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연세대학교 통일연구원> 통일연구> 이산가족문제의 현주소와 향후 과제

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이산가족문제의 현주소와 향후 과제

The Separated Families of the Korean Peninsula: The Present Situation and Future Tasks

윤미량 ( Mi Ryang Youn )
  • : 연세대학교 통일연구원
  • : 통일연구 7권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2003년 05월
  • : 73-93(21pages)

DOI


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초록 보기

Every nation that experienced the separated families problem has its own tragedy and a complicated history. A war, within or without the nation, is the most common cause of the problem. However, the causes of the separated families problem in the Korean peninsula are unique and more complicated than in any other nations. Worse still, the duration of the problem, for more than a half century, is the longest one in the world. The separated families problem in the Korean peninsula are brought on by five historic events: ①the Japanese colonial rule, during which many Koreans left their families behind and emigrated, or were expelled, into the Machuria, China, or Sakhalin: ②the blockage of the 38th parallel by the US and the USSR forces after the liberation of Korea in 1945, which implanted ideological cleavage among the families across the line; ③the Korean War of 1950 and the demarcation of the peninsula after the war. which forced families to fight against their own brothers and relatives: ④kidnappings of South Korean people and fishing ships by North Korea after the war: ⑤and the flows of defectors from North Korea to South Korea in recent years when North Korean economy almost collapsed. These five historic events have left a variety of emotions and social conditions among the families. Some families would pay everything for a short meeting of their lost family members: some would reject to even hear the news of their family. Ideological confrontation and prolonged history of hatred within a family is not rare. These different emotions and conditions squeeze the government to move with extreme caution in dealing with the problem. After more than 50 years of separation. most members of the separated families become older than 70s, and a quarter of them are 80s. They are losing hope to see their families in their life time. The aging of the separated families urges the government to speed up to solve the problem. When the South and North Korean leaders had a summit meeting and announced the 6·15 Joint Declaration in 2000. the two leaders shared the same view about the urgency of the problem. Since the year 2000, seven times of family reunion and twice of inquiries of the addresses of families. and one exchange of letters among families across were arranged between the two Koreas. During the course of these events, 14,303 people were able to know whereabouts of their families. However, compared to the 120,000 people who registered as the separated families, the result is still so meager. Considering the aging of the families, a brand new approach to solve the problem seems necessary. Some propose a bargain with the poverty stricken North Korean leadership. However, there are many questions to be answered. Would money can bring about a mass family reunion, or a mass inquiry of the families? Is it possible to pay for family reunion despite the different emotions and objections among South Korean people? Who would pay for that? These questions need be dealt within the academics first, and then in the politics. After these questions answered, the government would be able to move fast and steady, without measuring too much about the complexity of the problem.

ECN


UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2012-340-001702754

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 정치/외교학
  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 반년간
  • : 1598-8554
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1997-2018
  • : 244


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1지구화의 충격과 북조선 발전 모델: 강요된 변화와 그 불확실성

저자 : 박병영 ( Byung Young Park )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 5-42 (38 pages)

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North Korean development model has been primarily characterized by plan economy in ``Yuil`` regime. In this model, the economy is captured by the political, and the management of economy is directly leaded by political party. Because the material incentive is very restricted in North Korea, labour mobilization is mainly achieved by ideological penetration. The main strategies of North Korean model have been threefold: 1) priority on heavy industry. 2) emphasis on self-supporting national economy. 3) advances on the military and the economy side by side. The dynamics of North Korean economy has determined by these characters of its development model and strategies. After Korean war. North Korean economy was rapidly grown for the following two decades. In the 1970s, however, the North Korean economy has been stagnant. In the 1990s, the economic situation has been worse and worse, and North Korea has finally confronted to serious economic crisis. At the early stage of North Korean development model. economic growth by extensive accumulation was possible due to the plan economy. which was directed by the powerful government. Like in other existed socialist countries. however, its economy has been gradually stagnant. In this regard. the problems of North Korean economy is deeply rooted in the intrinsic contradictions of existed socialist development model. However, economic crisis of North Korea in the 1990s, is partly caused by the changes of external circumstances -namely the end of Cold War and the emergence of small cold war around northeast Asia. The changes of international circumstances around the 1990s have made a severe impact on North Korean economy. The trade between North Korea and other existed socialist countries has dropped abruptly. while the relations between North Korea and capitalist countries has not expanded. In this situation, the North Korean development model has paralyzed. Such external circumstances have forced North Korea to change its development model in relation to external opening and internal reforms, at least partly. In fact, North Korean development model have sought external opening since the beginning of the 1970s. despite of its discontinuity. In the late 1990s, few internal reforms have been carried. However, until the July First economic management improvement measure in 2002, the significant changes of North Korean development model has not been made. Above all, the July First measure is crucial, because external opening has been paralleled by the internal reform. The measure is characterized by strengthening material incentives, reflection of market signals, decentralization of planning, and recognition of market mechanism. In this regard, the measure signals the changes of North Korean development model. However, the future of North Korean development model is uncertain, because the changes of North Korean development model can threaten ``Yui1`` regime of North Korea, and its dominant ideology, namely ``Juche`` ideology.

2"선군시대"의 북한문학예술 연구

저자 : 박영정 ( Young Jeong Park )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 45-72 (28 pages)

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Songun( =the army-based) politics can be defined that all the governmental programmes are led by the military suggested by Kim Jong-Il. Songun revolutionary leadership has dominated the North Korean politics since Kim Jong-Il visited ``Dabakso1`` near Mankyungdae in 1 January, 1995. Since then, the politics has come into practice when Kim Jong-Il visited soldiers, farmers, and factory workers. Without doubt, Songun politics is the major governing philosophy in Kim Jong-Il`s North Korea. This study aims to scrutinize North Korean literature and arts in Songun Age, in order to explain how Songun leadership has influenced literary works and performing arts. It is not an exaggeration at all to say that all the artists and literary professionals in North Korea are exclusively involved in creation and distribution of ``Songun literarture and arts``. This is well illustrated in the fact that model works of Songun literature and performing art are successively created: Mass gymnastics and artistic performance

3이산가족문제의 현주소와 향후 과제

저자 : 윤미량 ( Mi Ryang Youn )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 73-93 (21 pages)

다운로드

(기관인증 필요)

키워드 보기
초록보기

Every nation that experienced the separated families problem has its own tragedy and a complicated history. A war, within or without the nation, is the most common cause of the problem. However, the causes of the separated families problem in the Korean peninsula are unique and more complicated than in any other nations. Worse still, the duration of the problem, for more than a half century, is the longest one in the world. The separated families problem in the Korean peninsula are brought on by five historic events: ①the Japanese colonial rule, during which many Koreans left their families behind and emigrated, or were expelled, into the Machuria, China, or Sakhalin: ②the blockage of the 38th parallel by the US and the USSR forces after the liberation of Korea in 1945, which implanted ideological cleavage among the families across the line; ③the Korean War of 1950 and the demarcation of the peninsula after the war. which forced families to fight against their own brothers and relatives: ④kidnappings of South Korean people and fishing ships by North Korea after the war: ⑤and the flows of defectors from North Korea to South Korea in recent years when North Korean economy almost collapsed. These five historic events have left a variety of emotions and social conditions among the families. Some families would pay everything for a short meeting of their lost family members: some would reject to even hear the news of their family. Ideological confrontation and prolonged history of hatred within a family is not rare. These different emotions and conditions squeeze the government to move with extreme caution in dealing with the problem. After more than 50 years of separation. most members of the separated families become older than 70s, and a quarter of them are 80s. They are losing hope to see their families in their life time. The aging of the separated families urges the government to speed up to solve the problem. When the South and North Korean leaders had a summit meeting and announced the 6·15 Joint Declaration in 2000. the two leaders shared the same view about the urgency of the problem. Since the year 2000, seven times of family reunion and twice of inquiries of the addresses of families. and one exchange of letters among families across were arranged between the two Koreas. During the course of these events, 14,303 people were able to know whereabouts of their families. However, compared to the 120,000 people who registered as the separated families, the result is still so meager. Considering the aging of the families, a brand new approach to solve the problem seems necessary. Some propose a bargain with the poverty stricken North Korean leadership. However, there are many questions to be answered. Would money can bring about a mass family reunion, or a mass inquiry of the families? Is it possible to pay for family reunion despite the different emotions and objections among South Korean people? Who would pay for that? These questions need be dealt within the academics first, and then in the politics. After these questions answered, the government would be able to move fast and steady, without measuring too much about the complexity of the problem.

4북한영화의 자리를 생각하며 북한영화 읽기

저자 : 이우영 ( Woo Young Lee )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 95-123 (29 pages)

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The movie in North Korea is considered very important as a political propaganda, while it is considered as pastime activities in other countries. This important role comes from the characteristics of socialist system which emphasizes the ethical and mental purity. Particularly the movie has been considered politically important in most socialist countries since the Lenin era and North Korea has been no exception. Like other socialist countries, North Korean movie is produced and distributed solely by communist party and reflects political and ideological situation of that time. The movies in North Korea not only carry out politically important role but also carry out pastime or artistic activities. However, South Korean people have difficulty in understanding North Korean movies because there are differences between North and South Korean movies and South Korean people have not chance to see North Korean movie. Once South Korean people get used to seeing North Korean movies, they can get various information about North Korea and understand North Korean culture and society through North Korean movies. In order to understand North Korean movies, South Korean people should keep in mind that the cultural differences between the North and South Korean movies are not considered as superior-inferior relations.

5북한의 IT 산업 육성정책과 남북교류 협력 방안

저자 : 이은국 ( Eun Kook Lee )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 125-154 (30 pages)

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The cooperation of South and North Korea in IT area plays a pivot role in the reunification. In particular, the IT sector is one of the major determinants of magnitude and speed of mutual exchanges and economic cooperations. The purpose of this research is to analyze the IT industry of North Korea and to find out the effective alternatives for IT cooperation. IT industry in this research is classified five categories. Hard Ware, Soft Ware, Internet, Telecommunication. and IT Training Center. In 5 categories, we had compared with the current issues, the contents, the problems, and the alternatives for IT industry cooperation in South and North Korea. This study made an particular emphasis on the IT cooperation strategy through the SWOT analysis and the opinion of the expert abroad. The Results of this research can be summarized as follows. First, it is important to establish the North Korea IT Infrastructure for closing the digital divide within two countries and cutting the reunification costs. Second, The North holds a great market potential for South IT businesses. it is forecasted to enforce the cooperation in IT industry area of S/W, IT training programs and advance personnel exchange projects between the two countries. Third, For the true IT industry cooperation, it is recommended that improving the environment which would restrain the private sector from working together for a common purpose, the Korean Government has taken to help support the North IT industry development. In addition, it is necessary to make a gradual course of action that more Korean businesses could participate in the North IT industry which is poor in IT infrastructure. This research can help building a strategic management model for preparing for reunification through the cooperation of IT Industry. It is possible to construct the integrated information system through formulating the human resources network and acting together for a common purpose.

6탈북자들의 남한사회 적응생활 실태조사 -2001년도 553명의 탈북자들에 대한 조사를 중심으로

저자 : 전우택 ( Woo Taek Jeon ) , 윤덕용 , 엄진섭

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 155-208 (54 pages)

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From May to July 2001, 553 North Korean defectors in South Korea were given an integrative and comprehensive questionnaire asking about their life and adaptation in regard to their economic life, income, job, health, education, religion, government support, etc. Results showed that the defectors were generally satisfied with governmental support, but they were not happy about their job and job education because their job education did not help them in finding a job. Their income was not sufficient so they have depended on charity. Sometimes, charity contributions surpassed their job income, discouraging them from holding a job. Some defectors needed special support for their medical and legal problems, but NGOs, which help defectors adapt, usually lack such special support. Survey results were used to suggest possible support policy for North Korean defectors. First, the government must provide a more flexible support for defectors to meet their needs and efforts. Second, NGOs should provide more specialized support for defectors. Third, religious organizations need to do more active role in supporting defectors. Fourth, the program at Hanawon, the governmental institute for the adaptational education of defectors in South Korea, need to be more clear in their purpose and be individualized. Fifth, researchers must carry out follow up studies on the adaptation and life of defectors in South Korea.

7경제발전의 일반성과 특수성 -한,중 특구 비교방법에 대한 문제제기

저자 : 황재홍 ( Jae Hong Hwang )

발행기관 : 연세대학교 통일연구원 간행물 : 통일연구 7권 1호 발행 연도 : 2003 페이지 : pp. 209-233 (25 pages)

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In evaluating the economic reform pursued by North Korea, many researchers have contrasted it with that taken up by China. Amongst a number of transition economies, China has shown the best performance whereas the reform processes followed by the former Soviet republics and the East European countries, according to the ``usual`` consensus, resulted in large initial output declines and high inflation rates. Not a few researchers have endeavored to find the key to China`s success as well as its implications upon the plausible model North Korea could make available to herself. Yet, they have concluded, by and large, that it would be difficult for North Korea to follow China model. They have attributed the success of China`s reform to the followings: (1) the so-called market principle China has not been reluctant to embrace, and (2) China`s initial conditions and environments conducive to her pursuit of the reform. In contrast, the argument goes, the political leaders of North Korea are facing a dilemma. They should pursue the economic reform as soon as possible; however, the very economic reform and its corollary -the open-door policy-might, in all probability, threatened their political regime. To make matters worse. North Korea has neither the resource nor the technology essential for the economic reform. It has also been pointed out that the nuclear weapon problem prevents North Korean from securing the foreign aid. There is no doubt that the market economy is more efficient than the planned economy and the market oriented reform is necessary to economic growth. And it is also obvious that China has much initial endowments that North Korea has not. Yet, it is a non sequitur that North Korea`s economic reform is doomed to fail because she is not in possession of the conditions conducive to the economic reform that China has enjoyed. Western scholars used to compare the traditional Chinese society with theirs, the former of which they diagnosed as suffering from the economic backwardness. Capitalism and the market economy brings economic development to western societies, but China was, to their eyes, the exception rather than the rule, i.e .. a stagnated society having not benefited from capitalism. They were busy finding fault with the traditional Chinese society - for instance, the lack of ``initial conditions`` such as bourgeoisie, market, and Protestantism. The irony is that China has achieved great economic development despite the absence of those initial conditions. The moral is simple: There is no unique economic development path, much less a set of initial conditions absolutely necessary for the economic development. To build a constructive argument on the outlook of North Korea`s economic reform, while avoiding falling prey to the non sequitur pointed out above, we may well focus on the advantages peculiar to North Korea.

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