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한국형사정책학회> 형사정책> 소년법의 연령과 형사책임

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소년법의 연령과 형사책임

The Age in Juvenile Act and Criminal Responsibility

김혁 ( Kim Hyeok )
  • : 한국형사정책학회
  • : 형사정책 28권3호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2016년 12월
  • : 35-72(38pages)

DOI


목차

Ⅰ. 서론
Ⅱ. 소년법의 연령규정과 소년의 건전한 성장
Ⅲ. 형사책임연령과 소년연령에 관한 비교법적 고찰 및 연혁적 고찰
Ⅳ. 책임주의와 소년보호이념의 내재적 연관성
Ⅴ. 소년법상 연령 해석과 제언
Ⅵ. 결론

키워드 보기


초록 보기


						
The concept of juvenile protection in the current Juvenile Act applies not only to juvenile protection cases but also to juvenile criminal cases, and the juvenile justice system has been developed in accordance with the problems of criminal responsibility age. In other words, it means that the juvenile protection ideology, which forms the basis of the Juvenile Act, has a nature that can not be discussed separately from the criminal responsibility. This is evidenced by the fact that measures for juvenile protection are criminal sanctions that restrict the basic rights of juveniles. Therefore, it is natural to think about the age problem of the Juvenile Act in connection with the problem of criminal responsibility, and through such a process, it becomes possible to understand rationally the various age regulations prescribed in Juvenile Act. In the protection cases, if the protective detention is introduced to improve rehabilitation of the age group with incomplete responsibility, it is logical whether a juvenile is the object of protective detention or not should be based on the age at the time of act as in the Criminal Act. In the criminal cases, for the same reason, the age standard of the indeterminate sentence and reduction of punishment should be judged by the time of act. The attempt to harmonize the juvenile and criminal laws in terms of criminal responsibility is not merely a slogan of the Juvenile Act aiming at healthy growth of the juveniles, but rather a way to refrain from excessive state intervention and guarantee the juveniles` procedural rights.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2018-300-000502870

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 법학
  • : KCI등재
  • :
  • : 연3회
  • : 1226-2595
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1986-2019
  • : 666


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1소년사건에서의 보호이념과 국선보조인제도

저자 : 원혜욱 ( Won Hye Wook )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 9-33 (25 pages)

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§ 1 of the Youth Act determines the purpose "help to grow healthy boys." The state, society and the family should be responsible for developing and growing young people as a member of a healthy social boy. Korea and the countries in the world apply against the adolescent not the responsible penalties but the protection and treatment as an important means of treatment. So many countries nehemn the idea "protection of teenagers", which target young people to grow into a healthy community members. However, the educational ideas are presented critical views, which can be a violation of the rights to be assured to the boy. Thus, the idea "protection of the young people" of the youth law is to be realized by guarantees and guarantees of the Due Process. For the realization the due process introduces and carries out `state support`, if no case the private assistance exists. Korea, like Japan, should also lay down guiding rules for the operation of the assistance.

2소년법의 연령과 형사책임

저자 : 김혁 ( Kim Hyeok )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 35-72 (38 pages)

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The concept of juvenile protection in the current Juvenile Act applies not only to juvenile protection cases but also to juvenile criminal cases, and the juvenile justice system has been developed in accordance with the problems of criminal responsibility age. In other words, it means that the juvenile protection ideology, which forms the basis of the Juvenile Act, has a nature that can not be discussed separately from the criminal responsibility. This is evidenced by the fact that measures for juvenile protection are criminal sanctions that restrict the basic rights of juveniles. Therefore, it is natural to think about the age problem of the Juvenile Act in connection with the problem of criminal responsibility, and through such a process, it becomes possible to understand rationally the various age regulations prescribed in Juvenile Act. In the protection cases, if the protective detention is introduced to improve rehabilitation of the age group with incomplete responsibility, it is logical whether a juvenile is the object of protective detention or not should be based on the age at the time of act as in the Criminal Act. In the criminal cases, for the same reason, the age standard of the indeterminate sentence and reduction of punishment should be judged by the time of act. The attempt to harmonize the juvenile and criminal laws in terms of criminal responsibility is not merely a slogan of the Juvenile Act aiming at healthy growth of the juveniles, but rather a way to refrain from excessive state intervention and guarantee the juveniles` procedural rights.

3소년범 형사처벌연령 하향 움직임의 부당성

저자 : 이수진 ( Lee Su-jin )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 73-95 (23 pages)

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Nowadays we lern about the serious news for juvenile deliquency on the media. So the opinion to insist severe punishment for juveniles are getting louder in our society. However concerns for being criminalization of juveniles is arising at the same time by scholars. Of course, the collectivization, intellectualization and tendency of repeated offense and so on for juvenile delinquencies are considerably severe problem in this society. But these are only a part of the all crimes not only juvenile`s. Just we have to know the tendency and then consider a countermeasure for the effectiveness of solutions. So the policy of downgrade age of the criminal minor not only sheds no new light but further obscures matters. Our society has to promote normal reinstation to society and prepare countermeasures for increasing the dignity and worth of juvenile. To attain this end, we confirm countermeasures of many different countries at this paper. Our society requires expansive reviews about proper system for juvenile delinquencies.

4소년사법에서 경찰의 역할과 역량

저자 : 최병각 ( Choi Byung-gak )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 97-124 (28 pages)

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This study aims to emphasize the role of the police in handling juvenile delinquents, especially as a decision maker to divert or not at the first phase. The police shall have authority to release juvenile delinquents with warning instead of sending them to the prosecutor or the court. Especially the police have to refrain from dealing young offenders by the summary procedure. And it is important to strengthen the competence of the police in appling restorative intervention program for juvenile delinquents. The police may seek to cooperate with civil professionals or volunteers in the community.

5소년형사사건에서 양형조사의 합리적 운영방안

저자 : 이상한 ( Lee Sang-han )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 125-151 (27 pages)

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Given that juvenile offenders are treated differently from adult offenders based on parens patriae and educational penal theory, administration of juveniles should be specialized. Because considering family circumstances or career in juvenile cases is comparable to determination of punishment of adult offenders, it is prior to discuss the meaning of examination of offenses in juvenile criminal procedures. There are various types of juvenile survey system in trials, each of which should be analyzed in terms of characteristics and content for discussing reasonable methods of management in examination of offenses in juvenile criminal cases. Sentencing examination of offenses in juvenile criminals is needed because juveniles should be considered immature persons, who are not the targets of punishment but the ones of reformation through protection and education. Juvenile offenders need not uniformly strict punishment but appropriate, diversified treatment based on each case in order to protect and educate them as good members of society. In this context, weighing of an offense is required to determine punishment of juveniles based on their process of growth, background, personality, mental status, intent of delinquency, and other circumstantial matters. Such determination needs data that can be used in all stages of criminal case procedures from investigation through execution to treatment in society. It is desirable to unify investigation agencies by integrating the presentence investigation system by probation officers and the sentence investigation system by court investigators to ultimately organize a centralized sentence investigation system. As in cases of sentence examination for adults, in addition, sentence investigation of juvenile criminal cases should be interpreted to be applied by the provisions of the Criminal Procedure Code and the legal basis needs to be specified in the Code. Because investigation of juvenile offenders is directly linked to juvenile treatment, it should be conducted in such a way that the personal characteristics of each juvenile can be scientifically assessed. Given that the importance of such investigation for treatment of individual juveniles based on juvenile protection ideology, the number of investigators need to be increased. Above all, sentence investigation of juvenile criminal cases targets incomplete, immature juveniles, requiring investigation techniques and investigators specialized in juvenile cases that can be scientifically assessed when compared to sentence investigation for adult cases.

6경죄사건에 대한 합리적 신속처리절차 도입방안 - 프랑스와의 비교법적 고찰을 중심으로 -

저자 : 김택수 ( Kim Taek-su )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 155-184 (30 pages)

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Le projet gouvernemental coreen en 2006 sur l`introduction des procedures acceleres avait pour but d`elaborer une nouvelle procedure de convocation immediate en application du regle de selection et concentration et a modifier la procedure de jugement immediate et la procedure simplifiee. La ressemblance de ces trois types de procedures avec celles employees en France en tant que les procedures accelerees justifie la necessite d`analyser les procedures francaises en la matiere et d`examiner leurs etats des lieux ainsi qu`en deduire les exigences pour la mise en place des procedures accelerees de maniere raisonnable Les caracteriques des procedures francaises mettent l`accent sur la simplication des procedures existants entre la fin de l`investigation policiere et la comparution du prevenu a l`audience de jugement alors que le systeme coreen fait des efforts pour la celerite de l`audience selon les regles de preuve. Les procedures francaises assurent les droits du prevenu et de la victime au maximum en applicant les procedures differencies au critere de la gravite de faits et de la simplicite de fait, et egalement distribuent un part de competence des procureurs aux officiers de police pour faire exercer les missions de ministere public. Cela necessite la collaboration etroite entre le parquet et la police en vertu du systeme de traitement en temps reel. Cette etude bien explique qu`on doit clarifier et diversifier les objets de procedure selon les gravites et les caracteristiques des faits en meme temps assurer les droits du prevenu et de la victime.

7법과학 증거의 정량화에 관한 법적 연구 - 증거의 개연성(probability)과 인지적 편견 가능성의 문제를 중심으로 -

저자 : 이성기 ( Lee Seongki ) , 조영일 ( Cho Youngil )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 185-210 (26 pages)

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This article discusses current a forensic evidential issue on how to quantify forensic evidence. As it has been remarkedly noted in the report of National Academy of Sciences(NAS), pattern evidence, except for DNA evidence, has shown no scientific basis and as a result this type of evidence exposes fact finders to cognitive bias making them accept the evidence as individualized identification. For this reason, the NAS report recommends that forensic science institutes identify forensic evidence by using a quantified method such as likelihood ratio(LR), random match probability(RMP), and verbal equivalents(VE). According to current psychological research, however, there is a risk of cognitive bias when lay people interpret those quantified forensic evidence such as prosecutor`s and defense attorney`s fallacy requiring that fact-finders in trial court to be informed such risks to avoid any possible error in a decision process. In this sense, it is a paradox to scientists and legal professionals that to the former quantified forensic evidence is scientific and logical whereas it is only conditionally acceptable to the latter. In Korean setting, however, it is problematic that there is not ample of meaningful discussion on quantified forensic evidence among legal professionals. This article suggests that Korean forensic science institutes start by quantifying fingerprints because the institutes store almost all Korean fingerprint data. And this paper also recommends further persistent academic dialogue between legal and forensic disciplines.

8가정폭력에 대한 회복적 사법의 접근

저자 : 김재희 ( Kim Zaehee )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 211-236 (26 pages)

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The universal perception of domestic violence was that the instead of intervention of law, the family members should solve it among themselves. However, the idea that the police should respond to domestic violence passively has changed so that the police should respond active for the protection of the victims. Because of the facts that domestic violence is more continuous, repetitive, and concealing than other types of violence and children exposed to domestic violence inherit the violent tendency, domestic violence not only requires countermeasures on the violence itself, but also, cares for the victims along with the domestic violence offender. Together with such social perception changes, there are studies actively being conducted to establish countermeasures in the academic world as well. On the other hand, reinforcing criminal penalty on domestic violence may lead to breakup of family. These problems also bring concerns of encouraging the victim to conceal the crime in order to continue the marriage, in the danger of continued violence. Consequently, the victim continues to live with the offender; this leads to the continued exposure of danger, and may end up in a dilemma of threatening the victim`s safety. In order to prevent breakups of families and resolve conflicts between offenders and victims from the limitations of criminal justice, the restorative justice should be carefully applied to domestic violence. This study points out the limited problems of criminal justice while perceiving domestic violence as social issues, not domestic issues anymore, and seeks a plan to prevent family breakups and eradicate domestic violence by utilizing the advantages of restoration and healing of restorative justice as an alternative plan.

9작량감경에 대한 경험적 연구 - 강간죄를 중심으로 -

저자 : 기광도 ( Ki Kwang-do )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 237-264 (28 pages)

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The purpose of this article is to investigate the effect of sentence factors on Discretionary Mitigation, and the effect of Discretionary Mitigation on sentence length in rape crime. Discretionary Mitigation of punishment in extenuation of circumstances is mitigation of punishment/sentence in trial process by judges. The Discretionary Mitigation was enacted in Korean Criminal Law since 1953, but the application of it was not concretely and clearly determined in legal code. The data analysed in this study were obtained from sentencing in court of first instance in Korea, kept files in Prosecutorial Guideline System(PGS) of the Supreme Prosecutor`s Office. The data consists of a total of 477 of sentencing of rape crime sentenced between June 1, 2012 and June 30, 2014. We used ANOVA, Regression Analysis and Logistic regression analysis etc. The results indicate that 1) judges`application percentage of Discretionary Mitigation was 76.0% in rape crime, 2) injury level in case, victim`s requests for leniency have a significant effect on Discretionary Mitigation. 3) Discretionary Mitigation have a significant effect on imprisonment sentencing length, in/out decision(probation/incarceration) in rape crime. 4) When other factors is controlled, Discretionary Mitigation is related to the sentence. On the sentencing of the rape, length of the sentence of it`s application cases is lower than non-application cases. Such results seem to suggest that Discretionary Mitigation are significant factors on sentence in rape crime, although offence factors are of primary importance. And we wish this study to contribute to the understanding and explanation of effect of Discretionary Mitigation on sentence in our society.

10교통범죄에서의 유기치사죄의 의미 - 부진정부작위범에서의 설명과 연결하여 -

저자 : 최준혁 ( Choi Jun-hyouk )

발행기관 : 한국형사정책학회 간행물 : 형사정책 28권 3호 발행 연도 : 2016 페이지 : pp. 265-295 (31 pages)

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Verkersunfalle sind manchmal passiert und dadurch sind viele Leute ums Leben gekommen, verletzt und ihre Sachen geschadigt worden. Deshalb ist das Problem immer aktuell und praxisrelevant. Außserdem gibt es in diesem Bereich noch viele zu losenden theoretischen Probleme. In diesem Aufsatz geht es um Zusammenhang zwischen einerseits verschiedenen Deliktstatbestande, also Totungsdelitkt als unechte Unterlassungsdelikt, Aussetzung mit Todesfolge, Unterlassene Hilfeleistung und anderen Delikten im Verkehrsordnung, andererseits Ingerenz, Vertrauensprinzip bezugliche Fahrlassigkeitsdelikt und objektiven Zurechnung. Schwerpunkt ist Konkurrenz von Verbrechen. Bisher hat koreanische Rechtsprechung die Hilfeleistungspflicht durch Vorschrift von Strassenverkehrsgesetz so gesehen, dass Unfallverursacher Verletzten helfen muss, unabhangig davon, ob der Unfall wegen seines Vorsatzes oder Fahrlassigkeit passiert ist. Nach h. M. stellt diese Pflicht die Obhutpflicht beim Aussetzungsdelikt dar und der Fahrer kann als Tater von Aussetzung mit Todesfolge bestaft werden, wenn er sie unterlasst und damit der Verletzte gestorben ist. Neuerdings hat sich der koreanische Oberstgerichtshof diese Ansicht bestatigt. Aber diese Rechtsprechung ist als Anfangspunkt zur systermatischer und logisch konsistenter Diskussion zu sehen.

12
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