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The Journal of Chinese Historical Researches

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(1996)~121권0호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,419
중국사연구
121권0호(2019년 08월) 수록논문
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1한대(漢代) 「홍범(洪範)」의 재탄생과 반고(班固)의 「오행지(五行志)」 저술 배경

저자 : 權珉均

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 121권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 1-28 (28 pages)

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西周初, 箕子在武王的咨询下建造的“为理想国家西周的伟大统治计划”洪範, 历经春秋战国时期进入汉代, 具有非常独特的文化权威. 换句话说, “天赐洪範九疇”的故事, 在西周初, 也有助于确保“统治权力”的正统性. 进入汉代后,加上亡国出身的箕子向周武王道破洪範而成就理想国家的故事, 赋予了非常独特的文化权威. 还有洪範五行与春秋战国时期发达的五行相结合, 以能够说明当时世界的活用度很高的理论重新诞生. 进入汉代后, 正式开始再生产的洪範的历史性就是这样开始的.
汉初, 秦博士出身的伏勝著『洪範五行』理论, “被天命公认的理想统治理论”足以满足汉代统治者和知识分子的要求. 知识分子立足于『洪范五行传』, 对『災異』各抒己见, 志在官位. 像董仲舒、夏侯始昌、眭孟、夏侯勝、京房、穀永、李尋等, 这样的知识分子就是他们. 此外, 一些知识分子还试图根据“洪範五行”理论, 重新梳理国家危机发生案例, 以突破国家危机. 像刘向、刘歆这样的知识分子就是他们.
著有『汉书ㆍ五行志』的班固, 作为后汉初的知识分子, 与前汉時代的知识分子站在同一脉络上. 作为重新复兴的汉之臣下, 他提出稳定治国之计, 愿受重用. 此时, 周武王作为模范的“洪範九疇”是粉飾合理帝国统治的绝佳资料. 而且被明帝认可为『汉书』著述, 安定地进行著述活动的班固所看到的皇室外戚掌握权力的企图在班固的眼中是非常危险的. 以汉忠臣自居的班固在以前的历史中, 把災異的事例与政治事件联系起来, 通过著述加以警告是最有效的方法. 班固在这种背景下, 著有『五行志』, 集成前学者的五行之說.

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本文旨在对后汉灵帝时期制作的《熹平石经》和曹魏正始年间建立的《正始石经》以及西晋咸宁 4年(278)刊刻的《辟雍碑》的社会、时代性作用和意义进行探讨.
《熹平石经》可将其理解为经学鼎盛时期的产物,可从当时学术界的情况来看反而正处于经学衰退期. 太学已沦落为交流场所,而经学则与其说是追求大义,不如说是执着于经句而趋于形式化. 此外,再加上当时经书已无定本,文字的异同成为了严重的社会问题. 因而, 国家需要纠正文字的异同. 特别是考虑到当时的知识人与皇帝的权利对峙而获得了名声的情况来看,这从某种意义上来说也是阐明文化标准只被握在皇帝手中的一个佐证.
《正始石经》从何时开始制作还不明确. 只不过可以推断其与曹魏明帝的洛阳宮城修建有着紧密关系. 明帝为实现皇帝权利的权威化试图重建首都. 很自然地在这一过程中太学得到了重整,而作为振兴太学的一环开始了石经的制作. 但继明帝较早的死亡和年幼的皇帝的即位引发的王朝的危机使石经的性质得以改变. 石经并非鼎盛时期皇帝权利的纪念物,而应起到为克服王朝的危机且提高年幼皇帝权威的作用. 随着石经的完成开始策划了年幼皇帝的讲经. 带有某种神秘和咒术性质的石经的完成以及与此相配合的讲经可足以给年幼的皇帝赋予精通古文的儒教世界支配者的印象.
与《正始石經》同样,西晋的《辟雍碑》也是为挽救王朝的危机而制作. 西晋武帝与备受当时朝廷的期待的齐王攸对抗,采取了保护此前被怀疑在智力上有问题的皇太子的多项措施. 作为其中的一环曾历经两次建起了纪念太子和其学礼親临的碑. 不过,需要关注的是这座碑很典型地继承了后汉时期在民间由故吏们制作的頌德碑或显彰碑的传统. 《辟雍碑》中提及了主管学礼的儒生们和国子学的门徒自诩门生故吏并成为了建起《辟雍碑》的主体. 也就是说,《辟雍碑》是宣布太子为儒教世界的守护人也是实质性支配者的同时,他还是主导西晋向前的国子学门徒们唯一的导师和上级官吏的纪念碑.

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3송원대(宋元代) 식물성 기름[유지(油脂)]의 생산과 생활상의 변화

저자 : 崔德卿

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 121권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 69-109 (41 pages)

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与上一代相比宋代社会是一个变革和开放时期,这是个共同的评价. 在本文中,将提出带动宋元时代发展的油脂的问题.
与榨油机的改进一同成为宋代又一个特点的是新油料作物的出现. 在宋代新出现的植物油主要是豆油和桐油. 在宋代大豆包括在油料的主要原因是,可以很容易获得,并且大豆食品变得普遍,栽培也变得普遍. 然而,在宋代豆油没有广泛普及的理由是因南迁而失去大豆主要供应地区-北方,出油率的经济效率也不是太大. 但根据宋朝时代有关豆油的记录,广泛应用为食用和船舶维修等,于是豆油的普及也逐渐扩散. 宋代出现的桐油也被认为是一种典型的油料,但在宋代资料中并不容易找到. 然而,桐木被用于从乐器到器具为止的各种用途,桐油在宋代被用作无与伦比的制造工业材料,在前近代替代农药使用为消灭害虫的作用,就这样其使用率快速增加.
宋元代随着新工具的发展和油脂需求的增加,全国范围内生产和消费了油料作物. 油脂不仅用于最普遍的用途-食用和照明用,还从国家目的到个人日常必需品为止,以各种方式使用. 首先,对照明的需求最早出现在城市地区而不是农村地区,特别是在夜间活动或需要工作的群体中先出现的. 因为照明而延长劳动时间,这应该对城市的商业、商人以及读书人等赋予了活力. 还有,以与这些有关的群体为中心,油脂的普及外延扩散.
相反,促进宋代对油脂需求不能不与社会经济变化有关. 唐代之前的市场是被土墙包围,彻底受到市制监管. 当然,没有夜间营业,晚上所有门都被关闭,连通行都不可能. 这种市坊制度到了十一世纪中期后被崩溃,商店进军到路边,可以在夜间营业. 于是,油脂的需求只能是爆炸式地增加. 随着营业和活动时间的增加,消费得到促进,生产也因此而加速. 在此期间,油脂使马车的运输功能得到加强,市场和手工艺品的生产活跃起来,从而自然而然促进了宋代社会经济发展. 在元代,这种经济发展在向邻国传播油脂文化方面也做出了贡献. 也就是说,在汉代从西方引进油料作物和榨油技术后,到了宋元代向周边地区归还了中国的各种油脂文化.

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The introduction of Catholicism to China by the Society of Jesus during Ming-Qing Dynasty constituted a significant part in the history of intellectual encounters between East and West, and that of Chinese Church. In particular, the Jesuit mission strategy of accommodation, often called Accommodationism, enabled the European religious thinking to be respectfully admitted in the Chinese intellectual milieu as intellectual dialogues between Chinese literati and the Jesuit missionaries were made. This study pays attention to the two incidents, the Nanjing Persecution in 1616-17 and the Jiading Conference in 1627-28, seeking for tracing the moments of micro transitions in the Jesuit Accommodationism. The special focus of the study lies in analyzing the terminology of God in the Chinese Christian texts authored by Xu Guangqi and Alfonso Vagnoni around the two incidents. An abrupt change is observed in the texts by Xu, from enjoying agency in using various terms for the translation of Christian God beyond the two terms of tianzhu and shangdi, to returning to the two representative terms suggested by Jesuits. The terminological change by Xu would presumably occur in reaction to the phase of the Nanjing Persecution as Xu himself had to act in more reserved manners. In case of Vagnoni, while the Jesuit priest was able to suggest wide variety of terms of God including shangdi in his earlier texts, he solely used tianzhu and shangzhu after the two incidents. Vagnoni became strongly reserved in using the term shangdi after he restored his mission activity by the new Chinese name Kao Yizhi, which may imply the significance of the decade between 1616 and 1627 as the moment of micro transition. It is particularly surprising to recognize that the Jesuit missionary in China who has been considered a typical pro-Riccian became strongly hesitant or concerned in following the terminology of God suggested by Matteo Ricci. Based on the comparative analysis of the texts by Xu and Vagnoni, it is highly plausible to regard the decade as the moment of micro transitions, subtle but significant, in the practice of Jesuit mission strategy of accommodation.

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5근대시기 중국 공공도서관의 설립과 발전에 대한 고찰

저자 : 서원남 ( Seo Weon Nam )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 121권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 139-163 (25 pages)

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China has a very old history of libraries. A large volume of traditional collection books prove it. However, due to the influence of the feudal ideology, the library was only used as a place to store books, Only a handful of people were available, so their social value was not great. The characteristics of the modern public library, which is distinct from the traditional library, are open to the general public and are freely available to everyone. In addition, it can protect and preserve the ancient cultural heritage, and has the characteristic of collecting domestic and foreign books of the time, and eventually transformed into the public library with public character from ancient vow. The modern public library in China started with the end of the Qing Dynasty, followed by the Revolution of 1911 and the early excitement period of the Republic of China, leading to the development stage after the 5.4 movement. After the Opium War in the end of the Qing Dynasty, China could not overcome the wave of massive modernization even in the rage of foreign exchange. The continued political and military failure has devastated the Qing dynasty as a hell of a downfall. Even in this situation, the intellectuals made various efforts for the stability of the rich country and the stability of the nation. Some of the intellectuals learned the advanced management system and technology of the western countries to build a public library in order to enlighten the general people, and some claimed that the state should lead the modern library. At the same time, there is a voice in the Qing government that it is necessary to establish a national library and nurture human resources. In this social atmosphere, the Beijing Normal Library was established in Beijing, followed by the establishment of public libraries in all provinces. The establishment of public libraries has become a turning point for the development of modern libraries in China. In this paper, we will examine the establishment and development process of public libraries in the period of the Republic of China from the end of the Qing Dynasty. We will focus on the establishment and development of the national library, the Provincial Library , and the Public Private Library. Through this, we will examine how the Chinese library business is transformed into a modern library by moving out of the traditional library.

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61902~1930년 중국(中國) 백설탕시장(市場)의 성격(性格)

저자 : 정영구 ( Jeong Young Goo )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 121권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 165-208 (44 pages)

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As most of Chinese open-ports were incorporated into the modern world system in the 20th century, foreign sugar import volume went on increasing rapidly. It was the main cause of this phenomenon that Chinese purchasing power was improved around this period. The Chinese consumer spent more their Improved purchasing power on buying foreign sugar than Chinese sugar. It was partly because the price competitiveness of Chinese sugar was weaker than that of foreign sugar, and partly because consumers were increasingly turning to prefer foreign sugar, and partly because used place of foreign sugar was more and more increased. In this period, the Chinese white sugar market was mainly accounted for a competition between the Hongkong sugar and the Japanese sugar in previous studies. And Java sugar mainly mentioned its role as a source of raw material and its status as an export after the 1930s. But if you look at the Chinese white sugar market at this time, it was a three-way race, first with Hongkong sugar, then Japanese sugar, and then with Java sugar joining the market. Before the modernization of Chinese sugar in the 1930s, the Chinese white sugar market had increased its share by competing with each other in a growing market, not by sharing a certain market share with foreign sugars.

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7냉전시기 조선일보의 주은래 외교 활동에 대한 인식

저자 : 朴宣泠 ( Park Sun Young )

발행기관 : 중국사학회 간행물 : 중국사연구 121권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 209-243 (35 pages)

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How did Zhou Enlai end up receiving a fairy objective evaluation from the Chosun Daily Newspaper (Chosun Ilbo) during the Cold War Era? This paper analyzes several editorials written by the Chosun Daily Newspaper during the Cold War Era that discuss Zhou Enlai's diplomatic activities. In particular, seven editorials, two from 1954 and one each from 1957, 1958, 1970, 1971, and 1976, as well as various reported content released before and after the aforementioned editorials, were utilized to review what the position and claims of the Chosun Daily Newspaper were. In these editorials, the Chosun Daily Newspaper commented on the diplomatic activities of Zhou Enlai because they were directly related to Korean interests.
The results of this analysis were that most of the editorials stated Zhou Enlai's claims lacked authenticity and his intentions to invade were wrapped under the guise of peace. In addition, the strange role that Zhou Enlai took as he travelled between the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe was seen as a communist deception. The Chosun Daily Newspaper criticized Zhou Enlai's international activities as being deceitful, disguised, an antilogy, a paradoxical role, an infiltrated strategy, etc. However, after his death, he was given the evaluation of “peace salesman” and “diplomacy advisor.” Is this the least objective assessment of the deceased?

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以新出土资料为基础,对秦代社会进行综合研究的成果是《秦简牍硏究》(陈伟主编,2016) 共五册. 本书是中国教育部哲学社会科学研究领域的主要研究课题(原题:教育部哲学社会科学研究重大课题攻关项目)“秦简牍的综合整理与研究”(08JZD0036)的研究成果. 本书的共同特征是作者们将以往发表在学术杂志或其他学术媒介上的论文,通过再释新出土资料的过程,对内容进行了大幅度修改. 《秦简牍研究》共五卷的主要构成如下,第一册《秦简牍校牍及所见制度考察》(陈伟著);第二册《秦律研究》(徐世虹等共著);第三册《秦简牍地理研究》(晏昌贵著);第四册《放马滩秦简及岳麓秦简《梦书》研究》(孙占宇、鲁家亮著);第五册《秦简虚词及句式考察》(伊强著). 主要内容:相关秦简的新校读与解释,从法律、地理、日常等方面到语法分析,是对能综合理解秦代社会的简牍资料与研究成果进行全面整理的套书. 加之,在以《秦简牍合集(壹)-(肆)》(2014)与《里耶秦简牍校释(一)》(2012)的成果为基础的持续性、综合性秦简研究下,推导出了本书的成果,就本书提出了到目前为止出土秦简的综合性研究方法论这一点,可以说,其意义重大,并开启了秦简研究的新时代!

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