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한국비교형사법학회> 비교형사법연구> 미국의 사형제도 개괄

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미국의 사형제도 개괄

Article : Considering the Death Penalty in the United States

박용철 ( Yong Chul Park )
  • : 한국비교형사법학회
  • : 비교형사법연구 12권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2010년 07월
  • : 335-355(21pages)

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The United States of America is a country where the death penalty not only be provided in law as a form of ultimate punishment but be actively utilized. The yearly numbers of death row inmates executed have maintained relatively high since the number hits record high in the year of 1999 with the number, 98. Since the year of 1976, when the Country decided to resume executions, more than twelve hundred death row inmates have been executed. The supporters of the capital punishment take the horrific case of the United States of America as the main example why the system needs to stay status quo, meaning that the Ultimate Punishment should continue to exist as it is because it is being used in the Country of the most advanced democratic system in the world. Does that mean that the example of the United States can be applied to Korea? When it comes to the Constitution in that matter, the US Constitution takes totally different view from most of other countries on earth. That is, as long as it is "due" procedurally as well as substantively, taking someone`s life in the name of justice can be justified given the 8th Amendment and the 14th Amendment. The debates in the U. S. on the death penalty seems that it overlooks the essence of the Punishment. Ending someone`s life can never be humane no matter what method is used to minimize the pain coming with the Punishment. Also there is a problem of possible errors in the death penalty. Some scholars in the U. S. predict that capital punishment will be abolished sooner or later because the problems with it are too significant and too overt for the practice to survive. Because no one is able to dispute that the capital punishment leaves no room for any error, it requires the most completely reliable procedures. After all, the U. S. can never be a good example to maintain the death penalty. One of the best reasons is what is applicable under the U. S. law cannot be the precedent to follow give the vast difference in the letter of law and the other is that the death penalty itself is flawed in many ways. Therefore any attempt to use the U. S. as a supporting example to praise for the death penalty should never be made.

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UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2012-350-002432637

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  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 계간
  • : 1598-091x
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  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1999-2018
  • : 1009


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1대명률(大明律) "보고한기(保辜限期)"규정의 형사법적 의의

저자 : 류부곤 ( Bu Gon Ryu )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 1-25 (25 pages)

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In ``Ta Ming Lu(大明律)``, penal code of the Joseon Dynasty, there are provisions titled by ``Bogo-Hanki(保辜限期)``. It contains that : if someone beats or injures victim, it needs to have a fixed period for the conclusion of criminal result and due the period he/she is assigned to some duty. Concretely, at first in aspect of the conclusion of criminal result, several terms are defined for several types of heating or injury and then the result, only in that terms occurred, will be a basis of purnishment. Thus, if the victim die in that terms due to the injury, offender will be purnished as bodily injury resulting in death. But if out of that terms will be purnished only as bodily injury. At second in that terms the charge of restoration of criminal damage is imposed to the offender. If the damage is recovered well by the treating of offender, the punishment for offender will be decreased as a necessity. As a record of "the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty" these rules are applied rigorously for the serious consideration of human life, because these rules conrol whether the offender die or not. The rule of ``Bogo-Hanki`` in ``Ta Ming Lu`` has twice means in aspect of modern criminal law : a requisite of the offense, a rule for restoration of criminal damage. At first it will be a problem that whether these provisions are objective condition of punishment or not. But these rules have a function to determine the legal result of cirme directly, so these must be treated by a condition of completion for crime. In detail it is more reasonable to consider these rules as a concretive measure of objective Imputation, determining whether the normative danger is realized or not on the assumption that the causation for the crime is completed. Second one, in aspect of recovery of criminal damage these rules show that the ``Ta Ming Lu`` intend to restoration of victim as a important purpose of punishment, in comparison with modern criminal law, it excludes the victim for the status of the party concernd. In this regard these rules can stand comparison with modern Case-Managing Mediation.

2긴급구조의무와 나쁜 사마리아인법

저자 : 박무원 ( Moo Won Park )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 27-53 (27 pages)

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The bases of criticism that the bad samaritan law which enforces to perform the duty to rescue in emergency situations by punishment is unacceptable by the reason of moralization of criminal law include the restriction of freedom of attitude by order, the clear-cut distinction of between law and moral, the ambiguity of positive duties etc. It is only decided between positive and passive duties whether the restriction of freedom is within the minimum or not. It is impossible to judge whether the restriction itself within the minimum or not, and impossible to judge by the discrimination between prohibition and order. Positive duty also could not excluded from legal duty even if positive duties is much more in the degree of restriction of freedom than passive duties and they usually belong to moral duty. Because such a restriction is fundamentally necessary for the existence of liberal society and the discrimination between law and moral changes according to time and society. Also against the criticism of the ambiguity of positive duty, for example, being the duty of solidarity restricted to accident cases or dangerous situations, the range of behavior discretion of each individual in the positive duty to rescue becomes narrow. The general duty to rescue of the bad Samaritan law is given to the one only who recognize an accident and is in a position to rescue the victim.

3동북아시아 사형제도의 현실에 대한 비판적 성찰

저자 : 이덕인 ( Deok In Lee )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 55-79 (25 pages)

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If one takes a close look at a death penalty system of North East Asia, Republic of Korea, China, Japan, one will find out that these countries have a common characteristic of maintaining a death penalty. Their death penalty system`s existence evidences are relied on public opinion which is not identifiable. However, a background of public opinion is rooted deeply from Confucianism, Asian`s value. Confucianism, consequently, blocked to naturalize western society`s right concept and philosophy of men`s dignity. In north east asia`s society, aims for punishment are education and means of rebirth, which I agree, however, when it comes to maintain nation`s system, existence of death penalty means acknowledgement that they cannot rule by rules. Thus, to change the notion, korea should not take a death penalty as a nation`s problem and civil right problems. They should exercise major influence on abolition of East asia`s death penalty and enforce to recognize it by enact it to international problems which is in need of intervention. Today, the world is moving toward vanishing a death penalty system. From 1977 to 2010, numbers of countries abolished a death penalty were increased dramatically from 11 to 139 in that, it is a result which is a global, societal, mutual interest and should be solved by international society. Thus, the republic of Korea should also join the international agreement which were adapted by UN as soon as possible and be prepared for ratification. Times that economic power decides nation`s quality had been already passed by, therefore, Korea should mediate to spirit of world`s civil right announcement to improve human dignity and develop human right and also participate to abolish death penalty.

4의사의 치료행위와 가정적 승낙

저자 : 신양균 ( Yang Kyun Shin )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 81-102 (22 pages)

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Die Rechtsfigur der hypothetischen Einwilligung geht es um Fallgestaltung, in denen der Patient bei wahrheitsgemaßer Aufklarung in den tatsachlich durchgefuhrten Heineingriff eingewilligt hatte, obwohl sich arztlicher Heileingriff ohne wirksame Einwilligung durchgefuhrt hat, weil der Arzt die fur sie erforderliche Aufklarungspflicht nicht erschopfend erfullt hat. Nach herrschenden Meinungen in Deutschland soll diese Rechtsfigur fur einen neuen Rechtfertigung sprechen, doch weist die Begrundung eher auf das Fehlen der objektiven Zurechnung bei rechtmaßigem Alternativverhalten hin, hier allerdings auf der Rechtswidrigkeitsebene. Bei Durchsicht der einschlagigen Urteile des deutschen Bundesgerichtshofs stoßt man alsbald auf einen parallel zur zivilrechtlichen Arzthaftung gelagerten Rechtsfortbildungsprozess, indem die Strafgericht endgultig die hypothetische Einwilligung anerkennt, z.B. in die O-Beine-korrektur-Urteil vom 25,9,1990, die Surgibonedubel-Urteil vom 29.6.1995, Die verwechselten Bandscheibenfacher-Beschluss vom 15.10.2003, die Bohrerspitze-Urteil vom 20.1.2004, die Fettabsaugung-Urteil vom 5.7.2007 usw. Auf die Richtung solcher Rechtsprechungen stuzten sich im wesentlichen einige Wissenschaftler, wie Kuhlen, Mitsch, Roxin. Vor allem betonte Kuhlen solche Zurechungsausschluss auf Grund der Lehre von der Pflichtwidrigkeitszusammenhang, doch nur im Rahmen der Rehctswidrigkeit, die damit als strafrechtliche Korrekitv der Strafbarkeit der arztlichen Aufklarungsmangeln funktioniert. Dennoch lasst sich die hypothetisch Einwilligung bedenklich als strafrechtliche Korrektiv zugunsten Arztes einsetzen, weil ihr im Ergebnis nicht unbeachtliche Einwande entgegenstehen. Die Rechtsfigur ließe sich nur in den straftataufbau einfugen, wenn man die kategorialen Unterschiede zwischen Tatbestand und Rehchtswidrigkeit bzw. die Lehre von der objektiven Zurechnung tiefgreifend umgestalten wurde. Das Strafrecht lasst die Beachtung eines rechtmaßigen Alternativverhaltens als Zurechnungsausschluss namlich nur in gewissen Grenzen zu. Daruber hinaus soll Vertreter dieser Rechtsfigur Rechnung tragen, dass unsere arztliche Wirklichkeit anders ist als sie bei fortgeschrittenen Lander wie Deutschland, USA, England. Die Strafbarkeit des Arztes bei Aufklarungsmangeln bedarf in der Tat der Begrenzung, Dieses Ziel sollte aber nicht verfolgt werden, indem man nachtragliche Außerungen des Betroffenen uber das Institut des Zurechnungsausschlusses in die Betrachtung der Rechtsgutsverletztung miteinbezieht. Fur die dadurch entstandene Diskrepanz zur azrtlichen Haftung im Zivilrecht, wo Theorie und Praxis die Rechtsfigur anerkennen und die Haftung des Artzes damit starker eingeschrankt ist als im Strafrecht, ist andere strafrechtliche Restriktionen der strafrechtlichen Haftung erforderlich, die zu einer angemessenen Angleichung der Verantwortlichkeit in beiden Rechtsgebieten fuhren konnen. Sie stellt Beschrankung oder Definitivwerden der arztlichen Aufklarungspflicht dar.

5쟁의행위에 대한 업무방해죄 적용 비판 -대법원 판결 비판을 중심으로-

저자 : 조국 ( Kuk Cho )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 103-128 (26 pages)

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Article 314 of the Korean Penal Code stipulates the crime of ``interference with business.`` It states that a person who interferes with the business of another by circulating false facts or fraudulent means, or by the threat of force, shall be punished. According to the Supreme Court`s interpretation, the crime of ``interference with business`` has been applied to picketing, collective refusal of labor, and all the strikes that interfere with the employer`s right of business administration, even though not accompanied by violence. This Article criticizes the Supreme Court`s interpretation virtually nullifies the constitutional right of strike. The exercise of the strike right per se is supposed to interfere with the business of an employer. The reason why the Constitution stipulates the strike right is to prevent the criminalization of strike. However, the Supreme Court`s interpretation dwarfs the constitutional right. This Article further argues that collective refusal of labor without battery or intimidation produces only the civil legal matter, not the criminal; the criminalization of collective refusal of labor results in the approval of forced labor, which is constitutionally unacceptable; picketing without battery or intimidation should be de-criminalized; and even strikes that interfere with the employer`s right of business administration should be allowed if the employer`s exercise of the right accompanies with substantial changes of labor conditions.

6절도죄의 재물과 제3자 영득에 관한 해석론의 문제점

저자 : 김성룡 ( Sung Ryong Kim )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 129-150 (22 pages)

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Die Diskussion uber das Rechtsgut, das Handlungsobjekt und die Moglichkeit der sog. Drittzueignung im Sinn des § 329 korStGB scheint m. E. noch nicht befriedigend gefuhrt, geschweige denn fur die eigentumliche Auslegung des koreanischen Gesetzes. Hinterfragen soll man die ubereinstimmende Auslegungsergebnisse im Bezug auf das Handlungsobjekt, die Moglichkeit der Drittzueignung im korStGB eingehender, um die sog. eigentliche Ausleung des korStGB in der Tat umzusetzen. Das Bestimmtheitsgebot -lex certa- in Gesetzgebung und das Analogieveobot in Auslegung und Anwendung des Straftatsbestandes werden insoweit nicht beachtet, als die h. M und die Rechtsprechung das Diebstahlsobjekt als eine bewegliche Sache annimmt und die Drittzueignung als Sich-Zueignung auf die normative Bewertung umdeuten. Der vorliegende Beitrag wendet sich gegen die herkommliche Auslegung und Rechtsprechung und pladiert fur eine auf die Gesetzeslage des korStGB gerichtete Auslegung uber das Handlungsobjekt und die Moglichkeit der Drittzueignung. Damit eine solche Auslegung sinnvoll gemacht werden kann, hat er die Gesetzeslage und die wichtige Lehremeinung und Rechtsprechung nicht nur in Korea, sondern auch in Japan und Deutschand rechtsvergleichend, zusammenfassend vorgestellt und einige Bemerkung daruber gemacht.

7가상공간과 형법상 재물의 개념 재구성

저자 : 김현숙 ( Hyeon Sook Kim )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 151-174 (24 pages)

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In the Criminal Act, "energy which is subject to human control" is deemed to be "property"(Article 346). Our society is rapidly moving into the information society. Digital content industry as a major industrial development in our society is affecting the criminal provision. And various problems that occur in the cyberspace is needed to solve. The contents of this paper, as follows: 1) This paper is about the relationship between cyberspace and concept of the property in the Criminal Act. 2) According to the traditional analysis, the concept of "property" in the Criminal Act is only including of "the energy which is subjected human control". 3) The online-game industry, especially MMORPG, is growing explosively. And there is a need to preserve the property in the cyberspace. 4) So we need to look at the concept of property in the Criminal Act from a new angle. 5) This paper handle the problems whether airwaves of Cable TV, digital documents, wireless internet IP addresses and items obtained from online-game have the characteristics of the property or not. 6) I think, as the times change, it is necessary that the interpretation of the Article 346 also change.

8저작권법상의 형사처벌과 비례성원칙

저자 : 이원상 ( Won Sang Lee )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 175-198 (24 pages)

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Aus den Rechtsstaatsprinzipien wird der Grundsatz der Verhaltnismaßigkeit hergeleitet. Er ist nicht nur als einschrankendes Prinzip des staatlichen Eingriffs, sondern auch als ein positiver Appell zu begreifen. Der Verhaltnismaßigkeitsgrundsatz kommt als geeignetes Mittel fur die gesellschaftliche Integration des Cyberstrafrechts in Betracht. Problematisch ist aber, dass er als formaler Grundsatz missbrauchlich als Allzweckwaffe eingesetzt werden kann. Weiterhin ist die Gerechtigkeit im Cyberstrafrecht nur von kurzer Dauer. Das Cyberstrafrecht kann mit Hilfe des Verhaltnismaßigkeitsgrundsatzes Normfahigkeit erwerben und dadurch seine gesellschaftliche Integration fordern. Die Strafe im Urheberrecht gehort zum Cyberstrafrecht. Deswegen sollte Der Verhaltnismaßigkeitsgrundsatz auf die Strafe im Urheberrecht angewendet werden, weil sie rucksichtlos zur Uberkriminalitat tendiert. Nach diesem Grundsatz kann das Internet-Sperren nicht verhaltnismaßig sein, weil es das Dasein des Personens im Cyberspace abstreitet. Vor allem ist es auch nicht verhaltnismaßig, dass man die Junge bestraft, die fahrlassig das Urheberrecht verletzt haben. Denn sie hatte keine Absicht. Damit ist es auch nicht verhaltnismaßig, dass man das Verbrechen noch milder bestraft, dagegen das Vergehen noch scharfer. Aber diese Phanomen passiert im Urheberrecht. Das Urheberrecht sollte mit Hilfe des Verhaltnismaßigkeitsgrundsatzes noch mal geordnet werden, um die Normfahigkeit zu erwerben. Wenn nicht, konnten wir alle nach dem Urheberrecht immer als potenziale Tater behandelt werden.

9치료감호법 개정논의에 대한 고찰 -정신성적 장애자의 논의를 중심으로-

저자 : 장규원 ( Gyu Won Chang )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 199-221 (23 pages)

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At present, negotiations are under way between relevant experts and government official revise the Medical Treatment and Custody Act, instead of placing a criminal under both the execution of sentence and the measure for care and custody. And this research also aims to identify problems that the current preventive custody system is alleged to discuss logical validity and effectiveness of the newly raised revision to the Medical Treatment and Custody Act. The execution of punishment can be interpreted as making a criminal responsible for past criminal acts, and the purpose of executing security measures is to prevent criminals without legal capacity from committing recidivism, and the execution of a measure for care and custody aims to treat medically psychosexual disorders who have committed crimes and let them change their acts under the relevant law. The point of the above explanations is that the newly raised allegation that a measure for care and custody for treatment should be executed on those who have served out his or her term of imprisonment is based on understanding that psychosexual disorders are not without legal capacity. It is proposed that the execution of preventive measures should be limited to psychosexual disorders who need medical treatment as well from medical point of view even if the measure can cause them to commit recidivism. It is quite necessary to establish concrete and objective concepts of psychosexual disorders, the scopes of those who are to be placed under preventive measures and discuss matters related to responsibilities associated with the execution of these measures.

10직권주의 형사소송구조론 비판 -직권주의 소송구조의 고유성에 대한 연혁적인 고찰-

저자 : 박노섭 ( Ro Seop Park )

발행기관 : 한국비교형사법학회 간행물 : 비교형사법연구 12권 1호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 223-252 (30 pages)

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소송구조는 한 국가의 형사절차와 제도의 밑바탕을 형성하고 있기 때문에 형사소송구조에 대한 올바른 인식은 형사소송의 정체성을 정립하고 형사소송법 개정의 방향을 제시한다. 형사소송구조에 관해 최근까지 논의된 내용을 분석해보면 오늘날 형사소송은 규문주의 소송구조를 완전히 극복하였다고 보고, 소송구조를 탄핵주의 소송구조하에 소송의 주도적 지위가 누구에게 있는가에 따라 당사자주의와 직권주의 소송구조로 나눈 뒤, 순수직권주의와 순수당사자주의를 스펙트럼의 양끝에 위치시키고 있다. 그러나 이러한 소송구조론은 직권주의 소송구조만이 가지고 있는 고유성이 과연 무엇인지에 관해서는 어디에서도 충분한 설명이나 논거를 찾아볼 수가 없다. 또한 소송구조가 변화되어온 연혁적 측면에서 보면 현 소송구조 논의에서 단순히 규문주의 구조를 완전히 배제한 채 직권주의와 당사자주의 형사소송구조로만 분류하는 견해를 그대로 수용하기에는 어려운 점이 있다. 대륙법계 형사소송구조가 탄생한 연혁을 살펴보면 1300년경 규문주의 소송구조가 교회법을 통하여 도입되기 이전에는 대륙법계 국가에서도 사인의 소추에 의해 재판이 개시되는 당사자주의가 주류를 이루고 있었다. 그럼에도 영미법계 국가에서는 형사절차의 탄생이래 당사자주의 소송구조만이 그대로 유지되어 왔고, 오직 대륙법계 국가에서만 당사자주의에서 규문주의 소송구조로 그리고 다시 직권주의로 혁명적 전환이 있었다는 오류에 이르게 된다. 이상과 같이 소송구조의 고유성에 관한 문제점과 이러한 문제점이 나타나게 된 배경을 연혁적으로 분석한 결과에 비추어 평가한다면, 직권주의란 규문주의 소송구조를 기반으로 당사자주의적요소를 대폭 받아들인 ``개혁된 규문주의``라고 보는 것이 타당하다. 따라서 당사자주의와 규문주의를 양쪽 축의 끝에 위치시키고, 직권주의라는 제도는 그 자체로서 고유한 내용을 갖는 제도라기보다는 규문주의의 바탕에 영미적인 당사자주의의 요소를 부분적으로 가미한 것으로 보는 것이 훨씬 타당하다.

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주제별 간행물
간행물명 수록권호

연세법학
30권 0호 ~ 31권 0호

최신판례분석
67권 5호 ~ 67권 5호

KCI등재

법조
67권 5호 ~ 67권 5호

KCI등재

법학논총
35권 3호 ~ 35권 3호

KCI등재

법학연구
71권 0호 ~ 71권 0호

KCI등재

법학논집
23권 1호 ~ 23권 1호

KCI등재

법과 사회
32권 0호 ~ 32권 0호

KCI등재

법과 사회
31권 0호 ~ 31권 0호

KCI등재

법과 사회
29권 0호 ~ 29권 0호

KCI등재

환경법연구
27권 4호 ~ 27권 4호

KCI등재

환경법연구
27권 4호 ~ 27권 4호

연세 공공거버넌스와 법
9권 2호 ~ 9권 2호

KCI등재

법과 정책연구
6권 2호 ~ 7권 1호

KCI등재

법과 정책연구
5권 1호 ~ 6권 1호

KCI등재

법학연구
28권 3호 ~ 28권 3호

KCI등재

상사법연구
25권 4호 ~ 25권 4호

KCI등재

상사법연구
25권 3호 ~ 25권 3호

KCI등재

서울대학교 법학
59권 3호 ~ 59권 3호

KCI등재

법과 정책연구
4권 1호 ~ 4권 2호

KCI등재

법과 정책연구
18권 3호 ~ 18권 3호
발행기관 최신논문
자료제공: 네이버학술정보
발행기관 최신논문
자료제공: 네이버학술정보

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