Turkic literature (Turk Edebiyatı) is a long-standing common cultural heritage shared by Turkey and the countries of Central Asia based on oral traditions. In Turkic culture, oral traditions are not only the literary poetry of rhyme and rhythm but are also the basis for modern folk songs, funeral songs, plays, games, and the like. Prior to Islamization, oral literature was conveyed by shamans (Kam) in religious rituals (dinitöreni), festivals (şölen), hunting ceremonies (sığır), and rites of passage, based on celestial thought and shamanism. The shaman was a political leader, priest, artist, therapist (doctor), and mentor; in other words, he(she) led the tribe, of which he(she) was the focal point. As Islam gradually consolidated its power in tribal nations, the original functions of shamans weakened. The shaman was later transformed into an ozan, performing only some of the functions of a bard, storyteller, and narrator. As literature has passed through the era of mythology, which has a shamanic nature, recording history in mysterious terms, an era of literature functioning only in the artistic realm has arrived. Oral traditions have subsequently been written down and passed down, as with the changing process of oral literature. Pre-Islamic Turkic oral literature reflects the Turks' view of the universe, the world, humans, life, and death, and is a valuable resource for examining their faith, tradition, and customs. More specifically, before the arrival of Islam, celestial thought (Göktanrıcılık), shamanism, totemism (wolf, deer, eagle, etc.), animism, Buddhism, and Manichaeism had considerable influence on the Turkic tribes. In particular, the Turks' main beliefs (animism) were principally beliefs in natural spirits, along with ancestor worship (atalar kultu). The objects of worship include the sun (guneş), moon (ay), stars (yıldızlar), planets (gezegenler), yer-sub (god of mother earth, god of nature), fire (ateş), water (su), mountains (orman), trees (ağaç), land (toprak), stones (taşve kaya), and the like. This traditional belief influenced the whole nomadic life and was incorporated into the oral literature through the magical power of the language. As such, oral literature is at the heart of Turkic culture. Therefore, understanding their oral literature will help us understand their culture and literature, while giving us further insight into the multicultural aspects of modern society.