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한국법철학회> 법철학연구> 생명의료윤리에서의 넓은 반성적 평형과 판단력

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생명의료윤리에서의 넓은 반성적 평형과 판단력

Reflective Equilibrium and Judgment in Biomedical Ethics

최경석 ( Kyung Suk Choi )
  • : 한국법철학회
  • : 법철학연구 11권1호
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 2008년 05월
  • : 65-84(20pages)

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Wide reflective equilibrium (WRE) was first presented by John Rawls and developed by Norman Daniels. It was thought of primarily as a method for evaluating theories of justice (Rawls) or ethical theories (Daniels). Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress then considered WRE as an explicit methodology for biomedical ethics, that is, moral reasoning for the justification of moral judgments. Thus, I characterize the method of WRE as practical moral reasoning. The process of reaching a conclusion using the methods of WRE is characterized as a back-and-forth process of revision aimed at coherent comprehensive personal or group belief systems without incorrect beliefs. The question arises, however, as to whether the methods of WRE can give us determinate answers about what to do. But there must be different ways of revising beliefs depending on the exercise of judgment as a faculty of thinking. There is no algorithmic decision procedure. Some may expect a mechanical decision procedure by which to reach answers to the above questions, but this is misconceived. Our decision in unprecedented or unpredictable situations and circumstances cannot help calling for judgment. Judgment is not unique to the methods of WRE. Other methods, such as principlism and casuistry, also rely on judgment. When principlists attempt to apply moral principles to a particular case, they must decide which of their moral principles covers the case, just as a judge would have to decide which law or regulation is relevant to a given case. Because principles are abstract and general, they must be interpreted in the light of the details of the particular case. Thus, we arrive at conclusions from the interaction between universal knowledge(major premise) and particular knowledge(minor premise) in a practical syllogism. Casuists also call for the use of judgment. They usually suggest the use of analogical thinking employing paradigm cases. Similarities must be sought between a given case and paradigm cases. However, the recognition of similarity is not a mechanical procedure it requires judgment to determine which features of two cases being compared are relevant. The need for judgment implies that there are no determinate answers for resolving a conflict between two arguers following same method of reasoning. But the exercise of judgment is not a matter of mere taste or arbitrary preference. It requires its justification. There may be some principles and values to guide and regulate the exercise of judgment required in the methods of WRE. First, coherence, comprehensiveness, and the number of incorrect beliefs are not only criteria for comparing competing belief systems, but will also be values for a revision process. Second, we will pursue the maximization of coherence and comprehensiveness while minimizing revision, by revising peripheral beliefs rather than core beliefs in our belief system. Third, the efficiency of a revision process may be one of the important considerations tied to the choice of provisionally fixed beliefs.

ECN

ECN-0102-2012-320-000261214


UCI

I410-ECN-0102-2012-320-000261214

간행물정보

  • : 사회과학분야  > 법학
  • : KCI 등재
  • : -
  • : 연3회
  • : 1226-8445
  • :
  • : 학술지
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 1998-2018
  • : 532


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1최선의 국가형태 -프랑스와 오트만(1524-1590)의 혼합정체론의 신학적 기초-

저자 : 홍기원 ( Ki Won Hong )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 1-38 (38 pages)

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Protestant political theories have been studied by many historians, but it is very rare for us to find any recent studies focussing on the theological foundations of those "Reformed" political thought. It may thus be said that resistance right theory of Theodore Beza (1519-1605), for instance, has been studied without any reference to his religious doctrine. To fully understand the particular aspects of Protestant political thought cannot be done, however, without explaining its theological foundations. This study tries to give an answer to this question by reading Consolatio e Sacris litteris petita (1593) of Francois Hotman, one of the greatest sixteenth-century Reformed political thinkers. We, who are living in the period of corruption, are in duty, Hotman thinks, bound to return to the Bible. We can learn thereof, he continues, what was God`s will when He led men to build their first polity on the earth. He had created, and, in consequence, what would be the best form of government according to the divine law. As Heinrich Bullinger`s commentaries on Daniel, one of the books of the Old Testament, gave Hotman some consolation, in that the latter found in the former`s sayings a theological justification of armed resistance to tyranny, reading the Bible was the best way to console his agony in those hard times of the Civil wars. Consolatio e Sacris litteris petita was thus the result of his reading of the Bible. Political experiences of the Hebrew have thus the universal meaning for Hotman. And the incessant repetition of instauratio and defectio of the Church forms the circular history of the people. This sacred truth allowed Hotman to be hopeful with regard to the future of his country, even when the king seemed to commit the crime of tyrant God had interdicted in the Tyrannorum iura. Hotman becomes proponent of the political regime that Moses established among his people according to the will of God. It was the federation of (twelve) tribes, who maintained a mixed constitution of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. The judge, who was incarnating the monarchical element in the public assembly, had no other preoccupation than the cult of God and the freedom of the people. Practice of collective deliberation through a republican institution instead of centralized form of government is the only way that men can take to complement their rational capacity made imperfect by the first human violation of the divine law.

2피히테 법사상의 철학적 기초와 그 의미

저자 : 서윤호 ( Yun Ho Seo )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 45-64 (20 pages)

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Johann Gottlieb Fichte ist ein Philosoph mit einem so starken Rechtsempfinden. Nach der Entdeckung der sittlichen Freiheit Kants stellt sich fur die Rechtsphilosophie Fichtes immer scharfer die Frage nach deren Verhaltnis zum Begriff des Rechts. Zugleich ist ihm damit die Aufgabe gestellt, das Verhaltnis von Freiheit und Recht, Staat und Individuum systematisch zu klaren. Mit Hilfe der Prinzipien der Wissenschaftslehre wird Fichte diese Systematik erstmals im "Naturrecht" versuchen. Kennzeichnend fur die grundlegende Absicht des Naturrechts ist es, dass der Gedanke an eine den Menschen als Person erst ermoglichende ursprungliche Gemeinschaft verknupft wird mit dem der individuellen Freiheit. Die in personlicher Freiheit realisierte und in ihr als ihrer wesentlichsten Moglichkeit liegende personale Beziehung zum Du wird als der Raum erfahren, in dem Freiheit und Gemeinschaft vereinigt sind. Mit dieser Erfahrung ist der Philosophie ein neues Feld der Besinnung erschlossen worden. In der Dimension der Interpersonalitat stellt sich der Philosophie die Frage, was der Mensch sei und was er zu tun habe, noch einmal neu. Das "Naturrecht" wird nach den Prinzipien der Wissenschaftslehre behandelt. Die Wissenschaftslehre ist herausgewachsen aus der Beschaftigung Fichtes mit dem transzendentalen Kritizismus Kants und ist zu verstehen als der Versuch, die letzten und umfassenden Konsequenzen aus dem nach Fichtes Meinung noch nicht zu Ende gekommenen transzendentalphilosophischen Bemuhen Kants zu ziehen. Die Aufgabe der Wissenschaftslehre ist die reflexive Begrundung des Wissens aus dem absoluten Ich als dem Prinzip des Wissens als solchen. Das absolute Ich ist kein Substrat sondern ist nur als Akt des sich selbst Bestimmens. Da Fichte eine Grundlage des Naturrechts nach Prinzipien der Wissenschaftslehre schreiben will, muss die Frage des Rechts aus dem Blickwinkel der Genesis des sich in Freiheit entaußernden absoluten Ich betrachtet werden. Zur Selbstrealisation jeglicher Individualitat gehort die wechselseitige Bezogenheit auf die Freiheit der anderen Individuen. So kann Fichte den Gesichtspunkt und Maßstab der freiwilligen gegenseitigen Begrenzung der Freiheit mit dem Satz angeben: "Alles Rechtsverhaltnis ist bestimmt durch den Satz: jeder beschranke seine Freiheit durch die Moglichkeit der Freiheit des anderen." Der Rechtsbegriff wirf so zum Begriff von der Moglichkeit des Beisammenbestehens der Freiheit mehrerer vernunftig-sinnlicher Wesen.

3생명의료윤리에서의 넓은 반성적 평형과 판단력

저자 : 최경석 ( Kyung Suk Choi )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 65-84 (20 pages)

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Wide reflective equilibrium (WRE) was first presented by John Rawls and developed by Norman Daniels. It was thought of primarily as a method for evaluating theories of justice (Rawls) or ethical theories (Daniels). Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress then considered WRE as an explicit methodology for biomedical ethics, that is, moral reasoning for the justification of moral judgments. Thus, I characterize the method of WRE as practical moral reasoning. The process of reaching a conclusion using the methods of WRE is characterized as a back-and-forth process of revision aimed at coherent comprehensive personal or group belief systems without incorrect beliefs. The question arises, however, as to whether the methods of WRE can give us determinate answers about what to do. But there must be different ways of revising beliefs depending on the exercise of judgment as a faculty of thinking. There is no algorithmic decision procedure. Some may expect a mechanical decision procedure by which to reach answers to the above questions, but this is misconceived. Our decision in unprecedented or unpredictable situations and circumstances cannot help calling for judgment. Judgment is not unique to the methods of WRE. Other methods, such as principlism and casuistry, also rely on judgment. When principlists attempt to apply moral principles to a particular case, they must decide which of their moral principles covers the case, just as a judge would have to decide which law or regulation is relevant to a given case. Because principles are abstract and general, they must be interpreted in the light of the details of the particular case. Thus, we arrive at conclusions from the interaction between universal knowledge(major premise) and particular knowledge(minor premise) in a practical syllogism. Casuists also call for the use of judgment. They usually suggest the use of analogical thinking employing paradigm cases. Similarities must be sought between a given case and paradigm cases. However, the recognition of similarity is not a mechanical procedure it requires judgment to determine which features of two cases being compared are relevant. The need for judgment implies that there are no determinate answers for resolving a conflict between two arguers following same method of reasoning. But the exercise of judgment is not a matter of mere taste or arbitrary preference. It requires its justification. There may be some principles and values to guide and regulate the exercise of judgment required in the methods of WRE. First, coherence, comprehensiveness, and the number of incorrect beliefs are not only criteria for comparing competing belief systems, but will also be values for a revision process. Second, we will pursue the maximization of coherence and comprehensiveness while minimizing revision, by revising peripheral beliefs rather than core beliefs in our belief system. Third, the efficiency of a revision process may be one of the important considerations tied to the choice of provisionally fixed beliefs.

4생명윤리에서 인간존엄 "개념"의 총체성

저자 : 고봉진 ( Bong Jin Ko )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 85-100 (16 pages)

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Der Begriff "Menschenwurde" bei der Bioethik bedeutet nicht nur die Lebenswurde des Menschen, sondern umfasst auch den Schutz des Menschenbildes. Dabei wird die Bionorm als Menschenwurdeschutzgesetz betrachtet. Meines Erachtens hat der Menschenwurdebegriff (Nicht Menschenwurde!) trotz (oder vielleicht wegen!) ihrer semantischen Vieldeutigkeit bei der Bioethik einen Totalitatscharakter. Diesen Totalitatscharakter starkt das Menschenwurdeargument als deontologisches Argument. Nach meiner Beobachtung erschwert der Menschenwurdebegriff bei der Bioethik die genaue Analyse der Bioforschung und der Bionorm. Auch wenn es gelingt, den Begriff "Menschenwurde" genau zu analysieren, fuhrt der analysierte Menschenwurdebegriff nicht zum Konsens. Darin liegt ein wirklich schwieriges Problem. Die moralische Bewertung der Menschenwurde bildet in der heutigen pluralistischen Rechtsordnung manchmal klare Unterschiede der Gruppenmeinungen, die nicht zur fertigen Losung der konkreten Probleme fuhren. Dass der Begriff "Menschenwurde" bei der konkreten Bionormbegrundung keine Konsensfahigkeit besitzt, bedeutet aber nicht, dass es nicht sinnvoll ist, die Begrundung der konkreten Verbotsnormen zu suchen. Aus der Wahrnehmung der Konsensunfahigkeit der Menschenwurde ergibt sich vielmehr die Frage, wie die Verbotsnormen bei der Bioethik begrundet werden konnen. Es steht außer Frage, vor allem wegen der unterschiedlichen Sinnbestimmung des Biowissenschaftssystems und der Moral, dass ein verbindlich geltendes positives Gesetz geschafft werden muss. Es steht auch außer Frage, dass weitere Diskussionen uber Normgeltungsgrunde, die moglicherweise zur Gesetzesanderung fuhren konnen, erforderlich sind. Insofern die Bioethik und die Bionorm das Leben des Menschen und das Menschenbild betreffen, brauchen wir tiefgehende ethische Diskussionen.

5로여링을 통한 맥락추론 교육

저자 : 전해정 ( Hae Jeong Jun )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 103-136 (34 pages)

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The contextual reasoning is derived from feminist practical reasoning based on the experiences of the excluded people including women as continually asking questions, and combines an Aristotelian-style practical deliberation with the feminist consideration of multiple perspectives, emphasizing on context. The epistemology of contextual reasoning is critically feminist standpoints which suggest the knowledge is socially situated and the people who experienced oppressions can understand other kinds of oppressions through reflection better than the people without the experience. The legal education of contextual reasoning can enhance law students to understand legal system and to develop legal reasoning as practicing with client in the field. Students sympathetically listen to the client`s experience with sensitivity of cultural and class differences, racism, and sexism. The client`s storytelling offers that students help in stretching their perspectives which open possibilities for examining and improving the quality of attorney-client relationship. Students become a supportive and respectful learner from the client`s life as asking questions of the excluded in the context of the client`s life. Students interact with clients to solve the problem using contextual reasoning. They develop a contextualized presentation of the client`s participation in events. This pedagogical method can be a model of prospective Korean law schools, which will take many institutional matters in order to implement it into the curriculum. Despite any barriers, the contextual reasoning with clinical education enriches no doubt the Korean traditional classroom in the law schools.

6"계약"에 대한 법철학적 일고찰

저자 : 강희원 ( Hee Won Kang )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 137-164 (28 pages)

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We are so familiar with "contract" that we can not afford to make a modern social life without it. The system of contract laws modelled as the West has nearly governed our present way of doing even if in half century after the modern civilization. However, nobody knows, how different the "contract" in the Korean`s usual life is from the "contract" in the korean law books. In my guess, the gap between both is relatively deep. The Korean contemporary contract law terms and theories have been received from Japan. Korean contemporary contract law theories are characterized by the basic form and concepts of contract doctrine of the continental civil law jurisdiction. In the continental civil law the contract doctrine of "pacta sunt servanda" is accepted as the major premise of the contract law. Where is this doctrine from? Is a contract is the self promise or the promise for the another? The doctrine "pacta sunt servanda" is morally requested to the member of human society to keep a communal living. In this article, the legal term "계약" is from the etymological aspect of the Korean language reviewed, and the foundation of contract`s binding power is in a legal-philosophical context considered.

7이익형량에 대한 환원주의적인 접근의 사례: 미국의 단계심사와 한국의 과잉금지원칙

저자 : 박경신 ( Kyung Sin Park )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 165-196 (32 pages)

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This paper analyzes the American multi-tiered scrutiny used in constitutional review and compares to the Korean constitutional principle of proportionality. The multi-tiered scrutiny of a state action is conducted in a manner that, as the private interest infringed by that state action becomes greater, the greater the public interest the state action is required to accomplish. This relationship corresponds to one of the four elements of the Korean principle of proportionality, namely that of the balancing of interests. Also, the multi-tiered scrutiny requires a greater means-ends fit as the greater private interest is at stake. This requirement of a means-ends fit corresponds to the appropriateness of means and the least restrictive means, the two other elements of the principle of proportionality, and enhances the likelihood that the public interest outweighs the private interest infringed, thereby supplementing the ultimate test of balancing. The requirement that the public interest be at minimum legitimate to `important` or `compelling` also makes sure that the balancing is conducted with respect to a public good as opposed to a public harm. The idea that constitutionality of a state action can be determined by balancing faces a criticism that the quantification of essentially abstract qualities cannot be accomplished in a consistent or binding manner. However, the stare decisis principle provides a comparative scheme where previous decisions provide a binding and consistent rule by which the interest-balancing can produce concrete results.

8우리나라 "장기 등 이식에 관한 법률"의 윤리적 검토

저자 : 구인회 ( In Hoe Ku )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 197-222 (26 pages)

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The `Organ Transplantation Law` of Korea was established in February 1999 and enforced in February 2000, which was enacted to save lives and improve the quality of life of organ recipients. It is particularly important to follow the stringent rules and regulations of decision-making processes stipulated in the Act to safeguard the dignity of potential "brain-death" organ donors. This study provides various recommendations for improvements to the current Human Organ Transplantation Law. The law should also clearly prohibit the sale of human organs and the donation of organs from minors. Autonomous consent must be respected in donation. Brain death should be determinated clearly and precisely by means of a simple process. Organs should be allocated fairly. In order to avoid delays in decisions concerning organ transplantation, the current organization and role of the Brain Death Determination Committee should be re-considered.

9기억과 법: 홀로코스트 부정

저자 : 이재승 ( Jae Seung Lee )

발행기관 : 한국법철학회 간행물 : 법철학연구 11권 1호 발행 연도 : 2008 페이지 : pp. 223-252 (30 pages)

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This article examines the contemporary juridico-philosophical theories and international, regional or national norms regarding Holocaust denial or hate speech. There are outstanding differences between common law tradition and European continental legal tradition. Most civil libertarians or anarcho-pacifists resolutely support the freedom of speech, citing Millian harm principle or Holmesian argument of the free market of ideas. In contrast, a lot of legal feminists and critical race/ethnical theorists tend to take real inequality in freedom of speech seriously, and try to refute the free market of ideas, and stress the negative impacts of hate speech. Free speech libertarianism has been accepted as one of the cultural symbols for United States of America. Meanwhile, there is a wider consensus at the international level that hate speech or Holocaust denial should be prohibited by law. ICCPR, ICERD, American Convention on Human Rights and EU protocol on the Cybercrime provide for anti-negationist or anti-hate clause. European countries have punished the genocide deniers with the view of purging the national-socialistic past since the Second World War. Generally speaking, decriminalization or criminalization of Holocaust denial depends decisively on the direct experiences of massive human rights violations. In conclusion, decriminalization thesis is not perfect but acceptable in Korea. Considering the history of free speech in Korea, a likely anti-negationist law will oppress paradoxically the creative minorities or left intellectuals just as the National Security Act has done. In practice, anti-defamation law has been extended automatically to history deniers in the extremely fame-seeking korean society. But only the alert citizens, not the governmental censorship can guard and activate the public sphere for free communication. The only solution to a noxious opinion is a good opinion, freely expressed.

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