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수록정보
수록범위 : 1권0호(2001)~28권0호(2017) |수록논문 수 : 324
Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture
28권0호(2017년 08월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1尊嚴的兩面 -孟子與東亞外勞

저자 : 김명석 ( Kim Myeong-seok )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 1-25 (25 pages)

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對今日東亞外勞面臨的人權問題, 儒學傳統――特別是孔子和孟子――有何提示? 人權觀念能否適用於東亞儒家文化仍是學界爭議不休的課題。不過, 我認同一些儒家自由主義者的說法, 認爲各類傳統的人權觀雖有不同形式, 却有一個共同的核心觀點:對人性尊嚴的尊重。本文主張, 《孟子》一書中的“良貴”觀包含應分(desert)的觀念, 幷深入探討這觀念如何深化當今人權問題的儒家論述。Daniel Bell 和Nicola Piper 敎授不久前辯稱, 香港和新加坡最好不讓外勞獲得公民的權益或身分。然而, 這主張似乎假設一個未經證實的論點:在東亞儒家文化裡, 家庭關係的愛與關懷之情比雇主與員工之間的彼此尊重更爲重要。我不認同這一點, 强調在家庭關係以外仍需尊重人性尊嚴, 幷指出孟子在這方面的論述有所缺限。我將探討孟子尊嚴觀的?一層面相。這一層面相可以支持對東亞外勞的不平等待遇。


Daniel A. Bell and Nicola Piper have argued that the foreign domestic workers in Hong Kong and Singapore had better not be given equal rights or full citizenship, partly based on the claim that the affective ties analogous to familial love and caring are a more important value than mutual respect between the employer and the employee in the Confucian culture of East Asia. I dispute this claim by providing Confucian arguments emphasizing the importance of respecting other people`s dignity in the context of non-familial relationships, while at the same time pointing out the limitations of the Confucian discourse on this matter by discussing the other, less bright dimensions of the Mencian conception of human dignity and respect that could actually be used to support the unequal treatment of migrant workers in East Asia.

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2解密“太極圖” 的一個方法

저자 : 김학재 ( Kim Hak Ze )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 27-46 (20 pages)

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本文旨在通過對周敦?(1017-1073)的《太極圖說》中圖像本身的結構進行硏究, 而確定以“太極圖”的特點作爲形而上學(存有論)的宇宙論, 而不是眞正一個生成論的 宇宙論(“宇宙發生論”)幷槪述一些衍生的問題。爲確定以“太極圖”的特點作爲形而上 學的宇宙論, 本文顯示, “ 太極圖” 的流程結構具有“ 垂直對稱(verticalsymmetry)”和“同構重複(isomorphicrepetition)”的特徵。這中業已暗涵周敦?的圖像學顯具一種形而上學的特徵。 朱熹(1130-1200)也似乎把“太極圖”解釋爲反映宇宙的形而上學結構的圖像, 而不是模倣宇宙生長的圖像。本文以朝鮮李滉(1502-1571)和鄭之雲(1509-1561)的《天命新圖》作爲支持我們對周敦?·朱熹的“太極圖”理解的最佳例子之一。 總之, 本文提出, 周敦?的“太極圖”和朱熹的形而上學解釋起到新儒家思想後期展開的啓動作用。


This paper aims to define the characteristics of Zhou Dunyi`s (1017-1073) “Taijitu” (Diagram of the Great Ultimate) as a metaphysical cosmology rather than a cosmogony through an examination of the constitution of the Diagram itself, and to overview some derivative problems. It shall be shown that the flowchart of the Diagram has the structure of vertical symmetry and isomorphic repetition, which indicates that Zhou Dunyi`s iconology was originally intended as a sort of metaphysics. Zhu Xi also seems to interpret the Diagram as the metaphysical structure of the cosmos rather than a mimetic diagram of the real cosmic generation. This paper regards Yi Hwang (1501-1570) and Jeong Ji-un`s (1501-1561) “Cheonmyeong sindo” (New Diagram of the Heavenly Mandate) as one of the best examples to support the following interpretation of Zhou`s and Zhu`s ideas on the “Taijitu.” In conclusion, this paper will suggest that Zhou`s Taijitu shuo and Zhu Xi`s metaphysical interpretation of it initiated the later unfolding of Neo-Confucianism.

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3朱熹哲學中之心的本體與自我不朽―― 關於鬼神魂魄理論

저자 : 김우형 ( Kim Woo-hyung )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 47-66 (20 pages)

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這篇文章旨在, 處理朱熹哲學鬼神魂魄觀念所涉及的心的本體與自我不朽的問題。朱熹將鬼神理解爲陰陽二氣的功能和自然造化現象, 而將魂魄――?相當於人的鬼神――則理解爲心之物質(氣的)形態。 魂魄是鬼神最爲旺盛的狀態, 也具認知功能。然而, ?又如同以氣組成的事物相類, 根据氣的聚集和分散, 心之物質性顯現也有出生與死亡。 與此相反, 心的本體是永?的理(性), 不能被描述爲聚集和分散。 朱熹通過一個本體觀念, 幷從宇宙論的基礎上, 重新構成理氣二元論, 依此堅持認爲, 自我作爲心的本體是不朽的。 由此可知, 朱熹的建議是從以宇宙論爲中心的立場去探索自我。朱熹?緊祖先的祭祀儀式而重構理氣論, 進而主張祖先的魂魄能勾在宇宙原理(理)的基礎上重新出現。由於宇宙原理包含有關祖先的所有信息與歷史, 所以理能勾在子孫的心中重現祖先的一切。 朱熹對不朽自我的見解, 可視之爲具創意的觀點。


In this article, I discuss the conceptions of the substance of the mind (xin) and the immortality of the self in relation to the guishen-hunpo theory in Zhu Xi`s philosophy. Zhu Xi interprets guishen as the two functions of qi and intelligible natural phenomena. He also explains that hunpo, or human guishen, is the material substance of the mind. Hunpo is the most flourishing state of guishen and performs the cognitive function. However, in the same way as things composed of qi, the mind also experiences birth and death depending on the gathering and scattering of qi. In contrast, the original substance of the mind is equivalent to eternal li (xing) which cannot gather or scatter. Reconstructing the concept of the original substance (benti) on the foundation of cosmological li-qi dualism, Zhu Xi insists that the original self is immortal as it is the original substance of the mind. Zhu Xi recommends cultivating the self from the universe-centered perspective grounded on this understanding. Justifying sacrificial rites for ancestors in his theory of li-qi, Zhu Xi claims that their hunpo can reappear in their descendants` minds based on the cosmological principle (li); since the cosmological principle contains all the information and history of the ancestors, it can reproduce everything regarding those ancestors. Zhu Xi`s view of the immortal self deserves to be evaluated as a creative thought.

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4論朱熹《中庸章句》 對中性槪念的解釋

저자 : 소모인 ( Joep Smorenburg )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 67-85 (19 pages)

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“中”被視爲《中庸》最核心的槪念, 在朱熹心理學與道德思想中, 有著關鍵性地位。“中”在《中庸》開頭以“中和”、“時中”的形式出現, 是這兩個槪念的核心部分。盡管“中和”與“時中”在朱熹的心理學思想中有著明顯不同的作用, 現今英語學界對朱熹所著的《中庸章句》的解讀中却沒有對二者之間的關係進行細緻的分析, 進而妨碍了對“中”槪念的了解。本文旨在解決此問題, 首先闡明“時中”的意義, 指出朱熹思想裏的“時中”最基本的特征是情境性, 指向人際關係中的具體行爲。其次論證朱熹將“中和”視爲心理學的基本因素, 指向人際關係中的抽象槪念。盡管“中和”與“時中”有密切的關係, 朱熹在闡釋這兩個槪念時所使用的理論和視角是截然不同的。


Considered to be one of the most central concepts within the Zhongyong 中庸, the notion of the “Mean” or “centrality” (zhong 中) occupies a key position within Zhu Xi`s psychological and ethical thought. The term occurs several times in the opening lines of the work, presented alternately as part of the semantic compounds zhonghe 中和 and shizhong 時中. Despite the distinct differences between the two instances of zhong as they functioned within Zhu Xi`s reading of the text, recent approaches have failed to provide a complete account of their relation, thereby hindering a full understanding of the role of centrality within Zhu Xi`s psychological thought. It is the aim of the current paper to elaborate upon and address this issue. In the first section, I examine Zhu Xi`s reading of the phrase shizhong, providing evidence to support Daniel Gardner`s recent suggestion that Zhu interpreted this instance of zhong as an explicitly situational balancing of one`s emotional state. In the second section, I address the relationship between zhong and he, demonstrating that Zhu instead framed this instance of zhong as a primarily hypothetical ideal informed by one`s inborn nature (xing 性), existing only prior to actual concrete practice. In the third section, I argue that Zhu Xi maintained a strong thematic and perspectival boundary between the two instances of zhong, in contrast with recent interpretations of the term. While zhonghe was adopted to describe the hypothetical initial state or “substance” (ti 體) of one`s psychology in an abstract ontological sense, shizhong reflected its application or “function” (yong 用) within the concrete social world.

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5科業與修身――從《小學》 東傳看朝鮮時期儒家知識的重構、 擴散及內化

저자 : 노명동 ( Lo Ming-tung )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 87-111 (25 pages)

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《小學》東傳朝鮮半島, 開啓了儒家知識?架重構的契機。 據此, 朝鮮士人重新評?“四書五經”的價値, 及其與《小學》和宋儒性理學等新興知識的同時, 亦創發了具有朝鮮本土特色的學習規模, 展開了儒家本土化的進程。在這個新舊知識的交融調和過程之中, 朝鮮中央政府嘗試通過成均館“學令”的修訂和“錄名”制度的確立, 向朝鮮士人闡揚《小學》的重要性, 期望拓寬?的普及程度;?一方面, 在鄕校和書院的學習規範內, 朝鮮士人倡言《小學》應該用在立志修身之上, 不得專爲科場服務。從《小學》在朝鮮境內擴散的現實狀況中, 我們考察到朝鮮士人所扮演的關鍵角色, 特別在慶尙道和全羅道一帶, 尤其顯著, 他們立足在朝鮮民族性格和自身文化的特徵上, 主導儒家文化的傳承和發展, 對來自華夏的文化開展無限的探索旅程。


The introduction of Zhu Xi`s 朱熹 Xiaoxue 小學 (Little Learning) opened up opportunities for reconstruction of the Confucian knowledge framework in Joseon. Scholars reviewed the role of the Four Books and Five Classics while imbibing from Neo-Confucian philosophy. A localized Confucian knowledge system started to take shape. On the one hand, the Joseon court implemented the hangnyeong (code of conduct) and “Nongmyeong” systems, promoting the status of the Xiaoxue. On the other hand, county schools and regional institutions in areas such as Jeolla-do and Gyeongsang-do stressed the significance of the book for self-cultivation, rather than competition for officialdom, reflecting the Joseon scholars` initiative in a locally-oriented elaboration of Confucianism.

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6海月崔時亨的世界認識與自任意識

저자 : 전성건 ( Jeon Sungkun )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 113-125 (13 pages)

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本論文的目的是探討東學第二敎主海月崔時亨的“世界認識”與“自任意識”。如果說水雲崔濟愚是創導東學的第一敎主, 也是主張“天主(한울hanul)的時代到來”的東學宣揚者; 那?海月則是解釋幷實踐水雲思想的活動者。海月將水雲倡導的宗敎運動擴展爲社會運動, 幷重新解釋“靈符呪文”與“守心正氣”的槪念。他還認爲包括人類在內的天地萬物都處於互相斗爭、互相爭奪的狀態, 世界也處於不安的狀態下。海月認爲這是因爲不了解所有宇宙存有是天道的表現, 卽不了解天主本身的表現而引起的。海月的思想是通過修道, 體會個體本質和宇宙生命的合一, 他還希望將所有宇宙存在變成受崇敬的對象。海月的“敬物”思想之所以至今還有頗大的意義, 也許是因爲海月診斷出的由爭奪引起的不安世界還沒結束。


This paper discusses the role of Choe Si-hyeong who is the second leader of the Eastern Learning and his recognition of the world. The Eastern Learning was established by the first leader Choe Je-u and further developed by Choe Si-hyeong. We could call Choe Si-hyeong a labor agitator and religious reformer from a present viewpoint. He diagnosed the 19th century as a world of insecurity which needed a new prescription: the teachings of the Eastern Learning. One of the teachings is serving the Lord of Heaven that is present in all existence in the universe, including inanimated matter which contained numinous spiritual qualities bestowed from on high. Therefore, human-beings have to be respectful to every existence. In order to maintain this attitude, we should first be aware that all things in the universe express the Lord of Heaven. Second, we must control our mind and reveal morality which is not heteronomous but autonomous. Finally, we should ventilate our spirit to the fullest. Choe Si-hyeong`s indomitable will spread the spirit of the Eastern Learning until the end of his life.

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7《論語》 與漢唐司法的儒家化

저자 : 당명귀 ( Tang Ming-gui )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 127-145 (19 pages)

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《論語》是記錄孔子及其弟子思想的重要經典, 在漢唐時期, 受引儒入法 思潮的影響, 《論語》中的“德主刑輔”思想成爲司法文化的精髓, “正名”思想 成爲司法制度的基本原則, “親親相隱”成爲司法實踐的指導原則。這不僅促進了儒家思想的法律化, 而且也增加了司法制度的人倫色彩, 對於中國傳統法律乃至於整個民族文化産生了不可低?的影響。


The Analects is an important classic which records the thoughts of Confucius and his disciples. During the Han and Tang dynasties, influenced by the ideological trend of instilling confucianism into laws, the idea of “morality-guiding and penalty-supplementing” in the Analects was regarded as the quintessence of judicial culture, along with “rectification of names” as the fundamental principle of the judicial system, and “mutual concealment between relatives” as the guiding principle of judicial practice. This not only promoted the legalization of confucianism, but also added ethical characteristics to the judicial system, which has exerted a profound influence on Chinese traditional laws and even the entire national culture.

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8論王廷相對張載“太虛卽氣” 的承繼與轉型

저자 : 임언정 ( Lin Yen-ting )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 147-163 (17 pages)

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“太虛卽氣”是張載思想體系中的核心命題, 該命題一方面承繼自漢代以來所流行的氣化宇宙圖式, ?一方面由於受到佛學的影響, 使中國的氣論思想得到更進一步的提升, 從宇宙生成的實然層面躍至對形上本體的討論, 這種思想的昇華與轉變開啓了宋明理學後續的發展, 幷爲其發展立下重要的里程碑。王廷相作爲明代後期的哲學家, 對於張載之說持有高度肯定, 如以下提到:“橫渠此論闡造化之密, 明人性之源, 開示後學之功大矣。”1由於同爲主張氣一元論者, 因此許多後世學者將王廷相視爲張載與王船山之間的中流砥柱, 但是否因此能說二者的思想全然相通?抑或僅是部分相似?本文以“太虛卽氣”爲題, 卽在於探討二者的思想聯繫, 爲了說明這一點, 必須部分結合朱熹理氣之說的看法, 以便於進行比較, 在硏究進路上, 本文將會分成以下三個部分進行說明:(一)張載的“太虛卽氣”――宇宙論與本體論之雙重幷建;(二)王廷相對張載“太虛卽氣”之說的詮解;(三)參考前輩學者們的硏究成果與檢視方法, 說明王廷相與張載學說形態的同異之處。


“The great void being the same as material force” is an important proposition in Zhang Zai`s ideological system. This proposition is not only associated with the cosmos theory of qi in the Han dynasty, but also influenced by the ontology of Buddhism. This proposition encouraged the development of Neo-Confucianism toward a metaphysical framework. As one of the key philosophers in the mid-Ming dynasty, Wang Tingxiang deemed highly of Zhang Zai`s contribution to the development of Neo-Confucianism; he claimed that Zhang Zai had a great contribution to later generations by revealing the secrets of nature and probing the mystery of life. Zhang Zai and Wang Tingxiang both agreed that qi or material force is the cause of the universe. For this reason, most scholars believe that Wang Tingxiang is a successor of Zhang Zai; however, beyond this superficial similarity, we need to carefully analyze their difference and resemblance. This paper aims to explore the thought of Zhang Zai and Wang Tingxiang, focusing on their interpretation of “the great void being the same as material force.”

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9傳統孝行成爲負擔的理由――《世宗實錄》 中出現的孝行特點和問題

저자 : 김덕균 ( Kim Dukkyun )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 165-187 (23 pages)

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孝行是人類固有的一種道德價値。任何動物都具有一個共同點, 那就是本能的去愛護自己的子女。但是把得到的愛再報答回去的特徵只有人類才具有。從孝行中可以發現人類和禽獸的不同點。百行的根本是日常的孝行, 這是任何人都應該要做, 也是任何人都能勾做到的日常型孝行, 所以孝行慢慢轉變成了要求時間、經濟奉獻和犧牲的守墓型孝行。孝行成爲了大家都?難做到的特別的事情。加之, 隨著擧薦孝行者給予奬賞的制度越來越盛行, 官吏們需要?到一些客觀的孝行依據, 與那些在日常生活中不容易被發現的孝行相比, 他們?到了大家都能看到的被確定、被公開的孝行事例。結果, 花費大量時間、經費和努力的守墓型孝行就被大量的擧薦, 可以說孝行賞制度反而成爲了守墓型孝行增加的原因。本文將通過整理《世宗實錄》的內容來硏究孝悌的特點和問題, 以及這些問題是?樣被暴露出來的。


Filial piety, which is a unique ethical behavior of human beings, is a fundamental responsibility of children to their parents. Most animals take care of their offspring, but only humans return the love to their parents. The responsibilities of filial piety mainly consisted in taking care of one`s living parents. During King Sejong`s 世宗 reign, however, the focus of filial piety was shifted to emphasizing rites and individual worship for their late parents such as three-year mourning. In other words, filial piety became a religious act. Even the government and/or social organizations encouraged this religious conduct by awarding filial children. These organizations tended to find more extreme cases of filial piety, causing overacting like a prolonged period of mourning lasting four to five years, instead of the typical three-year period during King Sejong`s reign. In this way, filial piety required more time and energy making it an extremely difficult and special behavior. As a result, filial piety became a burden to ordinary people in the time of King Sejong.

KCI등재

10論荀子的禮和法後王――以“禮義統類” 槪念分析

저자 : 장현근 ( Chang Hyun Guen )

발행기관 : 성균관대학교 유교문화연구소 간행물 : Journal of Confucian Philosophy and Culture 28권 0호 발행 연도 : 2017 페이지 : pp. 189-205 (17 pages)

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荀子的全部思想, 一言以蔽之曰:“禮”。“禮”在荀子政治思想中, 不僅是他理念構思的中核, 且爲他制度設計的立足點、歸結點。我們從荀子隆禮義、重知識的“禮義統類”槪念而論, 就可知荀子的“後王”觀念本身具有其獨立的特別的意義存在。荀子致力主張外在的社會規範;他强調“徵於人”, 所以主張人性本惡;又重視“節於今”, 所以主張效法後王。荀子重客觀現實, 他所要“法”的是可據可證的先王之道, 由於歷時久遠, 所傳不詳, 所以不能勾效法。所能取法的是後王因制革損益而創發的“禮憲”。這是荀子法後王的時間上的理由。荀子的統類說, 便是爲發現禮義發展中的共理來提供的。“欲知上世, 則審周道”, “以近知遠, 以一知萬”的說法, 都是按此理由來說法後王的。荀子法後王就是法周, 要效法的就是周道、周制、周文、周禮。荀子所說法後王, 包含有周代典章制度意義。時間上的“禮憲”及空間上的“禮義統類”都和周公有關, 荀子所指的後王幷不是文武, 也不是當代君主, 而是周公。


Xunzi`s 荀子 all ideas can be synthesized into a single word, “ritual” (li 禮). Through Xunzi`s concept of “a consistent principle of ritual” (liyi tonglei 禮義統類), which reveres ritual and emphasizes knowledge, we can find the concept of “the Later King” (hou wang 後王) to have independent, special meaning. Xunzi insisted on external social norms all the way. By emphasizing “verification through people`s lives, ” he asserted that human nature is essentially evil; by focusing on “understanding based on the present, ” he asserted following the Later King. What Xunzi, who puts stress on objectivity and reality, tried “to follow” (fa 法) was the way of the Earlier Kings (xian wang 先王). However, he could not follow the way as it was because it was too old and had not been transmitted in detail. Only “the constitution of ritual” (lixian 禮憲) can be followed after the Later King`s institutional reform. This is the temporal reason that Xunzi asserted following the Later King. Xunzi`s “consistent principle of ritual” was to find common principles out of ritual`s development process. The opinions such as “See the far things through the close; see ten thousand things through one thing” were the bases to explain the concept of “following the Later King”, in other words, “following Zhou 周.” Zhou`s way, institution, culture, and ritual should be followed. The temporal and spatial concepts of “the constitution of ritual” and “a consistent principle of ritual” were all relevant to Duke of Zhou. The Later King who Xunzi referred to was not King Wen, nor King Wu, nor the lord of those days, but Zhougong.

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