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한국의료윤리학회> 한국의료윤리학회지> 부분-인간화 동물(Part-Human Animals)의 개념과 윤리적 쟁점들

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부분-인간화 동물(Part-Human Animals)의 개념과 윤리적 쟁점들

The Definition and Ethical Issues of Part-Human Animals

모효정 ( Hyo Jung Mo )
  • : 한국의료윤리학회
  • : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2013년 04월
  • : 27-40(14pages)

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Recent advances in the development of biotechnology have led to the creation of a variety of organisms, named part-human animals, with both human and animal components. Scientists have created part-human animals that have both human cells and animal cells in their bodies. Part-human animals include both ``chimeras`` and ``hybrids``. The part-human animals might hold enormous potential for use in clinical application as well as in basic research on human physiology. However, despite its potential, the progression of part-human animal research has given rise to many ethical concerns. The arguments against the creation of part-human animals are related to concerns about human dignity and moral obligations along with apprehensions on violating the “species boundary”, which some may consider morally repugnant and wrong. The public`s negative attitudes toward making part-human animals directly relate to these reasons. As a result, part-human animal research needs to be understood in a more cautious manner.

ECN

ECN-0102-2014-500-002094486


UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2014-500-002094486

간행물정보

  • : 의약학분야  > 기타(의약학)
  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 계간
  • : 2005-8284
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1998-2018
  • : 405


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1설명동의의 신경윤리(Neuroethics)

저자 : 김양태 ( Yang Tae Kim ) , 이상목 ( Sang Mok Lee )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 1-10 (10 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Informed consent has problems with readability, length, complexity, and so on. On the one hand, rigid requirements related to informed consent discourage subjects to participate experiment. On the other hand, it distracts from more serious ethical problems in clinical research such as decision-making capacity. Recently, there is increasing evidence that some proportion of the population has difficulties with decision-making capacity. Therefore, the neuropsychological tests associated with decision making are needed before giving valid informed consent. The decision making related to informed consent can be described by the interplay between emotional and cognitive functions. How can we investigate this empirically? An appropriate scale measuring neuropsychological function in informed consent should include both cognitive and emotional abilities. Nowadays, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool (MacCAT) was widely used. But it relies predominantly on cognitive abilities such as understanding, appreciation, reasoning, and expression of choice. Considering recent empirical studies, the inclusion of emotional abilities in relation to decision-making seems to be essential. Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) requires emotional function as well as cognitive function to perform proper decision-making. Thus, it would be necessary to administer both the MacCAT and the IGT in people who have deficits in decision making and in giving valid or invalid informed consent.

2보건의료자원의 분배에 있어서 세대 간 정의: N. Daniels의 프루던셜한 평생이론

저자 : 박상혁 ( Sang Hyuk Park )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 11-26 (16 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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The problem of generational justice in modern welfare states is how to equitably distribute social burdens and benefits of the welfare system across generations in a society. Because of the aging of society, however, contributors to the welfare system got fewer whereas beneficiaries from the welfare system got more. In the 1980`s, ``liberal`` welfare institutions seemed to fail to maintain generational equity so that ``liberal`` welfare institutions, and ``liberalism`` itself were harshly criticized. Against these criticisms, Daniels proposed a liberal theory of generation justice, ``prudential life-span account``. In this paper, I try to provide its adequate understanding and defend it. To achieve my aim, I clarify its horizontal and vertical contexts and draw its theoretical and practical implications. Actually, the problem of ``generational justice`` is not one, but two problems which are ``justice between age groups`` and ``justice between birth cohorts``. Justice between age groups is typically understood as a problem of interpersonal distribution. Considering the fact that we all age, it should be understood as a problem of interpersonal distribution. So understood, the guiding principle of justice between age groups is the principle of prudence which is adequately framed. Regarding justice between birth cohorts, all birth cohorts have to solve the problem of justice between age groups and the only sustainable solution is to maintain a stable transfer system between young and old generations. To maintain this transfer system, co-existing birth cohorts should make benefit ratios approximate to equality. After clarifying ``prudential life-span account, I defend it from Mckerlie`s criticism.

3부분-인간화 동물(Part-Human Animals)의 개념과 윤리적 쟁점들

저자 : 모효정 ( Hyo Jung Mo )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 27-40 (14 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

초록보기

Recent advances in the development of biotechnology have led to the creation of a variety of organisms, named part-human animals, with both human and animal components. Scientists have created part-human animals that have both human cells and animal cells in their bodies. Part-human animals include both ``chimeras`` and ``hybrids``. The part-human animals might hold enormous potential for use in clinical application as well as in basic research on human physiology. However, despite its potential, the progression of part-human animal research has given rise to many ethical concerns. The arguments against the creation of part-human animals are related to concerns about human dignity and moral obligations along with apprehensions on violating the “species boundary”, which some may consider morally repugnant and wrong. The public`s negative attitudes toward making part-human animals directly relate to these reasons. As a result, part-human animal research needs to be understood in a more cautious manner.

4인체 부분들(Human Body Parts)의 존재론적 특성에 대한 철학적 고찰

저자 : 조선우 ( Sun Woo Cho )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 41-58 (18 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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It is uncontroversial that human body parts, including human material, are physical beings. However, they seem to be treated not just as physical objects but as those of a special kind. There seems to be some ontological characters of human body parts that explain why we tend to feel uncomfortable or unpleasant when those parts are treated in certain ways that will be introduced in this paper. This paper explores the ontological characters of human body parts by means of comparison with other physical beings whose ontological characters cannot be explained by reductive materialism-that is, human beings and works of art. For this goal, I examine Dworkin`s discussion of the sanctity of human life-based on the concept of ``creative investment``- and Margolis` analysis of the ontology of artworks-based on the concept of ``cultural emergence``. The insight that each of these can offer as well as the applicability of these to human body parts will be discussed.

5의학적 의사결정의 실천 모델: 환자, 의사, 사회, 세 가지 주된 힘의 상호작용을 중심으로

저자 : 이효진 ( Hyo Jean Lee )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 59-76 (18 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Physicians come face to face with many crises concerning the medical decision making. Apart from medical problems, they have to consider patient`s personal needs, social ethics and law. Because physician-patient relationship changed from doctor-centered to cooperation-based like shared decision making. Meanwhile the conflicts between patients and doctors are growing all the time, since each patient has to bear a socioeconomic factors of disease. Therefore, the approach by ethics and law is needed to solve their problem, for example, hospital ethics committee (HEC). In conclusion, the medical decision making process is an outcome from the interaction with three forces: medical opinion of doctor, personal needs of patient and limitation of society like law and ethics. This article shed light on these three main forces and propose practice model. The decision making process of medical opinion model provides the doctors with how to find the problems, and make a plan for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes through hierarchy and sequence. The model of personal needs also guides them through way to narrowing the opinion distance between doctors and patients. And the law and ethics model proposes new concept of HEC, “hierarchical HEC” that is two-step organization for protecting doctors` decision risk and patients` interest.

6제약협회 공정경쟁규약의 개정필요성과 개선방안

저자 : 강한철 ( Han Cheol Kang )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 77-91 (15 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Although the Korean Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association`s Promotion Code has acted as substantive binding authority in the pharmaceutical industry and the medical community, both the industry and the community currently have cast their doubtful and skeptical eyes on the Code in terms of its legitimacy. Such issue raising seems to mainly derive from the fact that the Code has many intrinsic problems including but not limited to the absence of provisions allowing physicians` consultations and lectures and resonable compensations for them, the unrealistic case number and compensation amount of a newly marketed drug`s post marketing surveillance and the ambiguity of clinical trials-related provision. Considering the fact that such problems are hardly found in other advanced countries` pharmaceutical promotion codes such as those of the United States and Japan, the effort to improve contents of the Code seem to be highly needed. In this context, it is time to discuss the necessity for revising the Code`s problematic provisions in order to enhance the legitimacy of the Code.

7새로운 의료시술의 도입과 임상적용 시의 윤리 절차

저자 : 강명신 ( Myoung Sheen Kang ) , 이윤성 ( Yoon Seong Lee ) , 최보문 ( Bo Moon Choi ) , 이동수 ( Dong Soo Lee ) , 이상무 ( Sang Moo Lee ) , 이선희 ( Seon Heui Lee ) , 구영모 ( Young Mo Koo ) , 박재현 ( Jae Hyun Park ) , 이일학 ( Il Hak Lee ) , 박지용 ( Ji Yong Park ) , 고윤석 ( Youn Suck Ko

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 92-116 (25 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Medical care largely depends on developments of medical sciences and technologies. Development of innovative medical procedure has to be based on medical evidence. And the ethical climate among individual physicians, academic societies, specialists` organization, and healthcare institution is as much critical as the ethical stance of the developer. Therefore, it is necessary to make decisions on clinical application and evaluation, social costs and benefits, reimbursement through rational procedure and standards taking into account issues like clinical evidence and conflict of interests. Especially, in the case of innovative surgical and surgico-medical procedure, the development and adoption has almost been up to non-formal studies until recently. Formal review process based on basic principles of biomedical research ethics and evidence-based medicine, is supposed to be proposed for development of innovative surgical and medical procedures. And this process is to be an integral part of biomedical technology assessment and ethical regulation. This paper suggests ethical guidelines from its initial attempt to clinical application with regard to the ethical review and evaluation of a new medical procedure. Though focused on innovations, these suggestions are also applicable to a new medical procedure. Firstly, it outlines the general discussion about surgical innovations from the ethical viewpoint. Secondly, prior researches about the need of guideline are reviewed. Thirdly, under this background, basic principles for process of review and evaluation, and fourthly, the very process are proposed. Lastly, the further suggestions regarding relevant health care policy issues are given.

8심정지 후 뇌사 추정 환자의 장기 기증에 대한 의료인의 의식 조사

저자 : 최은아 ( Eun Ah Choi ) , 차원철 ( Won Chul Cha ) , 신태건 ( Tae Gun Shin ) , 심민섭 ( Min Seob Sim ) , 조익준 ( Ik Joon Jo ) , 송근정 ( Keun Jeong Song ) , 이태림 ( Tae Rim Lee ) , 최병인 ( B I Choi )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 117-123 (7 pages)

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This study was conducted during 1 month in 2012 to investigate doctors` attitude towards organ donation in brain death patient after restoration of spontaneous circulation from cardiac arrest. A total of 107 residents and staffs in one urban teaching hospital were answered the questionnaire. Participants were selected from departments that frequently involved in managing brain death patients after cardiac arrest. More than 50% of responders had experiences of managing brain death patient after cardiac arrest. However, they still had difficulties in making decisions whether their patient was brain death or not, suggesting organ donation to brain death patient`s family members. There were various reasons why they felt difficult to announce brain death or to recommend organ donation. Mostly, misunderstanding and miscommunication with family members made them hard to announce brain death and recommend organ donation. To improve results of organ donation from brain death patient after cardiac arrest, further education and attitude change of doctors who are in charge of taking care of those patinets will be needed.

9한국 의료인의 죽음에 대한 이해

저자 : 조계화 ( Kae Hwa Jo ) , 김균무 ( Gyun Moo Kim )

발행기관 : 한국의료윤리학회 간행물 : 한국의료윤리학회지 16권 1호 발행 연도 : 2013 페이지 : pp. 124-138 (15 pages)

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(기관인증 필요)

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Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the personal meaning of death through the health personnel`s death comprehension. Methods: A qualitative study design was utilized. Data were collected from the clinical experiences of physicians, nurses, and paramedics. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. The texts were essays written by 43 health personnel`s about the impressions on death through their clinical experience. Results: There were three themes and fourteen theme clusters classified. The three themes that emerged were: death of human body as a medical failure; death as an occupational neutrality and controled emotion; and conversed death from a bad habit. Conclusion: The findings suggest a number of themes that health care professionals reported about meaning of death experiences through death metaphor that could be explored as a way of improving end-of-life care.

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