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International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies update

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수록정보
수록범위 : 2017권0호(2017) |수록논문 수 : 96
International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies
2017권0호(2017년 06월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1A Multi-dimensional Approach to Support Youth Taekwondo Athletes

저자 : Capranica Laura , Chiodo Salvatore , Tessitore Antonio

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 3-4 (2 pages)

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Purpose: Youth Taekwondo competitions vary in relation to age and technical level of the athletes. However, the assumption that a scaled-down approach of adult competitions facilitates the development of youth athletes is not necessarily substantiated with field-based research. Therefore, the aim of this study is to present: 1) a multi-dimensional research approach to official youth Taekwondo competitions, including psychophysiological responses and technical-tactical behaviors; 2) aspects relevant to the selection of youth talented athletes; and 3) the best practices to support the holistic development of talented athletes in pursuing high performance sport and academic careers (e.g., dual careers).
Methods: Quantitative and qualitative research methods were used to investigate Italian youth Taekwondo athletes (aged 10-17 years) during youth official competitions and during a selection period. Furthermore, European dual career policies for athletes were analyzed.
Results: Despite the high psychophysiological demands of official youth Taekwondo competitions, children tend to perceive moderate match-related efforts. During a training camp, selected athletes perceived lower efforts with respect to non-selected camps despite no difference in performance and mood between subgroups. Although the European Parliament and Commission prioritize the holistic development of elite athletes, different approaches are in place in Europe, ranging from state-centric regulations to laisser-faire/no formal structures.
Conclusions: The multidimensional research approach to Taekwondo highlighted that the assessment of the athlete's perceived efforts during training and competition could help coaches monitor their training programs and apply effective recovery strategies between matches. Athletes should be supported in their holistic development by combining sport and education.

2Martial Arts as Philosophy

저자 : Joseph J. Lynch

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 5-6 (2 pages)

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Doing martial arts and doing philosophy seem to be radically different activities. One involves acquiring a set of physical skills that has value for self-defense, mental discipline, and more, while the other is a more intellectual and theoretical activity that has little to do with physical activity at all. Of course, philosophers can practice martial arts and can (and do) reflect philosophically on various aspects of martial practice, but normally these practices are indeed distinct. I want to argue that martial practice is or at least can be a kind of philosophical practice. I will focus on some familiar themes in Chinese thought in order to make this point, especially the concept of wuwei as found in both Daoist and Confucian literature. Wuwei is a property that can only be understood relative to certain kinds of practice. That is, it is in a family of philosophical concepts that cannot be reached by theory alone. Such concepts must be arrived at in connection to a practice or skill. While martial arts are not uniquely a practice that can make such concepts known, I argue that they are perhaps uniquely well-suited to do so. While East Asian philosophies seem particularly amenable to a martial understanding, there is little reason to suppose that this approach would not apply to certain aspects of Western thought as well. Martials arts can thus be viewed as a particularly advantageous method to bring about a unity of theory and practice, and this in this way can indeed be a proper philosophical practice.

3Nutritional Principles to Optimize Taekwondo Performance

저자 : Chia-hua Kuo

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 7-7 (1 pages)

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Taekwondo (TKD) competition involves intermittent rapid movements lasting 2 min for 3 sessions with a 1-min rest between sessions. In most cases, TKD athletes compete under a certain degree of dehydration due to a possible advantage gained from lowering weight class. Dietary control and dehydration are normal practices of some TKD athletes before contests, which may compromise performance when recovery is not optimized. Dehydration sometimes involves decreasing glycogen and electrolyte contents since both are physically associated with water, and water occupies around 70% weights of human body. Hydration status is highly relevant to heat dissipation during fast muscle contractions. Skin (heat dissipation control), muscle (oxygen demand control), and brain (center for coordination of metabolic needs) are competing for fluid during fast muscle contractions, which leads to a physiological dilemma on fluid distribution in dehydrating athletes. Recovery from dehydration and muscle glycogen becomes a challenging nutritional task, which may dictate win or loss of a TKD athlete, particularly for those who had limited recovery time between semi-finals and gold medal contests (2-3 hours in the typical recovery time during Olympic competition). In this lecture, scientific evidence associated with fast recovery after exercise will be discussed.

4On the Ethics of Education in Sports

저자 : Luc Reychler

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 8-9 (2 pages)

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Globalization has strongly influenced sports. Sport organizations have become global agents and formidable economic, cultural, and educational forces. Indicative are the great popularity of sports, the commercialization of competitions, the marketing of and through sports, and the inflation of the educational claims or aspirations. Sports are good for health, winning, character building, moral development, team-work, productive citizenship, leadership, raising environmental awareness, conflict prevention, and sustainable peace. Has sport the power to change the ethical climate in the world? Ethics is not about utopia, but oughtopia: it tells us how human beings ought to act in order to contribute to society and human wellbeing. It cannot be reduced to feelings of good and bad, to following the law, or to whatever the sport communities accept. Wearing ethical lenses, one notices a great educational potential, but also ethical deficiencies and challenges. For example, most sport organizations and clubs do not engage in ethical reasoning; they have legal commissions, but no ethical commissions. The education predominantly focuses on sport specific education (refereeing and coaching) directly useful in the sport arena. Ethics tend to be linked to drug use, discrimination, gambling, and the temptation of sport agents. Sports can make a tangible difference in sustainable development and peace building, when their members would learn how to install good-governance, and conflict prevention and peace building in their federations. The athletes should not only learn how to win and deal with loss, but also how to evade lose-lose and enhance win-win outcomes. The World Taekwondo Federation (WTF) successfully increased fair-play and the beauty and attractiveness of competition, and lowered the risks significantly. The legal and ethics commissions are synergetic. Two years ago, the WTF President, Dr. Chung-won Choue, decided to enrich Taekwondo education by complementing the traditional Taekwondo training and education with Olympism, global citizenship, and sustainable peace. Educational materials and didactics are being developed: a card game for young Taekwondoin (Taekwondo practitioners) aged 8-12 in refugee camps and a more elaborate curriculum for older practitioners with the education spread over six levels, corresponding with the colors of the belts: white, yellow, green, blue, red, and black. Both pilot projects are experimenting with the new educational materials and didactics, but they require feedback and melioration.

5A Soteriology of Practice: From Path and Praxis to Intuition

저자 : Ronald Dziwenka

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 13-14 (2 pages)

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The purpose of this presentation is to explicate how fundamental aspects of paradigms of practice in martial arts, physical education, bodily awareness, Neo-Confucianism, and Buddhist meditation might align with each other. Paradigms of practice in each of these fields hold intuition as a goal of practice, realized through what Paulo Freire refers to as praxis; i.e., the “reflection and action directed at the structures to be transformed.” In each of these paradigms, “right practice” includes rigorous discipline, repetition (patterns) of ideal forms, focused concentration, and bodily and cognitive awareness, as well as some form of transcendence of what is practiced that may allow for the development of intuition. Real-life examples of these aspects of practice in the martial arts context, compiled by the qualitative ethnographic research methodology of interviewing long-time martial art practitioners, support the view that these paradigms of practice have aspects that are in alignment with each other.

6The Education of Character in the Philosophy of Taekwondo: On the Qualitative Individual

저자 : Peter Ha

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 15-16 (2 pages)

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The objective of this paper is to clarify the meaning of character education in the philosophy of Taekwondo. Taekwondo has never been considered a mere physical training in the case of sports, for it is also concerned with the education of character. In dealing with an analysis of the moral character education, however, we discover that it is not only Taekwondo masters but also philosophers such as Confucius and Mencius who also emphasize the importance of character formation in their teachings. In fact, some Taekwondo tenets are derived from Confucianism. But, there is a fundamental difference in regarding the education of character in a martial artist (武人) and in a man of letters (文人). This difference will be elucidated in two points. Firstly, we will focus on explaining the distinction between a beast of prey and an herbivorous animal and argue that whereas the education of character by a man of letters regards man in terms of an herbivorous animal, the education of character by a martial artist defines man in terms of a carnivorous animal. Then, we will seek to suggest a positive aspect of a beast of prey. Secondly, the character education by a martial artist defined as a beast of prey will be further clarified in respect to the concept of 'qualitative individual' distinguished from 'quantitative individual.' In contrast to the 'quantitative individual,' who is without a unique character, the 'qualitative individual' is not to be identified with standardized people. We will argue that the prototype of a qualitative individual that is established in their personal character is only discovered in the carnivorous behavior of martial artists.

7Problems with Using Taekwondo as a Sport for Peace Promotion

저자 : Sanko Lewis

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 17-18 (2 pages)

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Taekwondo organizations, such as the World Taekwondo Federation (WTF), have made it a goal to use Taekwondo for peace promotion, which is in line with the moral goals of the early pioneers of this martial art. However, there is an intrinsic dissonance between the aim of peace and the violent techniques that are innate to Taekwondo. To overcome this dissonance, there has been a shift in focus towards the sport aspect of Taekwondo. By rebranding Taekwondo primarily as a sport rather than a martial art, the focus has shifted from violent “martial” techniques, to sport competition. In so doing, the peace promotion goal can be accomplished through sport diplomacy, a type of soft diplomacy. However, a shift away from martial art to combat sport is problematic: most practitioners continue to view Taekwondo as a martial art, not simply a sport. Moreover, a sport-focused Taekwondo reduces the technical arsenal of the martial art to only those techniques appropriate for the competition context. We argue herein that there also is a loss of Eastern philosophical and cultural heritage when martial art Taekwondo is replaced by sport Taekwondo that adheres to Western sport ideals. Although commendable, a sport focus may not be the best course for achieving Taekwondo's peace promotion goal.

8Taekwondo's A Priori and A Posteriori Knowledge: Redefining a Pedagogy

저자 : John A. Johnson

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 19-20 (2 pages)

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Proponents have long-asserted Taekwondo praxis develops practitioners physically, mentally, and spiritually. Taekwondo moreover has three stages of learning: musul (martial technique), muyae (martial artistry), and mudo (martial way). On the other hand, Immanuel Kant bifurcated knowledge into a priori and a posteriori knowledge. A priori is knowledge learned through reason or other means which do not require the use of the five senses, while a posteriori knowledge is acquired empirically. The purpose of this paper is therefore to elucidate Taekwondo knowledge as either a priori or a posteriori. As such, we classified the musul and muyae stages as a posteriori knowledge and the mudo level as a priori knowledge. Consequently, a priori and a posteriori knowledge are both existent uniquely within Taekwondo. We concluded a Kantian approach to Taekwondo pedagogy can provide a guided course of study for all Taekwondo programs, since the different levels can correspond with different learning objectives (e.g., self-defense, sport, and exercise programs). Although several reasons for adopting this pedagogical model exist, the two most critical for Taekwondo's continued growth and development are as follows. This pedagogical model withstands academic scrutiny better than previous theories, because it avoids the problems incurred by the ontological-based Taekwondo philosophies and pedagogies. More practically, this model is easily incorporated into all Taekwondo programs regardless of their educational objectives.

9An Invasion-Biological Perspective of Taekwondo Globalization

저자 : Hyeong Seok Song

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 21-22 (2 pages)

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Researchers have long been interested in the reasons why Taekwondo was globalized successfully. The efforts of masters in the foreign lands, the role of organizations, the support of the Korean government, and Taekwondo's sportization have all been suggested as reasons. These explanations are convincing but not enough to define the reasons because of their lack of discussion about the characteristics of Taekwondo itself. This study focused on identifying the characteristics of Taekwondo as a cultural phenomenon which have aided in the sport's globalization. The purpose of this study was thus to identify the reasons of the successful globalization of Taekwondo from a invasion-biological perspective. Invasion biology was chosen as the theoretical resource. Successful invasive organisms have two characteristics: absence of natural enemies and a genetic factor with various information. These biological traits can be interpreted as cultural features of uniqueness and requisite diversity. Taekwondo is a unique cultural phenomenon with exceptionally dynamic skills and a rich cultural diversity that can cope with environmental changes flexibly. Firstly, Taekwondo skills are fast and dynamic. The dynamics expressed in Taekwondo sparring are promoted through the demonstration and competitions, including poomsae competitions. In addition, Taekwondo has the requisite diversity to meet demands from various environments. One of the main reasons why Taekwondo has the requisite diversity is its weak tradition. The cultural phenomenon which has a strong tradition is closed to its environment, but the cultural phenomenon which has a weak tradition is opened. The expression “open to the environment” means to absorb the heterogeneous elements into oneself. Through such the inclusive process, Taekwondo has the requisite diversity. The uniqueness of skills and the requisite diversity are an agent of Taekwondo's successful globalization.

10Taekwondo: Fact or Fiction?

저자 : Allan Back

발행기관 : 국제태권도학회 간행물 : International Symposium for Taekwondo Studies 2017권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 23-24 (2 pages)

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Many doctrines in the martial arts are historically false, such as the superhuman prowess of the founders and masters of a martial art, and, more to the point here, the formation of Taekwondo. Yet, although I do largely reject the truth of many claims made in these teachings, based upon the available historical evidence, at the same time I do not want to disparage these doctrines. Rather, I want to treat them as myths. Myths serve important functions in the martial arts as in other areas of our lives. They provide us motivation, ideals to strive for, an orientation into a tradition. I shall discuss some of these functions. When it comes to pedagogy, again the issue of how factual the material to be presented should be arises. Strictly speaking, from the perspective of the current field of knowledge in question, a lot of the claims made in textbooks are just false. Simplified theory is presented as fact; many controversies in the field are just ignored; the science is outmoded. This happens by necessity: a beginner cannot absorb the full field. Furthermore, education has more functions than the inculcation of technical skill. As pedagogy includes socialization into cultural traditions as well, again myth will have its functions there too. The same is true for teaching Taekwondo. In conclusion, I shall focus on how much truth and reality we should insist upon in teaching and in our understanding of myth. Certain Asian cultures seem comfortable with more realism than Western ones. I conclude that the discrepancy is based on differing aesthetic standards: the Western demanding completion and perfection of the artifact; the Asian admiring artifacts with imperfections and incompleteness. I opt for the realism of the latter.

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