justice policies.
One of the critical issues on big data in criminal justice is how to make balance between privacy protection and promoting big data-based policy. How can we secure such balance in criminal legislation and policy-making? Most of all, considering that the personal subject of data should be both provider and user in the context of big data, the person should be a right-holder as well as an object of protection. Legal protection for such double-faced status should be measured.
Another issue related to big data in criminal justice is predictive policing programs, especially have been put into practice by police forces in the US. It is expected that such program will contribute more effective crime prevention and efficient intervention of criminal justice resources. This will be seriously studied in the context of Korean society and its demands on criminal justice institutions, first of all the police. Considering that the new technology of big data should be adopted as a way of problem-solving, human rights protection, esp. for the minority in Korean society will have first priority in any big data-based criminal justice policy.
In conclusion, criminal policy both to regulate big data technology and to adopt it for crime prevention take practical approach in making decision for the social limits in the development of technology and for the interest of citizen`s safety.

ECN

I410-ECN-0102-2018-300-000723008


UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2018-300-000723008

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 법학
  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 연3회
  • : 1226-2595
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2018
  • : 644


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1독일의 스토킹 처벌 규정의 개정과 그 시사점

저자 : 이승준 ( Lee Seungjun )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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Legislative situations of each country reflect the unique attributes of the people of the country, such as the judiciary, legal reality, and criminal policy needs. Therefore, it is not desirable that the legislative situation of a certain country is directly reflected in Korea. However, it is not possible to deny that there is a corresponding reason when many countries deal with some crime and social phenomena with common interest. The stalking is in that problem areas.
There is no big theory that the stalking and the resulting crimes resulting from the crime in our country have not been regulated by the punishment of the Minor Offenses Act. In this reality, it is highly suggested to us that Germany revised the provisions of Article 238 of the Criminal Code in order to ensure proper punishment and protection of victims because of failure of effective punishment by stalking punishment regulation. The point of view that stalking is no longer approaching the problem of personal affection should disappear.
The current Stalking punishment bills which is currently pending in the National Assembly, is not much different from the laws that have been submitted in the past, and it has advantages in the form of special act or individual laws. However, when considering the reality of various special criminal laws that exist now, it would be reasonable to prescribe in the form of special law on punishment of stalking as the next best way. And that the method can be defined in an inductive way from the point of view of the case and action. And considering the intensification or proliferation of the crime after the stalking, it is appropriate to make stalking as crime subject to victim`s complaint.

2인공지능과 형사법의 쟁점 - 책임귀속을 중심으로 -

저자 : 주현경 ( Joo Hyun Kyong )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 7-31 (25 pages)

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Letztes Jahr, zumindest in Sudkorea, scheint es, dass das Interesse an kunstlicher Intelligenz sich auf die breite Offentlichkeit verschoben hat. Im Marz 2016 gewann das AlphaGo gegen den sudkoreanischen Profi Lee Sedol 9. Dan, einen der derzeit besten Spieler der Welt, uber funf Partien ausgetragene Match mit 4:1. Danach sind sowohl die gewohnlichen Wissenschaftler als auch gewohnlichen Burger neugierig, wie kunstliche Intelligenz viele Daten lernt. Im Bereich der Rechtswissenschaft ist das Interesse an kunstliche Intelligenz keine Ausnahme.
Die normativen Fragen uber die kunstliche Intelligenz sind vielfaltig. Im Zusammenhang mit dem Strafrecht fuhrt Kunstliche Intelligenz zu verschiedenen rechtlichen Fragen. Diese Themen zeigen einen ambivalenten Wert wie die beiden Seiten einer Munze.
Die kunstliche Intelligenztechnologie kann einen positiven Beitrag zur Entwicklung des Strafrechts leisten, indem sie die Effizienz der Arbeit durch die Einbeziehung der menschlichen Denkfahigkeit in die bestehenden Maschinen erhoht. Besonders die Effizienz der Kriminalitatsverhutung wird erwartet. Allerdings brauchen neue Verhaltensweisen, die sich aus kunstlicher Intelligenz ergeben, doch neue Disziplin.
Es scheint jedoch schwierig, den Intelligent Robot als eine Existenz, die selbstandig tatig ist, zu akzeptieren und Verantwortung zuzuschreiben. Denn intelligente Roboter haben kein Verlangen und Gefuhle. Der Akt der kunstlichen Intelligenz sollte der menschlichen Verantwortung zugeschrieben werden.

3빅데이터 형사정책의 현안과 과제

저자 : 김한균 ( Kim Han-kyun )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 33-60 (28 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

빅데이터와 인공지능 기술이 결합된 기회와 위험의 시대1)가 도래하고 있다. 형사정책의 시대적 과제는 개인정보 침해로부터의 안전, 그리고 빅데이터활용 범죄예방을 통한 안전, 두 가지로 전망해 볼 수 있다. 이 글에서는 빅데이터 기술발전과 관련된 문제상황을 점검하고, 개인정보보호, 그리고 예측적 범죄대응(predictive policing) 정책 두 가지 쟁점현안을 통해 형사정책이 담당할 개인과 사회 안전보장 과제를 살펴보고자 한다. 이에 따라 빅데이터의 긍정적 효과를 활용하고 부정적 영향에 대응하기 위한 개인정보보호법제상 규제정비, 그리고 예측적 범죄대응프로그램의 효과적 활용과 관련한 정책과 쟁점을 검토한다.

4소년사건에서의 신상공개와 보도금지

저자 : 김혁 ( Kim Hyeok )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 61-89 (29 pages)

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Article 68 of the Juvenile Act stipulates the following :
(1) Regarding protection cases or criminal cases under investigation or trial in accordance with this Act, facts or photographs which may identify
the juvenile concerned in the above protection or criminal cases concerned, by means of their names, ages, occupations, appearance, and other things, shall neither be published in newspapers or other
publications nor be broadcasted.
(2) Persons under the following subparagraphs who have violated the provisions of paragraph (1) shall be punished by imprisonment with labor for not more than one year or by a fine not exceeding ten million won:
1. Newspapers: Editors and publishers;
2. Other publications: Authors and publishers; and
3. Broadcasting: Editors and broadcasters.
The main purpose of this article is to protect the honor and privacy of juveniles based on the juveniles` development right and to ensure due process as well as to prevent recidivism. Prohibition of reporting on the personal information of juveniles may infringe another fundamental right such as freedom of expression and right to know. However, freedom of expression or right to know is a concept that has an inherent limit in relation to the protection of privacy, nor does it necessarily require the personal information in realizing the freedom of expression or the right to know. Therefore, it is reasonable to think that the personal information about the juveniles should be kept private in principle, and that the personal information can be disclosed only in exceptional cases where there is a great public benefit exceeding the basic rights of the juveniles.
Considering this point, the recent publicity of information on the internet under the name of freedom of expression should not be allowed because it does not exceed the benefits such as protection of basic rights of the juveniles. In order to prevent new forms of infringement and to implement the purpose of Article 68 of the Juvenile Act, the act of disclosing personal information on the Internet should be prohibited. The act of disclosing personal information at the investigation stage should be subject to punishment as well.

5정치적 특별사면과 사법정의- 특별사면 폐지론을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김재윤 ( Kim Jae-yoon )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 93-118 (26 pages)

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In Germany, there was a legal maxim, which says “Law without special amnesty is illegal(Recht ohne Gnade ist Unrecht).” However, now people living in Republic of Korea are not in the era of absolute monarchism, but instead they are living in the era of democracy ruled by constitutionalism. Until now, past Korean presidents constantly have overused special amnesty, which is an `aging artifact of absolute monarchism`. There are some cases such as `quasi-nationally-unified special amnesty`, which is the case of special amnesty without national consent such as the one toward Chun Doo-hwan, who was president of South Korea from 1980 to 1988 and Roh Tae-woo, who served as president of South Korea from 1988 to 1993, mere destroyer of constitutional order, and `self-service special amnesty`, which is politically motivated. Especially, such special amnesties were done even before the ink on the paper, before people`s shock and rage were settled, without asking basic questions such as what type of crime it is, how severe and how long its punishment should be, whether the criminal is regretting the crime and whether there would be a compensation for the damage. These kinds of indiscreet amnesties far from national consent had constantly exerted throughout the history of Korean government. From this, the history of special amnesty in Korea can be called as the history of abuse. Such deep-rooted evil of abuse of special amnesty can`t be resolved by ex post facto control, such as condition control - controlling the subjects of amnesty toward destroyers of constitutional order, procedure control - organizing fair and transparent judging committee for amnesty, exterior control - listening to opinion of judicial branch, and adjudication on a constitutional complaint.
Therefore, this article looked through not only just ways to improve such use of special amnesty, but also the overall opinions on abolitionism for special amnesty. In conclusion, related articles of special amnesty done by president, which is a mere `aging artifact of absolute monarchism`, should be deleted from the amnesty law and should be abolished. The legal maxim from the above should be changed as “Law without special amnesty is truly legal(Recht ohne Gnade ist echtes Recht)” at least in Korea. However, even when the right of president for special amnesty is abolished through the revision, still special commutation and special reinstatement should be maintained. Through this, it is reasonable to make it properly functioning such as achieving `misjudgement correction` - correcting errors or defects which can appear throughout the overall judging process of court, and `self-rectification of constitutionalism` - relaxing rigidity occurred in the process of realization of constitutionalism.

6합동범의 공동정범에 관한 비판적 고찰

저자 : 김봉수 ( Kim Bong Su )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 147-172 (26 pages)

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초록보기

In criminal law, the `collaboration crime` means that a person who accompanied by two or more persons, commits the crime of Article 146(Special Escape), Article 331(Special Larceny) and Article 334(Special Robbery). According to the common opinion and Supreme Court`s Precedents, the meaning of `collaboration` is the `cooperative relationship in the same time and space`. What matters here isn`t `concurrency`, it`s `cooperative relationship`. the `cooperative relationship` is the mark of the principal offender in reference to the performers. In this sense, the principal offender mark called `cooperative relationship` is distinguished from `Tatherrschaft` as the principal mark involved in the act.
Therefore, in order to be the principal offender of collaboration crime, the performers need to form cooperative relationships with each other in the scene of crime. On this account, the accomplice who can`t form cooperative relationships with each other in the scene of crime can not be the principal offender of collaboration crimes. In the collaboration crime, a person who don`t form cooperative relationships in the scene of crime can`t take control of collaboration crime. This is the limit of the principal offender mark called `Tatherrschaft`.

7자기무고의 공동정범이 성립하는가? - 대법원 2017. 4. 26. 선고 2013도12592 판결의 평석을 겸하여 -

저자 : 최준혁 ( Choi Jun-hyouk )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 173-196 (24 pages)

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Neuerdings wurde ein Fall in dem koreanischen Oberstgerichtshof behandelt, wo es darum ging, ob Selbstverdachtigung durch Mittaterschaft moglich sei. Gegen die Behauptung des Staatsanwalts hat Rechtsprechung richtigerweise so entschieden, dass Selbstverdachtigung unter Merkmalen von falschen Verdachtigung nicht zu subsmieren und es deshalb auch nicht zu akzeptieren ist, Falsche Verdachtigung als Selbstverdachtigung durch Mittaterschaft zu begehen.
Diese Sicht ist zuzustimmen. Die Vorschrift besitzt doppelte Schutzrichtung: Rechtspflege und Individualguter. Aber das ist keine hinreichende Begrundung, Strafbarkeit zu leugnen gegen denjenigen, der durch Zusammenspiel mit anderen verdachtigt selbst hat. Also die Grunde der Straflosigkeit ist anders zu finden.
Zuerst handelt es sich um Folge der Auslegung der Vorschrift. Von vornherein ist es kein Fall der falschen Verdachtigung, dass der Tater durch falsche Behauptung selbst beschuldigt. Ausserdem ist in Bezug auf die Konzepte von allgemeinen Teil weder besondere personliche Merkmale nor funktionelle Tatherrschaft zur Begrundung der Bestrafung hilfreich.

8형사소송에서 기피제도의 문제점과 합리적 운영방안

저자 : 권순민 ( Kwon Soonmin )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 197-224 (28 pages)

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The system of challenge a judge is almost disappeared in our criminal procedure. If a judge falls under any of the reasons for exclusion or if there is any apprehension that a judge may render an unfair judgment, a prosecutor or the criminal defendant may challenge a judge. However, the notion of unfair judgment is so ambiguous that we can`t foresee. A bigger problem is in Article 20 in Criminal Procedure Law. An application for challenge which evidently aims at delay of the proceedings or contravenes the provisions of Article 19 in Criminal Procedure Law, shall be dismissed by a ruling by the court or judge who has received such application. This is one of self-judgement about judge`s decision and demolishes the system of challenge a judge of Article 18 in Criminal procedure Law. I am suggesting here that the system the judge who has been challenged dismiss has to be thrown out. The right to a fair trial and to participate will have to take precedence over a speedy trial.

9중국 부패범죄의 형사정책에 관한 연구

저자 : 민수현 ( Min Shou-xuan )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 29권 2호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 225-244 (20 pages)

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Corruption is the same with widespread illness, and it is a malignant entity that can corrupt the entire society if not cut off. Regarding anti-corruption, China has consistently and severely punished. In particular, after the election of 2013 by the state, Mr. Shi Jinping introduced the so-called "zero tolerance" policy against corruption. The problem, however, is that anti-corruption crimes have not diminished in spite of these strict measures.
We start from the awareness of the above problems and insist on building a new infrastructure to solve the corruption problem in China.
In this paper, we analyze the limitations of stricture in the control of corruption problem. Therefore, recognizing that strong punishment is not the only punishment, choosing the root of corruption is not a problem that can be solved in a short time, It is necessary to provide a solution to the problem.
As a result of the study, the following conclusions can be obtained. Thoroughbred can break the momentum of explorers, but it can bring about a shimmering effect, but it can not change the soil and environment of corruption that has already been prevalent in society.
Therefore, it is necessary to establish a strategy to censor strictly from the punishment to prevent even a small corruption case. We must inspect every single corruption crime to prevent corruption in the first place, and keep this phenomenon in order to create an atmosphere in which society is no longer corrupted.

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