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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) update

  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 공학분야  >  토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 목재공업(~1979)→목재공학(1980~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1973)~48권3호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 2,429
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)
48권3호(2020년 05월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 2-2 (1 pages)

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하수처리장은 도시를 구성하는 사회기반시설물로 2017년 하수도 통계 기준 국내 하수도 보급률은 94%에 달하고 있다. 국내 하수처리장에서 PAC(Poly Aluminum Chloride)의 사용량이 58%를 차지하고 있으나 PAC의 경우 품질기준상 불순물(중금속) 함량이 높음에도 불구하고, 기준 강화나 기술적 품질개선이 제대로 이루어지지 않아 응집제 과다 주입 시 2차 오염문제가 대두되고 있다. 또한, 약품사용량이 증가함에 따라 2017년 기준 연간 하수슬러지 발생량과 슬러지 재이용의 필요성 또한 증대되고 있다. 이에 본 연구에서는 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제를 이용한 수처리 시 혼합응집제 주입에 따른 중금속류에 대한 안정성을 평가하고, 하수슬러지의 침강성 및 하수슬러지 발열량 평가를 통해 슬러지 재이용의 가능성을 검증하고자 한다. 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제와 PAC(10%)의 중금속류(Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Pb, Ni) 분석 결과 Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, Hg의 경우 검출되지 않았으며, Zn의 경우 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제에서 먹는물 수질기준에서 고시한 Zn의 농도가 3mg/L인 것에 비해 0.007 mg/L로 극소량만 검출되었다. Fe, Cu, As의 경우 PAC(10%)를 주입한 경우가 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제 보다 최대 2배 이상 검출되는 것으로 나타났다. 또한, 슬러지 침강성 분석 결과 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제가 기존 응집제인 PAC(10%)에 비해 최대 2배 빠르게 침강하는 것으로 반탄화목분 혼합응집제의 침강성이 PAC(10%)보다 우수한 것으로 나타났다. 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제를 주입하여 발생된 하수슬러지의 건조기준 저위발열량은 3,378 kcal/kg이며, PAC(10%) 응집제를 주입하여 발생된 하수슬러지의 건조기준 저위발열량은 3,171 kcal/kg으로 두응집제 모두 화력발전소의 보조연료 구비조건을 만족하였으나, 본 연구에서 개발한 반탄화목분 천연재료 혼합응집제를 사용할 경우 기존의 응집제보다 200 kal/kg 정도 높은 슬러지 발열량을 확보할 수 있음을 확인하였다. 따라서, 반탄화목분 혼합응집제를 이용하여 수처리를 수행할 경우 기존의 응집제인 PAC(10%)보다 중금속류에 대해 안정적이며, 우수한 슬러지 침강성과 높은 발열량을 갖는 슬러지를 생성하여 환경적으로 안정적이며, 효율적인 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.


Sewage treatment plants are social infrastructure of cities. The sewage distribution rate in Korea is reaching 94% based on the sewage statistics based in the year of 2017. In Korean sewage treatment plants, use of PAC (Poly Aluminum Chloride) accounts for 58%. It contains a large amount of impurities (heavy metal) according to the quality standards, however, there have been insufficient efforts to reinforce the standards or technically improve the quality, which resulted in secondary pollution problems from injecting excessive coagulant. Also, the increase in the use of chemicals is leading to the increases in the annual amount of sewage sludge generated in 2017 and the need to reuse sludge. As such, this study aims to verify the possibility of reusing sludge by evaluating the stability of heavy metals based on the injection of coagulant mixture during water treatment which uses the torrefield wood powder and natural materials, and evaluating the sedimentation and heating value of sewage sludge. As a result of analyzing heavy metals (Cr, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, As, Pb, and Ni) from the coagulant mixture and PAC (10%), Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Hg were not detected. As for Zn, while its concentration notified in the quality standards for drinking water is 3 mg/L, only a small amount of 0.007 mg/L was detected in the coagulant mixture. Maximum amounts of over double amounts of Fe, Cu, and As were found with PAC (10%) compared to the coagulant mixture. Also, an analysis of sludge sedimentation found that the coagulant mixture showed a better performance of up to double the speed of the conventional coagulant, PAC (10%). The dry-basis lower heating value of sewage sludge produced by injecting the coagulant mixture was 3,378 kcal/kg, while that of sewage sludge generated due to PAC (10%) was 3,171 kcal/kg; although both coagulants met the requirements to be used as auxiliary fuel at thermal power plants, the coagulant mixture developed in this study could secure heating values 200 kal/kg higher than the counterpart. Therefore, utilization of the coagulant mixture for water treatment rather than PAC (10%) is expected to be more environmentally stable and effective, as it helps generating sludge with better stability against heavy metals, having a faster sludge sedimentation, and higher heating value.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Wood Identification of Historical Architecture in Korea by Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography-Based Three-Dimensional Microstructural Imaging

저자 : Sung-wook Hwang , Suyako Tazuru , Junji Sugiyama

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 283-290 (8 pages)

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For visual inspection-based wood identification, optical microscopy techniques typically require a relatively large sample size, and a scanning electron microscope requires a clean surface. These novel techniques experience limitations for objects with highly limited sampling capabilities such as important and registered wooden cultural properties. Synchrotron X-ray microtomography (SR-μCT) has been suggested as an effective alternative to avoid such limitations and various other imaging issues. In this study, four pieces of wood fragments from wooden members used in the Manseru pavilion of Bongjeongsa temple in Andong, Korea, wereused for identification. Three-dimensional microstructural images were reconstructed from these small wood samples using SR-μCT at SPring-8. From the analysis of the reconstructed images, the samples were identified as Zelkova serrata, Quercus sect. Cerris, and Pinus koraiensis. The images displayed sufficient spatial resolution to clearly observe the anatomical features of each species. In addition, the three-dimensional imaging allowed unlimited image processing.

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5Effects of Storage Time on Molecular Weights and Properties of Melamine-Urea-Formaldehyde Resins

저자 : Bora Jeong , Byung-dae Park , Valerio Causin

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 291-302 (12 pages)

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As the properties of the melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resins were changing during their storage time, this study investigated the impacts of the synthesis method and melamine content of the MUF resins on the pH, apparent viscosity, molecular weights, and crystallinity to estimate these properties over storage times of up to 30 days. Melaminesat three addition levels (5, 10, and 20 wt% based on the resin solids) were simultaneously reacted with urea and formaldehyde (MUF-A resins), while those at the same addition levels were first reacted with formaldehyde and then with urea(MUF-B resins). The pH values of the MUF-A and MUF-B resins decreased linearly as the storage time increased; the apparent viscosity increased linearly for the low melamine contents (5% and 10%) but increased exponentially for 20%. As anticipated, the molecular weights (Mw and Mn) increased linearly with the storage time, with a steeper increase in the Mw of the MUF-B resins compared with that of the MUF-A resins. The crystallinity of the two resin types decreased with storage time at higher melamine content. The relationships between these properties and the storage time made it possible to estimate the property changes in these resins synthesized by the different synthesis methods and melamine contents; this could help predict the properties of such resins in the industry during their storage.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6Properties of a New Adhesive Composed of Gambir-Sucrose

저자 : Tito Sucipto , Ragil Widyorini , Tibertius Agus Prayitno , Ganis Lukmandaru

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 303-314 (12 pages)

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Gambir is a non-wood forest product with a potential of being used as wood adhesive, due to about 33% catechin in it. Meanwhile, catechins and sucrose have not been studied as adhesives. Therefore, basic characteristics of gambir-sucrose adhesives were investigated. In this research, adhesives were prepared by dissolving gambir and sucrose in distilled water, at different blending ratios of the gambir/sucrose such as 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, and 25/75 wt%. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was employed to determine the gambir chemical compositions, and Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify chemical bonds. Particleboards with a target density of 0.8 g/cm3 were then manufactured by hot-pressing for 10 min at 200℃. The internal bond (IB) strength of particleboard was subsequently measured. Based on the GC-MS analysis, 31.11% of catechin was identified. In addition, the viscosity, density, solid content, and gelation time of the adhesives, and insoluble matter content (IMC) in boiling water were 7.30~33.24 mPa.s, 1.2~1.3 g/cm3, 25.56~28.44%, 73~420 min, and 29.75~62.10%, respectively. Adding sucrose to the adhesive was observed to raise the IMC from 49.05 to 62.10%, at 180℃ and 200℃. FT-IR analysis showed that the gambir absorption peaks occurred at approximately 1620 cm-1, assigned to the C=O stretching of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which tended to increase with the addition of sucrose. The reaction between gambir and sucrose was observed in the form of the dimethylene ether bridge. The 25/75 wt% gambir-sucrose adhesives and 200℃ hot-pressed temperature resulted in the highest IB strength (0.89 MPa), and met the requirement of JIS A5908-2003 type 18. Consequently, the gambir-sucrose adhesive could be used as a particleboard adhesive.

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7Dimensional Stability, Color Change, and Durability of Boron-MMA Treated Red Jabon (Antochephalus macrophyllus) Wood

저자 : Trisna Priadi , Gema Orfian , Tekat Dwi Cahyono , Apri Heri Iswanto

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 48권 3호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 315-325 (11 pages)

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Boron compound had many advantages as wood preservative, but it was prone to leaching. Improving boron preservation was required to extend the service life of fast growing and low durability red jabon (Antochephalus macrophyllus) hardwood. This study aimed to evaluate the dimensional stability, color change and durability of modified red jabon wood by double impregnation with boron and methyl methacrylate (MMA) and heat treatment. Impregnation I used boric acid or borax, and impregnation II used MMA, while heat treatment used temperatures of 90 °C or 180 °C for 4 hours. The dimensional stability, leachability, water absorption, color change and decay resistance of modified red jabon wood were tested. The results showed that MMA impregnation increased the dimensional stability of red jabon wood, while the leaching and water absorption in the wood significantly reduced. Heating at 180 °C caused less water absorption and higher dimensional stability of the wood than that of heating at 90 °C. Impregnation with boric acid and MMA followed by heating at 90 °C resulted in the highest wood ASE, 89.9%. The color change (ΔE*) of wood increased significantly after MMA impregnation and heating at 180 °C. Boric acid impregnation caused more resistant wood than borax impregnation against decay fungi and termites. Impregnation with boric acid and MMA followed with heating at 180 °C increased significantly the wood resistance against decay fungi and termites.

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옻칠의 건조속도를 향상시키기 위해 Laccase를 적용하여 효소첨가제로써의 가능성을 확인하고자 하였다. 옻칠의 Laccase와 부후균의 Laccase를 적용한 경우 국내산과 중국산 모두 건조시간이 단축되었다. Laccase를 적용한 시험편 모두 건조시작 60분 안에 지촉건조가 이루어졌으며, Laccase의 함량비율이 높아질수록 건조속도가 향상되었다. 또한 국내산 옻칠과 중국산 옻칠의 경화건조시간의 차이는 있지만 온도 20 ± 2 °C, 습도 55-60 %의 상온에서도 경화건조가 이루어지는 것이 확인되었다. 건조된 시험편의 도막분석 결과, 우루시올 대비 Laccase 함량비율이 5:1일 때 건조속도가 향상되었으며, 색차와 밀착력의 차이가 없고 도막이 안정적임을 확인하였다. Laccase를 적용한 경우 국내산과 중국산 옻칠의 광택도가 모두 감소되는 양상이 관찰되었으나 이외 FT-IR과 Py-GC/MS의 분석결과 물성에 영향을 미치는 정도의 성분변화는 나타나지 않아 첨가제로써의 적용 가능성을 확인하였다.


Laccase was applied to improve the drying speed of urushi lacquer to confirm a potential use of laccase as an enzyme additive. As a result of applying laccase of lacquer and white-rot fungi, drying times for both Korean and Chinese specimens were reduced. All of the specimens to which laccase was applied were dried(set to touch) within 60 minutes from the start of the drying, and the drying rate was improved as the content ratio of laccase increased. In addition, although there were differences in hardening drying time between Korean and Chinese lacquers, it was confirmed that hardening drying took place even at room with temperature of 20 ± 2 °C and humidity of 55-60%. As a result of lacquer layer analysis of the dried specimens, the drying speed was improved when the content ratio of laccase to urushiol was 5:1, and there were no differences in chromaticity and adhesion, confirmed that the layers were stable. It was observed that the gloss of both Korean and Chinese lacquers were reduced when laccase was applied. However, according to the analysis of FT-IR and Py-GC/MS, the changes in components were not as sufficient to affect the physical properties. Thus, its applicability as an additive was confirmed.

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본 연구는 배할 및 인사이징 전처리가 횡단면 크기 150 mm 이하 삼나무와 낙엽송 수심재의 고온건조 특성에 미치는 영향을 확인하기 위해 수행되었다. 그 결과, 전처리는 표면할렬과 수축률에 대하여 유의한 차이를 나타내었다. 배할처리는 표면할렬 발생을 줄이기 위한 전처리로서 적합하였으나, 인사이징은 재면의 자상이 서로 연결됨으로써 표면할렬로 전환되는 현상을 야기하기 때문에 전처리로서 적합하지 않았다. 수축률은 전처리 조건에 따라 건조 후 최종함수율이 인사이징, 배할, 배할-인사이징 순으로 감소되는 경향을 나타냄으로써 유의한 결과를 나타내었다. 뒤틀림은 미성숙재의 수축이방성보다 목리각도가 더 크게 영향을 주었으며, 전처리의 영향은 없었다.


This study was conducted to identify the effect of kerfing and incising pretreatments on high-temperature drying characteristics of cedar and larch boxed-heart timbers with a cross section of less than 150 mm. The result showed that the pretreatments have made a significant difference regarding surface check and shrinkage. Although the kerfing was suitable as a pretreatment to reduce the occurrence of surface check, the incising was not suitable as a pretreatment since the knives of timber joined together, causing the conversion to the surface checks. The shrinkage showed a significant result that the final moisture content was reduced in the order of incising, kerfing, and kerfing-incising after the drying process based on the pretreatment condition. Twist was more affected by the grain angle than the anisotropy of the juvenile wood, and there was no effect of pretreatments.

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In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was performed to extract ascorbic acid from rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa Thunb.) fruit. The optimal conditions were investigated by response surface methodology, using two variable including reaction time (16-44 min) and temperature (16-44°C). The ascorbic acid extraction was sensitive to the reaction time rather than the reaction temperature, and the optimal conditions for ascorbic acid extraction were 25°C and 30 min. Ascorbic acid and gallic acid in the rugosa rose fruit extract were completely separated by HPLC, with a resolution factor of over 1.5 between the two. The correlation coefficient of the ascorbic acid was 0.999 in a linearity test for 50-150 μg/mL concentration of extract. The limit of detection and limit of quantification values were 0.16 μg/mL and 29.89 μg/mL, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSD) for repeatability and reproducibility were determined, and each RSD showed good precision at less than 5% (N=6).

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해당 간행물 관심 구독기관

국립산림과학원(구 임업연구원) 충북대학교 전북대학교 서울대학교 건국대학교
 30
 24
 24
 13
 11
  • 1 국립산림과학원(구 임업연구원) (30건)
  • 2 충북대학교 (24건)
  • 3 전북대학교 (24건)
  • 4 서울대학교 (13건)
  • 5 건국대학교 (11건)
  • 6 국민대학교 (7건)
  • 7 농촌진흥청 (7건)
  • 8 강원대학교 (7건)
  • 9 동국대학교 (6건)
  • 10 포항공과대학교 (5건)

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