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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) update

  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 공학분야  >  토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 목재공업(~1979)→목재공학(1980~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1973)~48권4호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 2,446
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)
48권4호(2020년 07월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and Scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 2-2 (1 pages)

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4종의 판상형 목재제품의 방염제 도포량과 침지시간에 따른 방염성능을 분석하기 위하여 소방청의 방염성능기준에 따라 목재제품의 탄화길이와 탄화면적을 측정하였다. 잣나무 합판, 낙엽송 합판, 편백 판재, 타공처리된 자작나무 합판에 자체개발된 방염제를 각각 300, 500 g/m2씩 도포하고 방염처리되지 않은 시험편과 비교하였다. 일반적으로 방염제의 도포량이 증가함에 따라 탄화길이와 탄화면적이 감소하여 방염성능이 증가하는 경향을 나타냈으나, 낙엽송 합판을 제외하고 탄화길이와 탄화면적의 감소량이 크지 않았다. 타공처리된 자작나무 합판의 침지시간에 따른 방염성능은 60분의 침지시간까지 양의 상관관계를 나타냈으나, 그 이후 점차 완만해지는 경향을 보였다. 방염제의 도포량과 침지시간에 따른 목재제품의 방염성능은 추후 방염성능 기준에 맞는 불연·준불연 목재의 생산을 위한 기초자료로 이용될 것으로 기대된다.


The flame retardancy, such as carbonized length and area, of four plank type wood products by the spreading concentration and impregnation time of flame retardant were measured according to standard of the Nation Fire Agency in Republic of Korea. To measure the flame retardancy, Korean pine plywood, Japanese larch plywood, Japanese cypress planks, and perforated birch plywood boards were treated with self-development flame retardant by 300 and 500 g/m2 spreading concentration and those were compared with control specimen. In general, the flame retardant performance of wood products improved as the spreading concentration of flame retardant increased. Except for Japanese larch plywood, there was no significant difference in the flame retardant performance by the spreading concentration. The flame retardant performance of perforated birch plywood board was positively correlated up to 60 minutes of impregnation time, but then gradually decreased. These results about the flame retardancy of wood products by spreading concentration and impregnation time were expected to be basic data for improving flame-retardant treated wood.

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기존 연질 구조의 하이드로겔은 낮은 기계적 강도로 인하여 생의학 분야에서 응용이 제한된다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 단점을 극복하기 위해서 폴리비닐알코올(PVA: poly(vinyl alcohol))기반 하이드로겔에 셀룰로오스 나노크리스탈(CNCs)을 첨가하여 CNCs가 기계적 특성 및 약물전달 효율에 미치는 영향을 확인하였다. 제조된 하이드로겔은 FT-IR 분석으로 아세탈 및 알데히드 결합으로 가교결합된 망상구조(semi-IPN: semi-interpenetrating polymer network)로 합성된 것이 확인되었다. CNCs 함량이 증가될수록 수분 흡수 및 팽윤도가 감소했으며, 점탄성은 증가하였다. 또한 CNCs의 첨가는 약물 로딩량의 증가와 약물 방출량의 지속성을 향상시켰다. 이러한 결과는 CNCs를 하이드로겔에 첨가하는 것이 하이드로겔의 약물전달 효율성 및 기계적 특성을 개선시키는 좋은 대안이 될 수 있음을 보여주었다.


Structural property of most hydrogels is soft, resulting in low mechanical performance that limits their usage in the biomedical applications. For overcoming the drawback, cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were adopted in this study. Effects of CNCs on characteristics and drug delivery performance of poly (vinyl alcohol) based hydrogels were explored. FT-IR results showed that the fabricated hydrogels had semi-IPN (semi-interpenetrating polymer network) by formation of acetal and aldehyde bridge. Water absorption and swelling ratio decreased with increasing CNCs content, and the hydrogels with CNCs showed better viscoelastic performance than the without CNCs. Also, CNCs mostly improved the ability of the hydrogel to absorb the drug and the sustainability of the drug release. These results demonstrated that incorporating CNCs into the hydrogel systems can be a good alternative to improve drug delivery performance and mechanical property of the hydrogels.

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5Study on the Estimation of Proper Compression Ratios for Korean Domestic Wood Species by Single Pellet Press

저자 : Hyoung-woo Lee , Soon-bae Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 450-457 (8 pages)

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Single pellet press technology allows for fast, low-cost, and small-scale tests to investigate pelletizing characteristics. We estimated proper compression ratios for five Korean domestic wood species through predicted relationships between pelletizing pressure Px and compression ratio based on experimental data obtained from a single pellet press unit. The pressures required to obtain a 6-mm-diam pellet of density 1200 kg/m3 were estimated as 111 MPa for Populus davidiana, 133 MPa for Robinia pseudoacacia, 136 MPa for Quercus mongolica, 97 MPa for Pinus densiflora, and 127 MPa for Pinus rigida. On the basis of these pressures, we estimated proper compression ratios to be within the range 7.676-8.410 for these species, and we found the compression ratios needed for hardwood species to be somewhat higher than those needed for softwood species to obtain the pellet density of 1200 kg/m3.

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6Specific Gravity and Dimensional Stability of Boron-Densified Wood on Three Lesser-Used Species from Indonesia

저자 : Sarah Augustina , Imam Wahyudi , I Wayan Darmawan , Jamaludin Malik , Efrida Basri , Yoichi Kojima

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 458-471 (14 pages)

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Effect of pre-treatment and compression ratio on specific gravity (SG) and dimensional stability improvement of three lesser-used wood species from natural forest area of North Kalimantan Province, Indonesia had been investigated. Hot soaking at 80 ℃ for 3 hours within 2 and 5% of boron solution was applied as pre-treatment, while compression ratio applied was 20 and 40% from the initial thickness. Densification was conducted using hot pressing machine at 30 kg/cm2 of pressure and 160 ℃ of temperature for 15 minutes. Specific gravity was measured gravimetrically, while dimensional stability was evaluated through thickness swelling and water absorption as the indicator. Results show that SG of densified wood was influenced by wood species and compression ratio, but not by pre-treatment applied; while dimensional stability was influenced by wood species, compression ratio, and pre-treatment. Specific gravity and water absorption of densified wood was improved significantly. Specific gravity increased 28.86-63.03%, while water absorption decreased 12.80-15.89%. Thickness swelling of 20% densified wood was lower than that of 40% densified wood.

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급격한 산업화로 인한 이상기후의 발생으로 매년 수질관리 중요성과 관리비용이 증대되고 있는 실정이다. 이에 국내의 경우 수질오염의 주요 원인물질인 총인, 총질소의 관리를 위해 하수처리장에서 응집제를 투입하여 유기물질을 처리하고 있다. 그러나 PAC(Poly Aluminium Chloride)의 경우 응집제 과다 주입 시 2차 오염문제가 발생될 수 있다. 이에 국내에서는 천연재료를 혼합한 응집제를 이용한 응집제의 적용성에 관한 연구가 진행되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 하수처리장의 1차 침전지 유출수를 대상으로 PAC와 반탄화목분의 최적 혼합비율을 도출하기 위해 수질 오염물질인 T-P, T-N 및 탁도를 분석하여 개발한 혼합응집제의 적용성 평가를 하고자 한다. PAC(10%)와 반탄화목분 함유량이 1%가 되는 조건에서 T-P의 경우 최대 92%의 제거효율이 나타났으며, T-N의 경우 약 22%의 제거효율이 나타났다. 이는 혼합응집제와 동일한 양전하성 유기물질이 다수 포함된 T-N의 제거가 잘 이루어지지 않은 것으로 판단된다. 탁도는 약 91%의 제거효율이 나타났다. 이에 반탄화목분 1%가 최적 첨가량이라고 판단하였으며, PAC 농도를 저감하여 유기물질 제거효율을 분석한 결과, PAC 농도 7%에서 T-P의 경우 최대 91%의 높은 제거효율이 나타났으며, T-N의 경우 32%의 제거효율이 나타났다. 탁도의 경우 최대 90%의 제거효율이 나타났다. 또한, PAC(10%)와 응집성능 비교실험을 수행하여 본 연구에서 제조한 반탄화목분 1% 함유량 기준에서 혼합응집제를 이용하여 응집공정을 수행할 경우 PAC 농도를 30-50%로 저감할 수 있으며, 시판 응집제와 유사한 성능을 확보할 수 있을 뿐만 아니라 PAC 주입량이 저감되어 경제적 효과를 확보하고, 2차 오염 문제를 저감하는 안정적인 수처리를 수행할 수 있을 것이라고 사료된다.


With the emergence of abnormal climate due to the rapid industrialization, the importance of water quality management and management costs are increasing every year. In Korea, for the management of total phosphorus and total nitrogen, the major materials causing the water quality pollution, coagulants are injected in sewage treatment plants to process organic compounds. However, if the coagulant is injected in an excessive amount to PAC (Poly Aluminium Chloride), a secondary pollution problem might occur. As such, a study on the applicability of natural material-based coagulant is being conducted in Korea. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the applicability of a mixed coagulant developed by analyzing water quality pollutants T-P, T-N as well as their turbidity, in order to derive the optimum mixing ratio between PAC and torrefied wood flour for the primary settling pond effluent. Under the condition where the content of PAC (10%) and torrefied wood flour is 1%, T-P showed the maximum removal efficiency of 92%, and T-N showed approximately 22%. This indicates that removal of T-N which includes numerous positively charged organic compounds that are equivalent to mixed coagulant is not well accomplished. Turbidity showed the removal efficiency of approximately 91%. As such, 1% of torrefied wood flour was determined to be the optimum addition. As a result of analyzing the removal efficiency for organic compounds by reducing PAC concentration to 7%, T-P showed a high maximum removal efficiency of 91%, T-N showed 32%, and turbidity showed the maximum of 90%. In addition, a coagulation process is performed by using the mixed coagulant based on 1% content of torrefied wood flour produced in this study by performing a coagulation performance comparative experiment with PAC (10%). As a result, PAC concentration was reduced to 30-50%, a similar performance with other coagulants in market was secured, PAC injection amount was reduced that an economic effect can be achieved, and it is considered to perform a stable water treatment that reduces the secondary pollution problem.

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In this study, the moisture absorption and desorption properties presented by the Health-Friendly Housing Construction Standards of South Korea were compared using the wood of three tree species (Douglas-fir, Hinoki, Larch) and two types of wood-based materials(Plywood, WML Board). The national standards for functional building materials present that the amounts of moisture absorption and desorption should be at least 65g/㎡ on average, respectively according to the test method under KS F 2611:2009. Therefore, in this study, the moisture absorption/desorption properties of materials with no treatment (Control), with punching, and with surface stain finishing and the moisture absorption/desorption property improvement effects of the treatments were compared and analyzed. According to the results of this study, it was evaluated that all five types of wood and wood-based materials tested did not satisfy the amount of moisture absorption/desorption of at least 65g/㎡, which is the performance standard for moisture absorption/desorption functional building materials, indicating that untreated wood and wood-based materials cannot be applied as functional finishing materials according to the Health-Friendly Housing Construction Standards. The surface stain finishing greatly reduced the moisture absorption and desorption rates of the materials, and the amounts of moisture absorbed and desorbed were also shown to decrease by at least two times on average. When the surfaces of the materials were punched with ∅4mm holes at intervals of 20 mm, the moisture absorption/desorption areas increased from 18% to 51%, and this increase was shown to be capable of increasing the amounts of moisture absorbed/desorbed by 29% on average at the minimum, and 81% on average at the maximum. The effects of punching were shown to be identical even in cases where the materials were stain finished. For the application of wood or wood-based materials as eco-friendly, health-friendly, and moisture absorption/desorption functional building materials hereafter, it is judged that new physical and chemical improvement studies should be conducted, and treatment methods should be developed.

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9Quality Comparison of Activated Carbon Produced From Oil Palm Fronds by Chemical Activation Using Sodium Carbonate versus Sodium Chloride

저자 : Seri Maulina , Gewa Handika , Irvan , Apri Heri Iswanto

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 503-512 (10 pages)

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Using Na2CO3 versus NaCl as chemical activator, we compared the quality of activated carbon produced from oil palm fronds as raw material. These activators were selected for comparison because both are readily available and are environmentally friendly. In the manufacturing, we used Indonesian National Standard (SNI 06-3730-1995) parameters. For the quality comparison, we determined activated-carbon yield, moisture, ash, volatiles, and fixed-carbon contents; and adsorption capacity of iodine. The best characteristics, assessed by morphological surface analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis, were observed in the carbon activated by Na2CO3 at an activator concentration of 10% and carbonization temperature of 400 °C. The results were as follows: activated-carbon yield, 84%; water content, 8.80%; ash content, 2.20%; volatiles content, 14.80%; fixed-carbon content, 68.60%; and adsorption capacity of iodine, 888.51 mg/g. Identification using the FTIR spectrophotometer showed the presence of the functional groups O-H, C=O, C=C, C-C, and C-H in the Na2CO3-activated carbon.

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10The Movement of Boron Compound by Infusion Method and Combination of Injection and Bandage-Wrapping

저자 : Ratih Damayanti , Evi Sribudiani , Sonia Somadona , Djarwanto , Didi Tarmadi , Yusup Amin , Sulaeman Yusuf , Esti Rini Satiti , Wa Ode Muliastuty Arsyad , Rudianda Sulaeman , Syafrinal , Dwi Ajias Pramasari

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 4호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 513-526 (14 pages)

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The existing preservation methods are difficult to be applied to a large dimension log which is needed for making traditional wooden ship 'Jalur' in Riau Province. Novel techniques to provide the use of readily available species to replace traditional species alternative were investigated. These included infusion and a combination of injection and bandage-wrapping methods for preserving living trees of Balam (Macaranga conifera (Rchb.f. & Zoll.) Müll.Arg.) and Bintangor (Calophyllum soulattri Burm.f.). Water-based boron compounds were applied as wood preservatives. In total, 18 discs from the bottom, middle, and top of four trees and two controls were used. Trees undergoing treatment were also used to see how wood anatomical structure might affect the boron penetration. The overall aim was to identify the best method for use in Jalur manufacturing. The results showed that in infused Balam tree where the hose position for the preservative intake was deep (10-15 cm from the bark), no boron compound was observed in the outer sapwood. Combination of injection and bandage-wrapping method gave higher percentage of boron penetration at bottom and middle of Balam tree. However, infused Bintangor showed 100% boron penetration. The larger vessel diameter, the absence of tyloses, and the simple perforation plates in Bintangor wood were likely to have contributed to the higher penetration of boron. The combination of bandage-wrapping and infusion, or alternatively by infusing the living trees close to the bark, and at as low as position in the stem gives better protection when treatments are applied to living trees.

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