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한국목재공학회> 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)

목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) update

  • : 한국목재공학회
  • : 공학분야  >  토목공학
  • : KCI등재
  • : SCOPUS
  • : 연속간행물
  • : 격월
  • : 1017-0715
  • : 2233-7180
  • : 목재공업(~1979)→목재공학(1980~)

수록정보
수록범위 : 1권1호(1973)~49권2호(2021) |수록논문 수 : 2,512
목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology)
49권2호(2021년 03월) 수록논문
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1Cover and Contents

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 1-1 (1 pages)

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2Aims and scope

저자 : 한국목재공학회

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 3-3 (1 pages)

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3Evaluation of Flexural Performance According to the Plywood Bonding Method of Ply-Lam CLT(Ply-lam CLT의 합판 접합방식에 따른 휨 성능 평가)

저자 : Gyu Woong Choi , Seung Min Yang , Hyun Jae Lee , Jun Ho Kim , Kwang Hyeon Choi , Seog Goo Kang

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 107-121 (15 pages)

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본 연구에서는 층재 수종과 길이방향의 합판 접합방식과 접합부의 접착제 도포 여부에 따른 휨 성능 및 파괴 양상 분석을 통하여 합판을 코어로 사용한 CLT에 적합한 합판의 접합 방식을 최적화 하고자 하였다. 더글라스 퍼 층재의 경우 길이방향 접합에 의해 휨탄성계수 약 11.5% 감소, 휨강도는 접착제 도포 및 접합방식에 따라 증가 또는 감소하였다. 접착제 미도포 butt joint, 접착제 도포 half lap joint, butt joint 조건이 최적조건으로 도출 되었다. 낙엽송 층재의 경우 길이방향 접합에 의해 휨강도는 약 15%, 휨탄성계수는 약 40% 감소하였으며 접합방식에 따른 차이를 나타내지 않았다. half lab joint와 tongue & groove joint 사용 시 합판 층의 접합부에서 휨에 파괴를 1차적으로 방지해줌으로써 중층의 층재로 전달되는 하중을 감소시켜 주는 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구 결과를 통해 Ply-lam CLT 제조과정에서 낙엽송 층재를 사용하는 경우 접합방법에 따른 차이를 나타내지 않았으며 더글라스퍼 층재를 사용할 경우 butt joint와 half lap 접합 방식이 적합할 것으로 판단된다.


The purpose of this study is to optimize the bonding method of the plywood suitable for cross-laminated timber (CLT) with plywood as a core by analyzing the flexural performance and failure mode according to the lamina species, the method of bonding plywood in the longitudinal direction, and whether or not adhesive is applied to the joint. In the case of the Douglas fir lamina layer, the modulus of elasticity decreased by about 11.5% due to longitudinal bonding, and the modulus of rupture increased or decreased according to the adhesive application and bonding method. The optimal conditions were derived as the butt joint without adhesive, half lap joint with adhesive, and butt joint. In the case of the larch lamina layer, the modulus of rupture and the modulus of elasticity decreased by about 15% and 40%, respectively. When using the half lab joint and tongue & groove joint, it is believed that it reduces the load transmitted to the middle layer by primarily preventing the failure on flexure at the joint of the plywood layer. From the results of this study, the larch lamina layer used in the manufacturing process of Ply-lam CLT did not show any difference based on the bonding method. Butt joint and half lap joint bonding method are determined to be suitable when using Douglas fir lamina layer.

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The radon gas from nature mainly considers a cause of radon problems, and it is closely affect human life cycle. Korean yellow residual soil, Hwangtoh, widely used as a building material, is considered to be one of major sources of indoor radon. However, there have, as yet, been no studies about radon from Hwangtoh in mass market brands. Here, we investigated the indoor radon concentrations and exhalation rates in four Hwangtohs from different brand names and regional features. The Closed Chamber Method (CCM) conducted by a Continuous Radon Monitor (CRM) has been used for the rates of radon exhalation. Based on equations of previous references, the indoor radon concentrations were deducted. As a result, the radon surface exhalation rates resulted in the 1.4208 to 3.0293 Bq·㎡·h-1 range. Significant differences were found among Hwangtohs according to production regions. Materials with higher radon concentration required a longer time to reach a quasi-steady state in a given environment, in other words, the number of half-life cycles increased from a set starting point. The experimentally identified Hwangtohs demonstrated its safety for construction purposes. There exists, so far, a possibility to exert influence radon emanation due to unidentified factors. Therefore, it is necessary to corroborate with more research by increasing the number of Hwangtohs, considering the other references reported high radon exhalation rates. In addition, it is highly recommended that the radon exhalation rates should be measured for all building materials for preventing human health before the material usage.

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5Potential of Neutral Extract Prepared by Treating Pinus radiata Bark with NaHCO3 as a Dyestuff

저자 : Ji Sun Mun , Hwan Chul Kim , Sung Phil Mun

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 134-141 (8 pages)

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This study was conducted to investigate the potential of the neutral extract (NE) prepared by treating P. radiata bark with aqueous NaHCO3 solution as a natural dyestuff. Silk and cotton fabrics were dyed at four different NE concentrations, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% o.w.b. (on the weight of bath). The fabric to liquid ratio of 1 : 50, dyeing temperature of 90℃, and dyeing time of 90 min were used as the fixed condition. The appropriate NE dyeing concentration of silk and cotton fabrics was 1.5% o.w.b. Colors of the dyed silk and cotton fabrics were brown and light brown, respectively. From colorfastness assessment, both dyed silk and cotton showed good washing and rubbing fastness, but poor light fastness. NE dyed fabrics exhibited excellent ammonia deodorization property and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Therefore, NE of P. radiata bark could have the potential for use as a functional brown dyestuff.

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6Synergistic Antifungal Activity of Magnoliae Cortex and Syzyii Flos against Candida albicans

저자 : Jeemin Yoon , Tae-jong Kim

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 142-153 (12 pages)

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Candida albicans is a dermal fungus of the human body that is known to cause oral candidiasis, vaginal candidiasis, and bloodstream infections in immunocompromised people or in certain environmental conditions. As cases of strains resistant to antifungal agents in C. albicans have been reported, studies using plant materials as safe antifungal agents are being actively conducted. In this study, a total of 17 edible plant extracts showed antifungal activity against C. albicans as a result of evaluating a 280-plant extract library using paper disk diffusion method. Among them, the four extracts with the strongest antifungal activity (Cinnamomi Cortex, Cinnamomi Ramulus, Magnoliae Cortex, and Syzygii Flos) were selected and evaluated for synergistic antifungal activity against C. albicans. The combination of Magnoliae Cortex and Syzygii Flos showed a synergistic activity. The antifungal activity was evaluated based on the concentrations of magnolol and eugenol, the respective components of Magnoliae Cortex and Syzygii Flos. Magnolol and eugenol showed synergistic antifungal activities at the concentration ratio of 1:25 - 1:61. The antifungal activity of these two compounds contributes 28 to 48% to the synergistic antifungal activity of the combination of Magnoliae Cortex and Syzygii Flos extract. In this study, we propose that a combination of Magnoliae Cortex and Syzygii Flos can effectively inhibit the growth of C. albicans and that magnolol and eugenol are the responsible inhibitory compounds.

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경주 월성의 본격적인 발굴조사로 다양한 종류의 목제유물이 출토되고 있다. 특히 월성의 주위를 둘러싸고 있는 해자에서 다량 출토되었다. 본 연구에서는 월성 해자에서 출토된 목제방패 2점의 수종분석, 방사성탄소연대측정, 그리고 형태분석을 통해 신라시대 방패에 대한 기초자료를 확보하고자 하였다. 연대측정 결과, 4세기 중반에서 5세기 초반에 벌채된 목재를 사용하여 제작되었음이 확인되었다. 수종분석 결과, 유물의 몸체는 소나무속 연송류로, 손잡이는 느티나무속 느티나무로 식별되었다. 출토 목제방패의 제작 순서는 판목으로 가공된 판에 얇은 선으로 구획을 표시한 후 이중동심원을 구획하고 작은 구멍을 투공한 것으로 확인되었다. 구획선 사이의 간격을 측정한 결과 약 6㎝로 일정하고, 붉은 색과 검은 색으로 채색되어 있다. 형태 분석을 통해 유물의 너비는 각각 50㎝, 36㎝ 이상으로 추정했다.


Various types of wooden relics are being unearthed following the full-scale excavation in Wolseong palace site, Gyeongju in Korea. In particular, a large number of relics were found in the moat surrounding the Wolseong Fortress. This study attempted to secure basic data on the shields of the Silla era through species identification, radiocarbon dating, and shape analysis of the two wooden shields excavated from the Wolseong moat. As a result of the radiocarbon dating, it was confirmed that the shields were made of wood procured in the period between the mid-4th century and the early 5th century. The species identification confirmed that the body of the relic was made with Pinus soft pine group and the handle with Zelkova serrata. It was also confirmed that the excavated wooden shield was made by first marking a thin line on a flat grain board, then marking double concentric circles and perforating small holes. The distance between the division lines is constant at about 6cm, and spaces between them are colored in red and black. The shape analysis estimated that two artifacts were more than 50cm and 36cm in width, respectively.

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8Crystallinity of Low Molar Ratio Urea-Formaldehyde Resins Modified with Cellulose Nanomaterials

저자 : Seongsu Park , Byung-dae Park

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 169-180 (12 pages)

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Inherent crystalline domains present in low formaldehyde to urea (F/U) molar ratio urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins are responsible for their poor adhesion in wood-based composite panels. To modify the crystallinity of low molar ratio (LMR) UF resins, this study investigates the additional effect of cellulose nanomaterials (CNMs), such as cellulose microfibrils (CMFs), cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs), and TEMPO-oxidized CNFs (TEMPO-CNFs) on the crystallinity of modified LMR UF resins. First, two modification methods (post-mixing and in situ) were compared for modified LMR UF resins with TEMPO-CNFs. The modified UF resins with TEMPO-CNFs decreased the nonvolatile solid contents, while increasing the viscosity and gel time. However, the in situ modification of UF resins with TEMPO-CNFs showed lower crystallinity than that of post-mixing. Then, the in situ method was compared for all CNMs to modify LMR UF resins. The modified UF resins with CMFs using the in situ method increased nonvolatile solid contents and viscosity but decreased the gel time. The crystallinity of UF resins modified with TEMPO-CNFs was the lowest even though the crystalline domains were not significantly changed for all modified UF resins. These results suggest that these CNMs should be modified to prevent the formation of crystalline domains in LMR UF resins.

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9Evaluation of Withdrawal Resistance of Screw-Type Fasteners Depending on Lead-Hole Size, Grain Direction, Screw Size, Screw Type and Species

저자 : Hyung Woo Lee , Sang Sik Jang , Chun-won Kang

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 181-190 (10 pages)

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Screw-type fasteners are widely used to make connections between wood members or between wood and steel connectors because they can tolerate the applied loads by withdrawal or shearing. In this study, we evaluated the withdrawal resistances of the screw-type fasteners and analyzed the effects of the lead-hole size, relative grain direction (tangential, radial, and cross-sections) of the wood member, screw diameter, screw type, and species. Two wood species, including domestic larch and imported spruce, and three screw-type fasteners, including domestic lag screws (diameters of 9.46, 7.79, and 6.27 mm), domestic tapping screw (diameter, 6.3 mm), and imported Sherpa screw (diameter, 8.0 mm) were used. To assess the effect of lead-hole size, the lead holes with diameters corresponding to 68.7%, 70.8%, and 74.0% of the shank diameter of the lag screw were predrilled. The lead hole corresponding to 74% of the shank diameter was selected for this study because the smaller lead holes required higher rotational force for installation, which may cause damage in the screw neck, although there was no significant difference in the withdrawal resistance depending on the lead-hole sizes applied in this study. The lag screws installed on the tangential and radial surfaces showed similar withdrawal resistances to each other, which were greater than those installed on the cross-sectional surface. As the lag screw diameter increased from 6.27 mm to 9.46 mm, the withdrawal resistance also increased proportionally. The withdrawal resistance of the tapping screw having a diameter of 6.3 mm was almost 1.6 times higher than that of the lag screw having a similar diameter of 6.27 mm, while that of Sherpa screw having a diameter of 8.0 mm was around 1.4 times higher than that of the lag screw having a similar diameter of 7.79 mm.

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10Challenges of Wood Modification Process for Plantation Eucalyptus: A Review of Australian Setting

저자 : Ros Syazmini Mohd Ghani , Man Djun Lee

발행기관 : 한국목재공학회 간행물 : 목재공학(Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology) 49권 2호 발행 연도 : 2021 페이지 : pp. 191-209 (19 pages)

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Australia has significant wood resources in its native forest, but the resource available for harvest becomes lesser due to the conversion of native forest to conservation reserves. The natural occurrences of bushfires, droughts, and cyclones are highly destructive, making the situation worse. The shortage of wood resources is having a significant negative impact on Australia because wood is so scarce that they cannot meet domestic demands, especially durable wood. Australia cleared approximately 100 million hectares of its land to establish forest plantations, and two million trees were planted. However, most of these plantations are for pulpwood production; however, their application for high-value products is limited due to their undesirable properties. Wood modification is a process of improving unfavorable wood properties to be utilized for a wide range of applications. Australia has not adopted any of these modification processes; it still depends on the less toxic wood preservative to treat wood. This study focuses on the recent advancement in industrial wood modification worldwide and how it may be used to modify Eucalyptus wood for high-value applications. The opportunities and suggestions for Eucalyptus wood modification in Australia will be discussed. Before the study concludes, the future of commercial wood modification for Eucalyptus plantation in Australia will also be presented.

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