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Journal of Daejonggyo Studies

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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 8
대종교연구
1권0호(2019년 07월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1대종교 경전 형성 소사

저자 : 유영인 ( Yu Yeong In )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-78 (74 pages)

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대종교 경전 특히 초기 경전은 타종교와 대비되는 “도통 계승의 산물”이라는 변별적 특성을 지니고 있다. 도통의 중심에는 백두산을 근거지로 활동한 백봉 교단이 존재했다. 대종교의 경전 형성도 백봉 교단의 경전 전수로 시작되었다. 이를 시작으로 뚜렷한 특징을 지니고 있는 단계들이 이어졌다.
'경전 형성 1기'는 백봉 교단으로부터 전수(傳受)한 종리(倧理)·종사(倧史)·종례(倧禮)로 구성된 경서(經書)류가 집성된 시기였다. 이는 새로운 종교의 창시를 위한 손색없는 구조로서 대종교 경전 구조의 원형과 표준을 제시하는 것으로 평가할 수 있다.
'경전 형성 2기'는 초기 경전을 바탕으로 대종교단이 교리를 심화 발전시킨 시기였다. 교리의 발전은 종리와 종사로 이원화되어 진행되었고, 주목할 종리 결과물은 1917년 서일이 주관하는 대종교동도본사 명의로 발간된 『사책합부』였다. 이를 통해 『신사기』가 최초로 소개되고 나철과 서일의 기념비적 교리서들이 세상에 모습을 드러냈다.
'경전 형성 3기'에 해당하는 김교헌 기는 대종교 경전 형성기에서 가장 주목할 만한 사건인 경전 변조가 행해진 시기였다. 백봉의 전통과 권위 그리고 대종교 종리 형성의 가장 중요한 인물인 나철과 서일의 종교 철학이 응축된 결과인 『사책합부』가 김교헌 기의 조·교·치 삼신론으로 무장한 이론가들에 의해 상당한 정도로 변조가 행해졌다. 대종교 성립과 확립을 이룩한 인물들의 관점에서 보면, 이 사건으로 대종교는 종법(倧法)이 붕괴되고 나아가 폐문에 상당하는 처지에 놓이게 되었다. 이를 기점으로 대종교는 피상적 모습과 달리 교조가 변경되고, 새로운 신학 이론을 기반으로 한 새로운 종교가 시작되었다 해도 과언이 아니다.
김교헌에 이어 종권을 담당한 윤세복은 상당한 기간 동안 대종교의 대표 경전으로 유통되었던 『역해종경사부합편』을 간행하는 등 경전정비에 노력을 기울였던 것은 사실이다. 하지만 그도 김교헌 기에 변조된 경전 구조를 원형으로 회복할 수 있는 중요한 위치에 있었음에도 불구하고 이를 묵인함으로써 변조된 경전의 전승과 유통에 기여하는 부정적 역할을 수행했다.
다음에 이어진 '경전 형성 5기'는 무지와 몰지각이 낳은 주체가 상실된 시대였다. 이 시기에 한때 대종교에 몸담았던 이유립이 대종교와 교리 상 이론(異論)으로 대종교를 떠나 그가 창교(創敎)한 신흥종교인 태백교를 위해 변조한 경전이 대종교 경전으로 편입된 것이다. 이 사건으로 인해 환웅 시대를 고대의 기원으로 삼고 있는 『천부경』과 『성경팔리』를 변조한 『참전계경』이 대종교 경전에 편입되어 조화·교화·치화 삼경(三經)이 대종교 경전 구조로 고정되어 통용되었다.


The scriptures, an indispensable element in the composition of religion, contain a record of the enlightenment of the founder of a religion, but the Daejonggyo scriptures, especially the early scriptures, have the distinguishing characteristic of “a product of succession of religious tradition” versus other religions. At the center of the continuity was Baekbong denomination based on Baekdu Mountain. The formation of Daejonggyo scriptures began with the transfer of the scriptures of Baekbong. Starting with this, steps that have distinct characteristics had continued.
The first period of the formation of the scriptures was a period when a collection of religious works which consists of the religious doctrine of Daejonggyo, the ritual of Daejonggyo, and the religious history of Daejonggyo, which were received from Baekbong denomination, were gathered. This is a flawless structure for creating a new religious body and can be evaluated as the representation of a prototype of as well as a standard of structure of Daejonggyo scripture.
The 'Scripture Formation Period 2' was the period when Daejonggyo deepened and pushed forward with the doctrine based on the early scriptures. The development of the doctrine was carried out by the dualization of the religious doctrine of Daejonggyo and the religious history of Daejonggyo. The distinguished products of the religious doctrine of Daejonggyo was Sachaekhapbu(四冊合附), which was published in 1917 in the name of “The Eastern Headquarter of Daejonggyo”, which was headed up by Seo Il. This was the first time that Shinsagi had been introduced and the monumental doctrines of Racheol and Seoil had appeared in the world. Sachaekhapbu was also a hidden secret document that revealed that the Jonggyeonghapbu published by Kim Gyoheon, which is the parent of the current version of Daejonggyo scriptures, is the products of falsification of Daejonggyo Scriptures.
The period of Kim Gyoheon's reign, which amounts to the third period of the formation of the scriptures, was the times in which daring attempts were made to falsify Deajonggyo Scriptures, which is said to be the most horrific event during the formation of the scriptures. Sachaekhapbu found itself being falsified to great extent by the Daejonggyo theorists equipped with Daejonggyo tritheism - God the creator, God the teacher, and God the governor, which was established during the period of Kim Gyoheon's reign. As a result, it can be seen that, in view of the figures who created and established the Daejonggyo, owing to the event, Daejonggyo had its doctrine collapsed and was forced to be placed in a position corresponding to closing down the church. It is no exaggeration to say that with this event as its starting point, Daejonggyo as opposed to its superficial appearance had its founder changed and started a new religion based on new theological theory.
There is no denying the opinion that the origin of the influence of current Daejonggyo which has dropped to the bottom is attributed to the falsification of Daejonggyo Scriptures. Moreover, the forces that took the lead in the falsification of the scriptures were ignorant of the consequences that might be caused by scriptural falsification later on. That is to say, if the falsification of the scriptures is acceptable, they did not realize that the attempt to alter the existing scriptural structures on the grounds of past examples of falsification would endlessly be made by the forces of another falsification in the future.
It is true that Yun Sebok, who succeeded to the reign of Kim Gyoheon, made efforts for the reorganization of the scriptures, such as publishing Jongkyeongsabuhappyeon. Even though he was in an important position to turn the structure of falsified scriptures into the original state, by acquiescing the truth of scriptural tampering, he negatively contributed to the transmission and distribution of the altered scriptures.
In the next period, 'the 5th period of the scripture formation' was a time when ignorance and lack of discretion resulted in the identity of Daejonggyo being lost. At that time, Lee Yulip, who once had played a role in Daejonggyo, left Daejonggyo due to his different view on the doctrinal theory of Daejonggyo and the scriptures transformed for Taebaekgyo, an emerging religion he had created, were incorporated into Daejonggyo scriptures. It was because of this incident that Cheonbukyeong, which has the ancient origin in Hwanung era and Chamjeonkyekyeong, the altered scripture for the emerging religion of Taebaekgyo, were incorporated into the scriptures of the Daejonggyo, and the three major scriptures of Deajonggyo, the scripture Creation, the scripture Teaching, and the scripture Governance, were fixed to the scriptural structure of Daejonggyo and has been used until now. Moreover, when we consider the standard and legitimacy of Daejonggyo scriptures as the Baekbong tradition, Cheonbukyeong, which has the least relation to that of Baekbong, has reached its place as the main scripture in the Three Scriptures.
The current structure of Daejonggyo scriptures, which consist of the three major scriptures of Deajonggyo, the scripture Creation, the scripture Teaching, and the scripture Governance, with Cheonbukyeong being located in the highest position among the three scriptures is like putting the cart before the horse from the standpoint of the early structure of Daejonggyo scriptures, which was formed by the transmission of Baekbong, that is, the religious doctrine of Daejonggyo, the ritual of Daejonggyo, and the religious history of Daejonggyo.
The centennial of the formation of Daejonggyo scriptures was a time when the prototype of Daejonggyo scriptures was transformed and overturned by short-sightedness, reckless, august and ignorance. The result of the synchronic illumination of this short-lived history of formation of Daejonggyo scriptures is tragic but true. This tragic truth is the irony of history when recalling the voice of Baekbong, who had reproached the loss of an independent cultural consciousness under the banner of “oblivion of root and betrayal of wellspring”. Was not Daejonggyo a religion that emphasized the origin and source more than any other religion?
The original scriptures symbolic of the roots of Daejonggyo had to endure great hardship in about 100 years of the history of formation of scriptures. The overriding task required to overcome these tragedies and to make a fresh start is to restore the structure of the transformed scriptures to the original form. This is indispensably required not only for the reconstruction of the doctrine of Daejonggyo based on original texts but also as a stepping stone for the revival of the weakened Daejonggyo.
Furthermore, the source data and the synoptic view based on it are essential for exploring the mental phenomena of modern and contemporary society in the academic field of humanities and sociology beyond the study of Daejonggyo. It is fortunate that in recent years, devoted efforts of enthusiastic researchers of the Daejonggyo have been able to see the emergence of collective products and the discovery of the collection of materials related to Daejonggyo that can restore the original shape. It is hoped that this result will play a role as a indispensible strategy to overcome the problems faced by the world as well as individuals and society beyond the boundaries of time and space like the waves of concentric circles.

2『대종교신원경』의 경전사적 의미

저자 : 유영인 ( Yu Yeong In )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 79-118 (40 pages)

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초록보기

『대종교신원경』(이하 『신원경』)은 50년에 걸쳐 집성되었고 11편의 글을 포함한다. 크게 두 시기에 집중되어 쓰였는데, 하나는 오수가 『신원경』을 발굴·번역하고, 이화가 「서」(1858)를, 성만이 「대종교원류」(1863)를 쓴 1860년 전후의 시기다. 즉 이 시기에 활약한 인물은 오수·이화·성만이다. 이들 중, 가장 중심이 되는 인물은 오수다. 이화는 『신원경』의 정체를 대황조와 연관 지음으로써 『신원경』에 기원의 유구성과 종교적 권위를 부여하였다.
성만은 오수의 경전 발굴을 계기로 고려 말 일연의 『삼국유사』로부터 전승되어 온 환인·환웅·단군의 이야기를 새롭게 정리해 단군을 처음으로 '대황조'로 존칭하고 동방민족의 시조로 나아가 대종교의 교조로 제시했다. 성만은 신교의 교명을 '대종교(大倧敎)'로 창안해 냈다.
50년간 진행된 『신원경』의 형성기에서 여러 편의 글이 집중적으로 쓰인 또 다른 시기는 1900년 초다. 이는 오수·이화·성만이 활동했던 1860년부터 40여년이 지난 시점이다. 이 시기에 활동한 인물은 백봉과 시호자다. 두 사람 중에 큰 활약을 보인 인물은 단연 백봉이다.
백봉은 1860년대 3인이 이룩한 활동과 업적을 계승해서 단군 중심의 교단을 확립했다. 백봉은 단학 수련 과정에서 조선 도교의 교조가 단군이라는 사실을 접하고 단군을 중심으로 하는 교단 형성에 착수했다. 백봉은 『신원경』을 교단화의 공적 기초로 삼고, 개인 차원에서는 신앙과 수행의 지침으로 활용했다. 백봉은 오수 중심의 활동과업적을 계승하고 그것을 바탕으로 한 개인적 체험을 기록하여 총체적으로 『신원경』을 완성했다.
통시적으로 『신원경』은 1904년 백봉교단이 『단군교포명서』를 포명하며 그 정체를 공개적으로 드러내기 이전에 비밀결사로 운영해온 교단의 산물이다. 『신원경』은 적어도 50년에 걸쳐 형성된 경전이다. 이것은 백봉이 1904년 공개적으로 드러나기 이전에 상당기간 경전집성을 위한 노력을 해 왔음을 의미한다.
구조적으로 『신원경』은 내용상 교사·교리·의례가 모두 완비된 종합 성격의 경전으로 볼 수 있다. 『신원경』은 철저하게 주체적 시각을 담고 있는 경전으로서, 후일 백봉교단이 펴낸 『단군교포명서』와 『단군교오대종지서』의 사상적 모체로서의 역할을 해냈다.


Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong had been collected for 50 years and includes 11 articles. Broadly speaking, it was written intensively in the two periods. One is the time around 1860, when Oh-su discovered and translated Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong, and Ewha wrote 「Introduction」(1858), and Seong-man wrote 「Daejonggyowonryu」(1863). In other words, the person who played an active part in this period is Oh-su, Ewha, and Seong-man. All of these have played a meaningful role, but the most central figure is Oh-su.
Oh-su started to practice asceticism from the end of the 1700s, 60 years ahead of 1860, and the result was the event of Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong being excavated in a stone case in the mountain. Ewha is the person who informed the world of the story of the excavation of the scripture and interpreted it. Ewha implied that Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong was a written record of the teachings of the Great imperial ancestor. By linking the identity of Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong with the Great imperial ancestor, he gave the eternal origin and religious authority to Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong.
With the excavation of the scriptures, Seong-man made a new arrangement of stories of Hwan-In, Hwan-Wung and Dangun that had been handed down from Samgukyusa, which was written by Ilyeon in late Koryo Dynasty. In the writings of Seong-man, Dangun was first referred to as the “Great imperial ancestor”, and recognized as the progenitor of the Eastern people, as well as the founder of Daejonggyo.
Shingyo, which corresponds to the early form of Daejonggyo, whose founder was “Great imperial ancestor”, had long enjoyed its flourishing, but eventually it came to an end. In spite of the decline of its influence, Seong-man found the traces of the Shinyo in the fable of a God-human as well as the characters such as the progenitor of Silla, the first king Koryo dynasty, and the first king of the Joseon Dynasty, Yi Seong-gye.
Seong-man recognized the God-human as the “Great imperial ancestor” and transformed the God-human into a synonym of a syllable, “Jong (倧)”, and invented the name of Shingyo, whose founder is “Great imperial ancestor”, as a “Daejonggyo”. In other words, Seong-man is the first person to name Shinyo Daejonggyo.
In 1860, a group of figures, including Seong-man, interpreted Dangun, who was claimed to have been the origin of the Korean people' history and Korean Taoism, as the founder of the Korean native religion. This was the first attempt to establish Dangun, who had been the object of formal national ceremonial rites. as the center of institutional religion.
Another period in which many writings was intensively produced in about 50 years of Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong formation was early 1900's. It was more than 40 years since 1860, when Oh-su, Ewha, and Seong-man were active. The members who played an active role in this period were Baekbong and Sihoja. The person of the two person who showed great activity was by all means Baekbong. It is not confirmed that Baekbong had been active since the 1860s, along with three members, that is, Oh-su, Ewha and Seongman.
It seems that Baekbong had nothing to do with these members in person, but as a result, he inherited the activities and accomplishments of the three members of the 1860s. Baekbong succeeded their achievements in the early days of Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong formation, accomplishing the religious body centered around Dangun, which was attributed to the individual efforts of Baekbong.
As mentioned above, Baekbong came to know that the founder of Korean Taoism is Dangun during the Danhak practice. From that time, Baebong seems to have begun to form a religious body centered on Dangun. In the process, it is presumed that Baekbong encountered a group of ascetics, including Oh-su who had already determined their religion's name and secured its scriptures. Baekbong made Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong a public foundation for denomination and used it as a guideline for faith and practice in the individual level.
The product of his faith and asceticism experience is Baebong's articles which constitutes the appendix of Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong. Baekbong inherited the activities and accomplishments which had been done around Oh-su and recorded the personal experience based on it, thus completing the whole Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong.
From a diachronic point of view, it was a product of the denomination which had operated as a secret society before the Baekbong denomination in 1904 proclaimed Dangungyopomyeongseo and publicly revealed its identity. Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong is a scripture made over at least 50 years. This means that Baek-bong had made efforts for the formation of scriptures for a considerable period of time before being revealed publicly in 1904.
Structurally, Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong can be regarded as a scripture of comprehensive nature in which all contents of the religion's history, its doctrine, and its ritual are fully equipped. Daejonggyoshinweonkyeong is a scripture containing a thoroughly subjective view, and later served as the ideological body of Dangunyopomyeongseo and Dangungyoodaejonggiseo, which later Baekbong denomination published.

3『성경팔리』의 기원과 전개

저자 : 유영인 ( Yu Yeong In )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 119-160 (42 pages)

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초록보기

『성경팔리』는 정훈모가 초기 단군신앙운동에서 주요 경전으로 활용했고 오늘날에는 다른 서명으로 단군관련 종단에서 활용되고 있는 우여곡절이 점철된 경전이다. 이 경전이 최초로 사회에 공개적으로 유통된 시점은 여러 가지 자료를 통해 정훈모가 분립 직후인 1910년 9월에서 같은 해 말경으로 확인했다.
한편 『성경팔리』는 예식서와 함께 정훈모의 초기 교리서인 『진리문답』의 저술의 자료로 활용되었다. 예식서의 각사와 서사는 각각 『성경팔리』의 상권과 하권에서 축출된 종교사상을 함축한 경구라 할 수 있다. 결국 『성경팔리』는 정훈모가 인도하는 초기 단군교단의 주요교리서인 『진리문답』과 직·간접적으로 밀접히 연관되어 있다. 이러한 점에 비추어 『성경팔리』의 기원이 백봉집단이라는 가설도 여러 증거로 충분히 입증된다.
『성경팔리』는 1910년 세상에 공개된 후 줄곧 단군교단의 주요 경전의 위치를 유지하며 진화되어 왔다. 1921년 같은 판본이 재출간되어 그 존재의 가치를 입증했다. 하지만 재출간의 과정에서 오기를 남기는 미세한 과오도 있었다. 정훈모의 『성경팔리』에 대한 열정은 계속되어 1910년 판본을 저본으로 1926년 순 한글로 번역된 『성경팔리』를 발행했다.
1936년 일제의 강압에 의해 교단의 유지가 어려워지자 단군교는 폐문의 지경에 이르게 되고 이에 따라 경전들도 모체를 상실한 미아의 신세가 되었다. 한 동안 잊혀진 『성경팔리』는 1967년 박노철에 의해 세상에 다시 빛을 보게 된다. 이를 통해 비록 필사와 제작의 과정에서 오기와 첨가가 있었지만 『성경팔리』를 세상에 다시 알리는 계기가 마련되었다.
그러나 대종교에서 활동하다가 교리상 이견으로 다른 노선을 걷게된 태백교 창시자 이유립이라는 인물에 이르러 이 경전은 변조의 운명을 필할 수 없었다. 새로운 종교를 위해 경전을 갈망했던 그는 자신의 종교사관에 맞게 변조해 새로운 서명인 『참전계경』을 만들어 냈다. 『참전계경』은 그 이후 조화경·교화경·치화경 등으로 불리는 3경 중에 치화경으로 세상에 유통되고 있다. 20세기 초에 처음 등장한 『성경팔리』는 그간 변화를 겪으며 결국 오기·교열·첨삭이 누적된 과정의 산물이라 할 수 있다. 하지만 『성경팔리』의 최고본이 발굴되어 그간의 역사에서 점철된 오류를 교정할 수 있는 새로운 전기 마련되어 다행이다.


Cheong Hunmo used Seongkyeongpalli as the main scripture in the early Dangun faith movement, and today it is used in Dangun related denomination with other title of book. It was confirmed by various sources that the first time that the scripture was circulated publicly in society was from September 1910, shortly after the division of Cheong Hunmo, to the end of the same year. In addition, the Seongkyeongpalli along with the book for rituals was used as the material for writing Jinlimundaeb, which is the early doctrines of Cheong Hunmo.
It can be said that each of the writing for enlightenment and the writing for oath in the book for rituals is a epigram implying religious thoughts, which were extracted from the first volume and the second volume of Seongkyeongpalli In the end, Seongkyeongpalli is directly or indirectly related to the main doctrines of the early Dangun denominations, which Cheong Hunmo led. On the other hand, the hypothesis that Seongkyeongpalli originated from Baekbong group is also proved by various evidence.
Seongkyeongpalli had evolved since it was released to the world in 1910, maintaining the position of the major scriptures of the Dangun related denomination. The same edition was reissued in 1921 and proved its worth. However, the process of re-release caused slight mistakes like misdescription to be left. Cheong Hunmo couldn't stop abandoning the passion for Seongkyeongpalli, thus having the 1926 Hangeul version of Seongkyeongpalli be published by using the 1910 edition of Seongkyeongpalli as an original script.
This was an event in which Seongkyeongpalli was the first translation into Korean, and a glimpse of the voluntary culture consciousness of his Korean language along with the meaning of scriptural history. When the denomination became difficult to maintain in 1936 under the pressure of Japanese imperialism, Dangunyo became difficult to survive, and the scriptures became like a missing child who lost her or his mother.
In 1967, the forgotten Seongkyeongpalli was revealed again to the world by Park Nocheol. It is true that although there were misdescriptions and additions in the process of the transcription and the production, his efforts provided the opportunity to announce Seongkyeongpalli to the world again.
However, when the scripture fell into the hands of Lee Yulip, the founder of the Taebaekgyo, who had been working in Daejonggyo, and who had select another route due to his different view on the doctrinal theory of Daejonggyo, the scripture could not help being falsified. Aspiring to the scriptures for the new religion, he tampered with it in accordance with his own religious view of point and created a new scripture called Chamjeonkyegyeong.
In the afterlife, the three major scriptures, that is, the scripture Creation, the scripture Teaching, and the scripture Governance, came to be known to the world, one of which is Chamjeonkyegyeong known as the scripture Governance, which has been circulated until now.
Seongkyeongpalli, which was first revealed in the world in the early 20th century, continued to change with the passage of time, but the result was a continuation of the process of misdescription, compilation, and addition. The scriptures are absolutely inviolable objects of freedom of interpretation but without freedom to tamper with the original.
At the same time, the first version of Seongkyeongpalli was unearthed and a new occasion was laid to cleanse the mistakes in the history of change. Based on the newly unearthed the original version, it is hoped that Seongkyeongpalli will regain its original form and become a bright light of a stained world.

4단재 정훈모의 생애와 활동

저자 : 조준희 ( Cho Junhee )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 161-201 (41 pages)

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정훈모는 충남 홍성 출신 우국지사이자 종교지도자다.
그는 홍주의병 선봉장이었던 청양군수 정인희의 장남으로 태어나 영춘군수 등을 지내며 관료의 길을 걸었던 인물이다.
그는 지방 군수 재임 시절 애국계몽운동에도 관심을 보여 교육의 중요성을 강조했었고, 대한자강회, 기호흥학회에도 가입하였다. 1909년 나인영(후의 나철)의 4차 도일 외교 시에 동참했다가 도쿄의 가이헤이칸 여관에서 백두산 도인 두일백을 만나 경전류를 전수받고 귀국한 뒤 나인영과 함께 단군교를 중광하고 포교에 열심히 활동하였다. 국조 단군에 대한 숭모 사상은 조선 말 백두산 도인 백봉이 이끈 단군교 전수 단체에 의해 창시되었고 백봉 교단의 도맥은 홍암나철과 단재 정훈모 양인에게 나뉘어졌다.
그러나 나철이 유교 형식을 타파하고자 한데 비해, 정훈모는 유교사상과 의례를 버리지 못했던 차이가 있었다. 결국 두 사람은 사상적 차이로 1910년에 분립한 뒤 각자의 길을 걷게 되었고, 정훈모는 일제강점 치하 국내에서 단군교를 지키기 위해 1910년부터 1936년까지 경전 간행과 교리의 체계화, 예식 정비에 주력하였다.
외압과 내분에도 불구하고 오늘날 '민족 경전'으로 알려진 천부경·삼일신고·성경팔리의 3대 경전 체계를 세운 장본인으로서, 한국종교사 서술에 있어서 빼놓을 수 없는 인물이다. 아이러니하게도 70년대부터 대종교에서는 반대파인 정훈모가 이루어 놓은 경전 체계를 그대로 차용하고 있다.
백두산 도인 수장 백봉이 주창하여 나철과 정훈모의 단군교 중광 및 개천절 행사로 명맥이 이어져 오늘날 국경일로 제정되기까지 역사적 배경과 노력은 제대로 평가받아야 한다. 앞으로 정훈모는 나철과 함께 대종교 중광의 주역으로서 뿐만 아니라 최초 개천절(개극절) 행사를 함께했던 동지로서도 반드시 재조명되어야 할 것이다.
정훈모는 일제강점기라는 난세에 한민족 시조 단군의 역사와 의미를 찾기 위해 많은 고민과 실천을 하였고, 민족종교 단군교를 이끌었던 종교지도자였다. 나철이 신앙대상을 보편적 차원의 삼신으로 격상한 것에 비해, 정훈모는 단군교를 고수하며 교명의 명분에 맞게 단군문화의 보급과 확산에 헌신했다. 이를 위해 그는 단군교의 교리·교사·의례에 관한 서적을 수집하고, 정리해서 출판하는 일에 특히 관심을 기울였다.
일제에 의해 끝내 단군교가 폐교되자 그는 그간의 단군신앙운동 과정을 집대성한 『단군교부흥경략』을 출판해 그의 일관된 노력이 단군문화와 관련 서적의 정리와 보급에 있었음을 실천으로 보여주었다. 정훈모가 몸담았던 시흥 단군전은 비록 터만 남았으나 터 자체만으로도 향토자원으로서 가치가 높다. 일제의 탄압과 한국전쟁, 1981년 철거를 거치면서 공간과 예식 문화가 사라졌으나, 다행히 단군전 예식자료가 모두 전해 와서 복원하는 데 문제없다.


Cheong Hunmo(1868~1943) is a religious leader and a patriot from Hongseong, South Chungcheong Province.
Born as the eldest son of Cheong Inhee(1849~1917), governor of Cheongyang County who led the Hongju Righteous Army against Japanese encroachment, Cheong walked the path of a bureaucrat, serving positions such as the governor of Yeongchun(in today's Danyang County, North Chungcheong Province).
During his time as the county governor, he showed interest in the Patriotic Enlightenment Movement and believed that education would be the most important way in which his country could gain independence and achieve modernization. To this end, he joined groups such as Daehan-Jaganghoe and Giho-Heunghaghoe.
In 1909, while accompanying Ra Inyoung's(renamed as Ra Cheol afterwards) fourth diplomatic visit to Japan, he met Du Ilbaek, an ascetic from Mt. Baekdu, at the Gaiheikan Inn in Tokyo and was handed secret scriptures. Upon returning home, he reestablished a Dangun religious order with Ra Inyoung and actively engaged in the propagation of Dangunism. The ideologies centered around Dangun, the mythical founder of Korea, began at the end of the Joseon Dynasty by the secret religious circle led by Baekbong, again an ascetic from Mt. Baekdu, which aimed at secretly passing down the beliefs of the Dangun order. Baekbong's sect was continued by both Hongam Ra Cheol and Danjae Cheong Hunmo.
The two were different in that Ra Cheol aimed at breaking up the Confucian ideology while Cheong Hunmo insisted on coexisting with Confucianism by retaining the Confucian ideas and rituals. The ideological differences eventually led them to part their ways in 1910. Since then to 1936, Cheong Hunmo focused his effort on publishing scripture commentaries, systemizing doctrines, and reorganizing ceremonies to protect Dangungyo in Korea under Japanese colonial rule.
Despite external pressures and internal strife, he founded the system of three major scriptures, including Cheonbugyung, Samilshingo, and SeongKyeongpalli, also known as the “Nation's Major Scriptures”, making him indispensable in describing Korea's religious history. Ironically, since the 1970s, Daejonggyo, another homegrown religious order worshipping Dangun, has borrowed the scriptures of Cheong Hunmo, even though he had been one of the most vocal critics of Daejonggyo.
The historical backgrounds and efforts that led to the declaration of the National Foundation Day as a holiday, from the advocacy of Baekbong, the ascetic master from Mt. Baekdu, to Ra Cheol and Cheong Hunmo's reestablishment and continuation of Dangungyo and National Foundation Day ceremonies to the present day, must be properly recognized. Along with Ra Cheol, Cheong Hunmo should be given new acknowledgement not only as one of the principals of reestablishing Daejonggyo, but also as one who accompanied the first-year celebration of the National Foundation Day with Ra Cheol and his followers.
Cheong Hunmo was the leader of Dangungyo, who shaped the religious order and took action to find the historical meaning of Dangun, the progenitor of the Korean people, during the turbulent times of Japanese colonial rule. While Ra Cheol elevated the religious dimension to the universal Gods of “Samshin”, Cheong Hunmo kept to Dangungyo, devoting himself to propagating and spreading the ideas of Dangun. To do so, he paid particular attention to collecting, organizing, and publishing books on the doctrines, history, and rituals of Dangunism.
Even after the Dangungyo order was finally closed down by the Japanese rulers, he published Dangungyo-Buheong Gyungryak(roughtly translated as “Strategy to Rehabilitate Dangungyo”) which compiled the developments of Dangungyo movements, demonstrating that his consistent efforts were in organizing and propagating publications on Dangun ideas. Today, only the ruins of Cheong Hunmo's Dangun-jeon Hall in Siheung remain, yet the site itself is still a valuable cultural asset. Although the historic site and the religious order disappeared with the Japanese suppression, the Korean War, and the demolition of the building in 1981, restoration is possible as the Dangun-jeon Hall's Dangungyo ritual references all passed down to the present day.

5일제하 개천절 수호 교단 간 활동 근거지 비교 연구

저자 : 조준희 ( Cho Junhee )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 203-239 (37 pages)

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지금까지 학계에서는 흑백논리로써 “대종교는 항일 단체, 단군교는 친일 단체”로 인식하고서 연구를 진행해 왜곡된 성과를 축적해 왔다. 대종교와 단군교는 뿌리가 같은 종교로 나철과 정훈모가 1909년 음력 1월 15일 한성부 북부 재동 8통 10호(가회동 14번지)에서 단군교로 출발했고, 개극절(개천절의 초명) 행사를 자문동(현재의 원서동)에서 같이 했다. 그렇기 때문에 공평한 조건에서 서울의 개천절 행사를 중심으로 대종교와 단군교의 전개과정을 고찰해 보고자 했다.
첫째, 나철(1863∼1916)이 교주로 있던 대종교는 1914년에 총본사를 북간도 화룡현으로 이전하면서 서울 '북촌'에 남도본사를 두었고, 1930년까지 한반도 교구를 관할했다. 간동 31통 5호에 있던 남도본사는 1921년에 가회동 23번지(318평, 1,051㎡)와 계동 101번지(539평, 1,782㎡)에 각각 설립되어 약 300미터의 거리를 두고 경쟁 관계가 되었다. 전자의 가회동 남도본사는 국어학자 신명균(1889∼1940), 종교인 김용기(1876~?) 등이 주도했고 1924년에 회선시교당으로 이름을 바꾸어 공식 활동을 지속했다. 그러나 계동남도본사의 세력이 커지면서 1924년 말에 끝내 문을 닫게 된다.
반면 계동 101번지 건물은 거물급 친일파 윤덕영(1873~1940)이 구입한 것이며, 친일파들의 막대한 자금력으로써 개천절 등 많은 행사를 지속했고 교육사업과 경전편찬도 전개했다. 강우(1862∼1931)를 비롯한 대종교 남도본사 간부진과 대종교청년회, 대종교진흥회도 모두 계동에 집결되었다. 그러나 1926년 대종교진흥회장 박용태(1888~1938)가 교비 2500원(현재 가치 1,578만원)을 가지고 중국 톈진으로 가서 독립운동 자금으로 활용한 사건이 발생하면서 남도 본사에 대한 지원이 끊기게 되었다. 이에 남도본사 지도자들은 계동을 떠나 1927년 효자동 106번지에 남일도본사를 복원했다가 간동 88번지를 거쳐 1930년 2월에 고양군 한지면 신당리 162번지 묘지땅으로 이전해서 겨우 유지했다. 그러나 지도자 강우가 병환으로 운영을 하지 못하면서 결국 폐문되고 말았고 그도 1년 뒤 사망했다.
둘째, 정훈모(1868~1943)가 교주로 있던 단군교는 1910년 10월 12일 서울 중부 니동 자택에 총본부를 설치하고 활동을 개시했다. 단군교 총본부는 이후 박동, 와룡동, 경운동 등 북촌의 남단 지역에서 포교 활동하는 과정에서 1912년부터 1915년까지 정훈모가 교주의 자리에서 밀려나는 내분을 겪고서 다시 복귀해 1921년에 북촌을 벗어나 서울 '동촌'인 충신동, 동숭동, 연건동 등지에서 1929년까지 활동했다. 정훈모는 유교 사상과 의례를 기반에 두고 국조 단군에 대한 예식을 정비해 어천절을 승어대제로, 개천절을 강어대제로 이름을 바꾸어 제례를 계속 지냈다.
1930년 10월 3일 식도원 주인으로서 부를 축적한 안순환(1871~1942)의 지원으로 경기도 시흥군(현재의 서울 금천구 시흥 4동) 녹동서원 내에 단성전을 지으면서 6년간 활동하던 중 1936년 일제에 의해 폐교되었다.
1910년에 개극절이 개천절로 바뀌고 오늘날 국경일로 제정되기까지 일제하 서울에서 개천절 수호에 노력했던 대종교 남도본사와 단군교 총본부의 역할, 지도자들의 공적, 그리고 예식에 대해 재조명이 필요하다고 사료되었다.


The academic world has accumulated its share of distorted studies presenting a black-and-white view that “Daejonggyo is anti-Japanese and Dangungyo is pro-Japanese.” Daejonggyo and Dangungyo have the same religious root as Ra Cheol, and Cheong Hunmo established Dangungyo on January 15, 1909, under the lunar calendar, at 8-10 Jae-dong, Bukbu, Hanseongbu(14 Gahoe-dong). The ceremony of Gaegueuk-jeol(original name of Gaecheon-jeol) at Jamun-dong(now Wonseo-dong) was also held at the same time. This paper aims to explore the development of Daejonggyo and Dangungyo focusing on the religious rituals of Gaecheon-jeol in Seoul under impartial circumstances.
First, Daejonggyo and its leader, Ra Cheol(1863~1916), moved their Chongbonsa (headquarters) to Helong-County, China, in 1914, and left the Namdobonsa(the Seoul branch office with jurisdiction over Daejongyo dioceses south of Baekdu Mountain) at “Buckchon”, Seoul, in order to manage the Korean Peninsula diocese until 1930. Namdobonsa, which was originally located at 31-5 Gan-dong, was rebuilt at 23 Gahoe-dong and at 101 Gyedong, respectively, and each competed against the other within a 300-meter distance. The Gahoe-dong Namdobonsa, led by leaders such as Shin Myeong-kyun(1889~1940), a Korean linguist, and Kim Yong-ki(1876~?), a religious man, changed its name to Hoeseon Sigyodang(the Church of Daejonggyo) and continued its official activities. However, it eventually closed down in late 1924 as the Gyedong Namdobonsa grew much bigger.
On the other hand, the building at 101 Gyedong was owned by Yun Deok-yeong(1873~1940), who used the massive funds provided by his groups of pro-Japanese collaborators to organize numerous activities including Gaecheon-jeol rituals, educational enterprises, and publication of its scriptures. The executive staff of Daejonggyo Namdobonsa(the Korean Peninsula diocese) including Kang Woo(1862~1931), the Daejonggyo Youth Association, and the Daejonggyo Promotion Society also assembled in Gyedong and eventually they all united. However, after Park Yong-tae(1888~1938), the leader of Daejonggyo Promotion Society, was found guilty of embezzling its operating expenses of 2,500 won(current value: 15.78 million KRW) to fund the independence movement in Tianjin, China, in 1926, the financial support for Namdobonsa was terminated. This led the executive staff to leave Gyedong and re-establish Namdobonsa at 106 Hyoja-dong in 1927, which moved again to 88 Gan-dong, and then finally, in February 1930, it was established in a building within a cemetery at 162 Sindang-ri, Hanji-myeon, Goyang-gun(now Sindang-dong, Seoul). However, when Kang Woo's failing health hindered him from performing his administrative duties, the organization eventually closed down and Kang Woo died a year later.
Second, Dangungyo with Cheong Hunmo(1868~1943) as its leader established its Chongbonbu(headquarters) at Ni-dong, Jungbu, Seoul(now Unni-dong) on October 12, 1910, and commenced its activities. Amid its propagation activities conducted in the south of Buckchon, such as in Bak-dong, Waryong-dong, and Gyeongun-dong from 1912 to 1915, Cheong Hunmo was ousted from the leadership due to an internal conflict. After assuming leadership again, Cheong left Buckchon in 1921 and continued his work in Chungsin-dong, Dongsung-dong, and Yeongeon-dong, the “Dongchon” of Seoul, until 1929. He organized religious rituals for Dangun(the founder of Gojoseon, the first Korean nation) based on Confucian ideals and the Confucian ritual system and changed Eocheon-jeol to Seung-eo-Daeje, and Gaecheon-jeol to Gang-eo-Daeje.
On October 3, 1930, the Dansung-jeon Hall shrine was built in Nokdongseowon(Confucian Academy) at Siheung-gun, Gyeonggi-do Province(Siheung 4-dong, Geumcheon-gu, Seoul), with financial support from An Sun-hwan(1871~1942), who had accumulated much wealth as the president of the Sikdowon Restaurant; however, activities continued there for six years until the shrine was shut down by the Japanese police in 1936.
This study seeks to cast new light on the endeavors, achievements, and religious ceremonies of Daejonggyo Namdobonsa and Dangungyo Chongbonbu and their leaders in preserving the spirit of Gaecheon-jeol from its conception as a Gaegueuk-jeol until its enactment as a national holiday under the Japanese colonial rule.

6소창 신성모 연구:광복 전후 활동과 평가 문제 고찰을 중심으로

저자 : 조준희 ( Cho Junhee )

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 241-285 (45 pages)

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본 연구는 역사 속에 묻힌 독립운동가이자 제1공화국기 국방장관 신성모에 대해 처음 시도한 조사 성과다. 논자는 신성모의 생애를 정확히 알기 위해 유족과의 인터뷰를 통해 잘못된 신상 정보부터 바로 잡았고, 고향 의령과 중국, 영국 행적지를 답사했다.
첫째, 신성모는 1891년 5월 26일 경남 의령에서 태어나 홀어머니 밑에서 자랐고, 고학을 하면서 측량학을 배워 측량기수로 활동했다. 1909년 서울 보성전문학교에 입학했고, 손병희를 통해 천도교에 입교했다.
일제강점기에 신성모의 민족 운동 행적을 살펴보면 일제의 천도교와 교육에 대한 탄압을 목격하고 1912년에 자퇴하고서 조선 해군 창설의 뜻을 품고 중국 상하이로 망명했다. 그는 신규식의 학비 지원을 받아 1913년 우쑹상선학교에 입학했고 난징해군군관학교로 전학 가서 졸업한 뒤 중국 해군제독을 지낸 사젠빙(薩鎭氷) 휘하의 중국 해군 소위로서 군함 승무원, 그리고 무선전신국에서 활동했다. 신성모는 1919년에 베이징에 정착했고, 1920년 12월에 안희제의 자금을 전달하는 임무를 수행하던 중 안동현에서 일경에 체포되어 국내로 압송되었다가 석방되었다. 1921년 4월 신채호가 기초한 「이승만 성토문」에 연서했고, 5월 베이징 군사통일주비회 임시정부 및 임시의정원불승인 「선언서」에 서명하고 2가지 문건을 임정에 전달하는 임무를 완수했다. 1923년 영국 런던으로 건너가 킹에드워드 7세 항해대학을 졸업했다. 일본은 재유럽한인학생들에 대해 주소를 조사했고 신성모의 거주지도 첩보자에 의해 탐지되었다. 그는 졸업 후 영국과 인도를 오가는 상선에서 선장으로서 활동했다.
신성모는 비밀결사 대동청년단에서 임시정부에 자금을 전달하는 임무, 그리고 군사통일주비회에서 활약한 공로를 인정받아 1963년에 건국훈장 애족장을 추서 받았고, 1993년 국립대전현충원에 안장되었다.
둘째, 광복이 되어 1948년 허정(당시 교통부장관)의 추천으로 이승만의 재가를 받아 11월 2일에 인도에서 귀국한 뒤 대한청년단 단장, 내무부장관, 2대 국방부장관을 역임했다.
1951년 한국전쟁이 발발하는 와중에 국민방위군사건, 거창사건으로 인해 지휘관으로서의 책임을 지고 물러났다. 곧바로 주일대사로 임명되어 일본에 갔다가 다시 귀국해서 해사위원회 위원장(1952), 대한조선공사 사장(1952~1953), 해양대학교 학장(1956)에 부임해 교육에 매진했다. 그러나 신성모는 거창사건과 김구암살사건이 언론에 불거지면서 충격 끝에 1960년 5월 29일 뇌일혈로 타계했다. 그는 배척 관계에 있던 정치인과 군·경 출신자, 언론인들에 의해 매도되었다. 특히 거창사건에 대한 서민호(1903∼1974) 의원의 규탄이 실린 동아일보 기사(1951/1960), 그리고 장흥 전 헌병사령관의 김구 암살 지령자라는 유고가 실린 월간 조선 보도(1984)가 신성모의 위상에 결정적인 타격을 준 것으로 고찰되었다.
국방부장관 시절 한국전쟁이 발발하기 이전까지 한미 관계에 대한 신성모의 노력과 북한·일본의 국지적 침범에 대응한 행적 역시 한번도 조명된 적이 없다. 심지어 생몰연도에 대한 기본적인 신상조사조차 이루어진 적이 없었다. 향후 신성모를 제대로 평가하기 위해서는 선입견을 배제하고 실증 자료를 바탕으로 한국근현대사와 해양사에서의 위상, 그리고 전쟁사에 있어서 다각도의 학술 연구가 필요하다고 생각된다.


This study is the first scientific research of Shin Sung-Mo(1891~1960), who was a fighter for Korea's independence from Japanese colonial rule as well as the 2nd defense minister(1949~1951) in the First Republic(1948~1960) in Korea. To gather accurate information on Shin Sung-Mo, the author interviewed his bereaved family members, and made a field study to Uiryeong, his birthplace and cities in China and England that Shin lived, thus correcting inaccurate records on Shin.
First, Shin Sung-Mo was born in Uiryeong-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do on May 26, 1891, brought up by his widowed mother. In this early years, He learned surveying studying and worked as a surveyor. Shin got into Boseong College in 1909 and joined Cheondogyo on the invitation of Son Byeong-heui, the founder of the religious ideology established in early 20th century. The study of Shin's nationalistic movement for independence during the period of Japanese occupation found that after witnessing the Japanese colonial rulers suppressed Cheondogyo and education for Koreans he dropped out of college in 1912 and moved to Shanghai, China with the purpose of establishing the Korean Navy.
Shin received financial support from Shin Gyu-sik(1879~1922), a leading independence movement activist in Shanghai, a leading independence movement activist and entered Wusong Merchant Marine School of China in 1913. He later transferred to Nanjing Naval Academy. After graduating, Shin became an ensign in China's Navy under Admiral Sa Zhenbing(1859~1952) and served as a warship crew. He worked in the wireless telegraph office. Shin settled in Beijing in 1919. In December 1920, he was arrested in Antung province by the Japanese police while he delivered war chest upon request of Ahn Hee-Je(1885~1943, born in Uiryeong, Independence activist)'s funds. Afterward, he was brough into Korea and set free. In April 1921, Shin Sung-Mo cosigned the declaration of denouncement of Syngman Rhee, which Shin Chae-Ho had drafted. In Armed Force Unification Council held in Beijing in May 17, 1921, he signed the declaration to opposed to the Provisional Government of Korea established in Shanghai, and completed the mission of delivering it to the Provisional Government of Korea.
In 1923, Shin Sung-Mo went to London, England, and graduated from King Edward Ⅶ Nautical College. Japanese Colonial Authorities collected addresses of Korean students in Europe. They found address of Shin's residence with help of spies. After graduation, he worked as a captain in a merchant ship shuttling between England and India.
Shin Sung-Mo, was posthumously awarded with the National Medal of Order of Merit for National Foundation for his contribution to the missions in 1963 based on acknolegement for his roles in delivering funds to the Korea's Provisional Government located in China as a member of the secret society of Dae-dong Young Men's Party and had taken an active role in the Beijing Armed Force Unification Council he was buried in Daejeon National Cemetery in 1993.
Second, after Korea's Independence from Japanese's rule, he returned home from India on November 2, 1948 and was appointed as the leader of Taehan Youth Corps, Minister of Interior, and 2nd minister of national defense respectively by President Syngman Rhee based on recommendation of Huh Chung(1896~1988, a Constituent Assembly legislator).
In 1951, at the early stage of Korean War, as the commander, he stepped down after taking responsibility for the National Defense Corps Incident and the Geochang Massacre. However, it was not long before he was appointed to the Korean ambassador to Japan. After returning home from Japan, he again was appointed to the high commissioner of Maritime Commission(1952), CEO of the Korea Ship building Corporation(1952~1953), and the dean of Korea Maritime and Ocean University(1956).
Unexpectedly, Korean media revisited the Geochang Massacre and the assassination of Kim Koo and his alleged involvement to the events in 1960. Shin got shocked by wrongly placed defamation and allegation and as a result, died of cerebral hemorrhage on May 29, 1960.
Shin was strongly criticized by his rivals and opponents in politics, military, police and media for his involvement to the tragic incidents in Korean history before and during the Korean War. In particular a Donga Daily's column written by Assemblyman Seo Min-ho(1903∼1974) claimed that Shin Sung-Mo was accountable for the Geochang Massacre(1951/1960) and the Monthly Chosun claimed that Shin was mastermind to order Chang heung, a former provost marshal to assassin Kim Gu(1984) A series of medial revelation dealt a blow to Shin.
Until recently, no studies have never shed light on the fact that from the years when Shin served as the minister of national defense to before the Korean War, he made an effort to promote relations between Korea and the US and played leading roles in fight against North Koreans and Japanese local military provocations. Furthermore, even there has been no investigation of the primary information on Shin such as his birth and death date.
From now on, in order to make a fair evaluation on Shin Sung-Mo, it is necessary to exclude preconceived opinions, and evaluate his standing in terms of Korean modern and comtemporary history, Korean maritime development, and Korean war on the basis of accurate facts and references from various angles.

7『대종교신원경(大倧敎神圓經)』 해제

저자 : 조준희

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 287-306 (20 pages)

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8대종교 창시자 백봉의 도통전수와 경전류 해제

저자 : 조준희

발행기관 : 한국신교연구소 간행물 : 대종교연구 1권 0호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 307-368 (62 pages)

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