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충북대학교 사학회> 충북사학> 제월당(霽月堂) 송규렴(宋奎濂)의 향촌활동(鄕村活動)과 사회사상(社會思想)

제월당(霽月堂) 송규렴(宋奎濂)의 향촌활동(鄕村活動)과 사회사상(社會思想)

Jewoldang, Song, Gyu-ryeom`s Country Activity and Social Ideology

송운호 ( Woon Ho Song )
  • : 충북대학교 사학회
  • : 충북사학 25권0호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2010년 08월
  • : 57-81(25pages)

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I studied Song, Gyu-ryeom`s life through his `Annual Report` and writing series, `Jewoldangjip` and the ideology of the society that he lived in through the country activity. Song, Gyu-ryeom was a famous Confucian scholar who lived in Hoedeok at the latter Choseon dynasty. He was called the one of the three prominent `Songs` with Uam, Song, Si-yeol, and Dongchundang, Song, Jun-gil. The reason why Song, Gyu-ryeom`s ancestors who lived in Hoedeok was that Song, Myung-eui(Song, Gyu-ryeom`s 10th ancestor) settled there as he became the son-in-law of Hwang, Su who lived in Hoedeok. Since then many famous Confucian scholars came out of Eunjin Songs` family members and they thrived through marrying the nobles. When Song, Gyu-ryeom was a boy, he experienced Byeonjahoran and the fall of the Ming Dynasty. He also spend his adolescence under the mood that people insisted to conquer the Cheong Dynasty. So it made him follow Song, Si-yeol and Song, Jun-gil`s political and ideologic way and he learned the basic of study from them. Song, Gyu-ryeom was respected as a Confucian scholar in Hoedeok. He emphasized `Hyangeumjurye`, `Hyangsarye`, `Reading methods` at the society of the country. `Hyangeumjurye` means that Confucian scholars in the country gathered at Hyanggyo or Seowon and had a feast with prominent Confucian scholars. The Confucians learned the manner to respect honest people, to take care of the old people, and to experience good courtesy there. Also he taught students devotionally at the Sunghyeonseowon. In 1672(Sukjong 2nd year), he built the Jewoldang inside his house and spent his whole life on studying Confucianism and teaching students. Teaching students at the Jewoldang and the Sunghyeonseowon was theoretical part and Hyangeumjurye was the reformation project which included the education of practical manner. Like this, Song, Gyu-ryeomtried to carry out `manner` through personality based on Neo-Confucianism And Song, Gyu-ryeom also had the social ideology of the autonomy of the country. That idea was shown in the preface of Hoedeok Hyangyack(1672) that he wrote. Hoedeok Hyangyack was made into one book with Hoedeok Hyangyan. Then Song, Si-yeol made the preface of Hoedeok Hyangyan and Song, Jun-gil wrote it. And Song, Gyu-ryeom wrote the preface of Hyangyack which was attached to the back of Hyangyan. He was the core member to make the Hoedeok Hyangyack with two Songs. The reason why he was called as the one of the three Songs of Hoedeok might be due to this work. Hyangyack was the regulation that Hyangwon made for education and cooperation of the country people. So the Hoedeok Hyangyack also had the content like that. The Jewoldang was the place where Song, Gyu-ryeom studied and taught students with all effort at his old age. Also it was the place where he built for just studying after he abandoned his will to have a government position. The education place like this was the sign that he wanted to live with the nature and worked hard for teaching students. Song, Gyu-ryeom`s country activity showed his social ideology to improve national customs from the country customs with the spread of Hyangyack.

UCI(KEPA)

I410-ECN-0102-2012-910-001866351

간행물정보

  • : 인문과학분야  > 기타(인문과학)
  • :
  • :
  • : 반년간
  • : 1225-245x
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1987-2011
  • : 217


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1신라말 고려초의 강릉호족(江陵豪族) 왕순식(王順式)

저자 : 신호철 ( Ho Cheol Shin )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 5-31 (27 pages)

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This paper is on the activities of Wang, Sunsik who was one of the powerful families in Gangneung between the late Silla dynasty and the early Korea. Up to now, it has been generally accepted in the academic world that Wang, Sunsik was one of Kim`s family in Gangneung or a descendent of Kim, Juwon, the King of Myeongju. But it is not based on the trustful historical sources. Such insistence lacks trust in that it is based on the family tree and some regional magazines published in the recent modern period, and it might be insisted without trust only from the fact that he was a powerful family in Gangneung area in the late Silla period. It is known that he was at first called without family name, which was very popular among regional powerful families in post-three kingdom period, and he started to use the family name, Wang, since he received it from Wang, Gun, as a reward of self-surrender. Moreover, Wang, Sunsik was not related to Kim, Juwon referring to family tree, and he had built his power by himself in his period, rather than depended on the power of Kim, Juwon. Wang, Sunsik had grown as a powerful family gathering his own executive power in Gangneung area before and after 900 year. This period was very chaotic, in 894 Gungye called himself General and built his power in Gangneung, but he moved from Gangneung to Cheolwon just within one year. After that, Wang, Gun expelled Gungye and moved the capital city from Cheolwon to Gaegyeong. Like this, both Gungye and Wang, Gun paid no attention to power in Gangneung area because they had to indulge in the power relation with post-Baekje and Silla. At that time, Wang, Sunsik can built his own executive power during the chaotic period. In the early Korea dynasty, Sunsik was as much powerful as he can compete against Wang, Gun. But as the national system of Korea got more stable, Sunsik eventuallysurrendered himself to Wang, Gun. The surrender of Wang, Sunsik to Korea was specially rewarded, distinct from other powerful families. The process of surrender had taken at least 10 years, and the reward of it was also the highest level exceptionally. It proves that Wang, Sunsik was much more powerful than other powerful families. Wang, Sunsik played the essential role in commanding his own executive military by himself in unification war with post-Baeje dynasty, after self-surrender of him to Korea. But the position of Wang, Sunsik seemed to be much weakened, after unification of three kingdoms. Besides Wang, Sunsik, both Ye and Gyeong among powerful families in Gangneung also received family name, Wang, from Wang, Gun. Among the three powerful families such as Wang, Sunsik family, Wang, Ye family and Wang, Gyeong family, it is recorded that both Wang, Ye family and Wang, Gyeong family had ever married Wang, Gun. Especially Wang, Ye was in charge of the position, Naesaryeong, his descents were also a member of aristocracy, and his family got more power. Meanwhile, there is no record on the descendents of Wang, Sunsik. It makes sense that they might be constrained from the central aristocracy of Korea or disappear by defeat of the competition among the powerful families.

2조선시대(朝鮮時代) 내지봉수(內地烽燧)의 구조(構造),형태(形態)

저자 : 김주홍 ( Ju Hong Kim )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 33-56 (24 pages)

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A signal fire was a military communication tool for notifying of an emergency situation occurring on the borders and coastal areas of the central government during the Joseon Dynasty. This system was carried out through an agreed upon signal delivery system using torches and smoke. This system was utilized in a primitive way since the ancient Three Nation Period and it was regularly used in the Coryo Dynasty. Then, during the time of King Sejong in the Joseon Dynasty it was largely organized and operated nationally until 1895. Therefore, it was in the Joseon Dynstany that the signal fire system was used as the communication system in the most developed form in premodern society. Signal fires are classified into Capital (Kyung) signal fires, Coastal (Yeonbyeon) signal fires, and Zoning (Gweonseol) signal fires according to the individual properties. As the building method varied according to each signal fire, the structure and form of the signal fire varied as well. An inland signal fire, which is to be reviewed in this thesis, refers to the signal fires that were located inland, taking on the connective role between the signal fires on a distant borderline area and with the centralized Capitol signal fire located in the capital city. This study focuses on three features of inland signal fires among the various features, one being a protective wall, a smoke-producing stand, and an entrance facility. The protective wall was of various plane types according to the geographical conditions and the average size was 70-80m. Most smoke-producing stands were located inside the protective wall but sometimes they were located outside. The entrance facility signal fires differed in numbers and building method; however, most of them were open-style. Thisstudy provides an opportunity to understand the general structure and form of inland signal fires.

3제월당(霽月堂) 송규렴(宋奎濂)의 향촌활동(鄕村活動)과 사회사상(社會思想)

저자 : 송운호 ( Woon Ho Song )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 57-81 (25 pages)

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I studied Song, Gyu-ryeom`s life through his `Annual Report` and writing series, `Jewoldangjip` and the ideology of the society that he lived in through the country activity. Song, Gyu-ryeom was a famous Confucian scholar who lived in Hoedeok at the latter Choseon dynasty. He was called the one of the three prominent `Songs` with Uam, Song, Si-yeol, and Dongchundang, Song, Jun-gil. The reason why Song, Gyu-ryeom`s ancestors who lived in Hoedeok was that Song, Myung-eui(Song, Gyu-ryeom`s 10th ancestor) settled there as he became the son-in-law of Hwang, Su who lived in Hoedeok. Since then many famous Confucian scholars came out of Eunjin Songs` family members and they thrived through marrying the nobles. When Song, Gyu-ryeom was a boy, he experienced Byeonjahoran and the fall of the Ming Dynasty. He also spend his adolescence under the mood that people insisted to conquer the Cheong Dynasty. So it made him follow Song, Si-yeol and Song, Jun-gil`s political and ideologic way and he learned the basic of study from them. Song, Gyu-ryeom was respected as a Confucian scholar in Hoedeok. He emphasized `Hyangeumjurye`, `Hyangsarye`, `Reading methods` at the society of the country. `Hyangeumjurye` means that Confucian scholars in the country gathered at Hyanggyo or Seowon and had a feast with prominent Confucian scholars. The Confucians learned the manner to respect honest people, to take care of the old people, and to experience good courtesy there. Also he taught students devotionally at the Sunghyeonseowon. In 1672(Sukjong 2nd year), he built the Jewoldang inside his house and spent his whole life on studying Confucianism and teaching students. Teaching students at the Jewoldang and the Sunghyeonseowon was theoretical part and Hyangeumjurye was the reformation project which included the education of practical manner. Like this, Song, Gyu-ryeomtried to carry out `manner` through personality based on Neo-Confucianism And Song, Gyu-ryeom also had the social ideology of the autonomy of the country. That idea was shown in the preface of Hoedeok Hyangyack(1672) that he wrote. Hoedeok Hyangyack was made into one book with Hoedeok Hyangyan. Then Song, Si-yeol made the preface of Hoedeok Hyangyan and Song, Jun-gil wrote it. And Song, Gyu-ryeom wrote the preface of Hyangyack which was attached to the back of Hyangyan. He was the core member to make the Hoedeok Hyangyack with two Songs. The reason why he was called as the one of the three Songs of Hoedeok might be due to this work. Hyangyack was the regulation that Hyangwon made for education and cooperation of the country people. So the Hoedeok Hyangyack also had the content like that. The Jewoldang was the place where Song, Gyu-ryeom studied and taught students with all effort at his old age. Also it was the place where he built for just studying after he abandoned his will to have a government position. The education place like this was the sign that he wanted to live with the nature and worked hard for teaching students. Song, Gyu-ryeom`s country activity showed his social ideology to improve national customs from the country customs with the spread of Hyangyack.

4명성황후(明成皇后)의 어필(御筆)

저자 : 민덕식 ( Deok Shik Min )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 83-118 (36 pages)

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A text of empress Myeongseong(明成皇后) shows that her character was calm, cool, strict, exact and delicate. In a word, she was a strong personality and a woman with distinct and drive. And she had a dignified appearance and an iron hand in a velvet glove. A text of empress Myeongseong was based on Guyangsun`s style(歐陽詢體). And it show partially style of Anjingyeong(顔眞卿) and Yugonggweon(柳公權). Her remained art works show that empress Myeongseong concerned calligraphy in the thirties. She gave trusted courtiers who were Leejoyeon(李祖淵) in thirty four years old and Minyounhwan (閔泳煥), Leebeomjin(李範晉), Jeongnakyong(鄭洛鎔), Kimgubok (金圭復), Hwangyunmyeon (黃允明), and Kimkyuseok(金圭錫) in thirty five years old and Minyounhwan, Simsuntaek (沈舜澤) and Minyeongdal(閔泳達) in later thirty years old special tablets and scrolls to increase royalty to royal family. Especially, she wrote excellent folding screens Haklimcheongdamsippokbyeong(鶴林淸談十幅屛) and Jasubyoung(刺繡屛) and excellent tablets Chwigan(翠磵), Unhyangokjojae(芸香玉藻齋) after later thirty years old. If you compare texts before middle thirty years old and texts after thirty years old on improving writing skill, you confirmed how focused she devote herself to write calligraphy in busy time. Her character made this progress in busy life of court.

5“중경(重慶)” 한국독립당(韓國獨立黨)의 결성과 활동에 대하여

저자 : 조범래 ( Beom Rae Cho )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 119-153 (35 pages)

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The subject of this article is `Chongqing` Korean Independence Party. This article is focused on the process, circumstance, activity, especially in the The Provisional Assembly of The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea of `Chongqing` Korean Independence Party. Korean Independence Party was the party composed in 1930 with 28 nationalists centering the Provisional Government. This was `Shanghai` Korean Independence Party. This party had been broken up because of participation into National Revolution Party in November 1935. But Kim Ku and other people of `Shanghai` Korean Independence Party didn`t join National Revolution Party against the theory of The Provisional Government, and they organized Korean National Party. Cho So-Ang and other people defected from National Revolution Party because of the difference of the way of independence movement and the ideology of National Revolution Party and reorganized Korean Independence Party in September 1935(Reorganized Korean Independence Party). In May 1940, these three right-wings group, Korean national Party, Reorganized Korean Independence Party and Korean Revolution Party which was organized by Ji Cheong-Chun and other people after defection from National Revolution Party in April 1937, united and organized `Chongqing` Korean Independence Party. Until left-wings group like National Revolution Party participated in The Provisional Assembly of The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, it was maintained to one-party regime of Korean Independence Party. Only after the participation of the left-wings group, The Provisional Assembly developed from one-party regime to multi-party system, and it could have the change as the ruling party of Korean Independence Party and the opposition party of National Revolution Party. Afterorganization of Reunification Assembly in October 1942, Korean Independence Party sometimes discussed aggressively several Provisional Constitution, reorganizing problem of Provisional Government, revision of National Foundation Platform of the Republic of Korea with the opposite parties like National Revolution Party. In 1930s, the modern parties like Korean Independence Party had appeared, and based on this, the party politics has started in modern and comtemporary history of Korea. With the organization of Korean Independence Party, the political party of the congressmen in the Provisional Assembly, and the participation of the left-wings groups has made the Provisional Assembly changed. The foundation of these changes was `Chongqing` Korean Independence Party. Therefore, the origin of political parties in congress political history is on the Korean Independence Party organized in Shanghai, China in January 1930.

6미군정기(美軍政期) 청주지역(淸州地域)의 사회동향(社會動向)과 동맹휴학(同盟休學)

저자 : 김형석 ( Hyeong Seok Kim )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 155-181 (27 pages)

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This study is intended to examine the nature of social conditions in Cheongju where students collectively withdrew from school during the period of U. S. military regime immediately after the liberation of Korea from Japan. While Korea was under control of the leftist forces, the military regime was established by U. S. armed forces that occupied Korean Peninsula with anti communistic ideology without acknowledging anything other than military government. To resist the powerful leftists, the rightists were in favor of U. S. military forces that cracked down on the radicals. There were several conflicts between the right and the left in Chungcheongbuk-do, ending up with the right and U. S. forces` suppression of their counterpart. The circle of education was also led by the right wing or figures that had none of negative attitudes against their invader during the period of Japanese occupation in Korea, including the province that was also led by right oriented teachers and educational official servants. One of suppressions against anti government forces was to allow educational authorities to dismiss left oriented teachers who were falsely accused of agitating populaces or doing threatening behaviors or against dispositions of school principals which seemed to be enough to raise complaints from them, thus driving students to leave their schools temporarily. The event which students conspired to temporarily leave their schools in Cheonju wastriggered by the left oriented ones who were negative against principals who were appointed by educational authorities which took measures to fire the left wing teachers. This could be attributed to the fact that existing conflicts between the right and the left in the educational fields got more emergent, instigating Cheongju Middle School and its neighboring schools to do combined acts. The educational authorities in Chungcheongbuk-do assumed to accept to reappoint both teachers and teaching staff who had been expelled, without taking any specific actions, so prompting students to be absent from theirschools again. In the course of oppression, the authorities that could be said to belong to the right wing stuck to a hard-line stance against resisting students, requested police to arrest students as well as punished them. Their collective absence from school was an exemplary anti-action against authorities of conservative rightists`crackdowns on leftists, during the occupation of U. S. military forces in Korea, to which their plot was reported to have been of sizable and influential. It would be meaningful in that their staying out of school temporarily was influentially referred to in the requirements for leave of absences from middle or higher schools nationwide and statements of organizations and supported by them.

7반역법의 강화와 사회적 변화 -에드워드 왕들의 통치기를 중심으로-

저자 : 홍성표 ( Seong Pyo Hong )

발행기관 : 충북대학교 사학회 간행물 : 충북사학 25권 0호 발행 연도 : 2010 페이지 : pp. 183-213 (31 pages)

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For Glanvill the law of treason was a mixture of Roman and Germanic ideas. The great influence of treason act was the writing of Bracton. In the matter of procedure to be employed in cases of treason, Bracton supplemented Glanvill. In the reign of the king Edwards, England suffered considerably as a result of their military involvements. In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, king Edwards` subjects represented themselves as oppressed, and the country as impoverished as a result of the way in which men, money and supplies had been raised for war. Expensive as the conquest of Wales was, far more was spent on the wars with France and Scotland in the king Edwards reign. What could be done? King Edwards could revive their feudal rights to aids and could levy tallage on their demesnes. English trade could be exploited by means of heavier customs duties. While the war in Scotland and France remained popular, king Edwards could rely on the military support of many of the magnates and clergy. But king Edwards could not abandon the war in Scotland. And added to all the problems inherited from Edward I was one new one, that of the king`s relationship with magnates. The costs of the campaigns made the crown increasingly dependent on the grant of taxation by its subjects. The demands made for military service, for money and for goods prompted political opposition. The treason under the first two Edwards was then the development of conviction on the king`s record. King Edwards` intent was primarily to extend treason for political purposes. From the succession of Edward III the use of the king`s record in trials of treason disappeared save where the crime was one of fighting the king in open war. So enactment of the treason act of 1352 was derived from arbitrary punishments which hadruined so many noble families in the reign of Edward II. But the king was never restricted to direct relations only with his tenants-in-chief. Ultimately everybody owed their service and an overriding obligation of allegiance to the king himself. In this circumstances, contents of the treason act of king Edwards was strengthened. So we can assert that the English social structure in the reign of king Edwards was Bastard Feudalism.

1
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