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수록정보
수록범위 : 1995권0호(1995)~2019권2호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 2,278
대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집
2019권2호(2019년 09월) 수록논문
최근 권호 논문
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1Quaternary Volcanism and Geo-technical Characteristics at Jeju Island

저자 : Byung-joo Lee

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 3-3 (1 pages)

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In the Korean peninsula there were violent volcanic activity at late Cretaceous to early Tertiary and Quaternary times. Among these volcanism Quaternary one is mainly distributed at Jeju island, Ulneung island, Mt. Paekdu. Jeju island is composed mainly of basaltic lava flows and subordinate amount of pyroclastic and sedimentary rocks. Jeju island contains more than 360 pyroclastic cones. Most of them are scoria cones and about 10 are tuff cones and rings. The former is largely concentrated in inland area, whereas the latter are distributed along the coastal regions. Several deep and hundreds of shallow holes drilled to exploit hot springs and ground-water since the 1960s reveal that the volcanic rocks present only above ac 100m above sea level and are underlain by a few hundreds of meter thick sedimentary rocks and unconsolidated sediments of Plio-Pleistoceen age. The lavas of the Jeju island are known as alkali basalts, hawaiite, mugearite, trachyte and tholeiite. The trachytes intruded at early plateau-stage and late shield-stage. In general, the characteristics of a basaltic lava has big flowage and small viscosity. By this reason a basaltic unit sometimes makes a lava tube and at the surface of the lava tube a sink hole can be made like a limestone area. Lava tube under the underground and the sink hole of the ground surface have to carefully investigate at Jeju Islnd. And also at the gab between upper basaltic unite and lower unite sometimes there is paleo soil which is very unconsolidated at Jeju Islnd.

2Assessing landslide hazard and risk: what we do and what we should do

저자 : Fausto Guzzetti

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 4-4 (1 pages)

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Landslides are present in all continents and play an important role in the evolution of landscapes. In many areas they represent a serious threat to people, properties, society and the environment. It is therefore not surprising that landslide hazard and risk assessment, a topic of scientific, technological and practical relevance, is becoming increasingly popular among scientists, practitioners, decision makers and concerned citizens. Despite numerous attempts and unquestionable progresses, the general assumptions and the most popular methodologies used to assess landslide hazard and for risk evaluation have not changed significantly in the last decades. Today, some of these assumptions show theoretical weakness, and the adopted methodologies reveal practical and operational limitations. In the talk, I deal with populations of landslides i.e., numerous landslides triggered in areas from tens to millions of square kilometers by a trigger (e.g., a rainstorm, earthquake, snowmelt event), or by multiple triggers in a period (from weeks to seasons) or in a long period (years to millennia) of time. Following an introduction on what we need to predict to assess landslide hazard and risk in a useful way, I will introduce the strategies and main methods used to detect and map landslides, and to predict populations of landslides in space (“where” landslide occur) and time (“when”, or how frequently they will occur), and the numerosity (magnitude) and size characteristics (length, width, area, volume) of the landslides. For landslide detection and mapping, I will consider traditional methods based on the visual interpretation of aerial photographs, and modern approaches that exploit the visual, semi-automatic or automatic analysis of a variety of remote sensing images. For landslide spatial prediction, I will discuss the results of a global review of classification-based methods for landslide susceptibility assessment, outlining some of the limitations of the current approaches. For the temporal prediction, leveraging on a global analysis of geographical landslide forecasting and early warning systems, I will discuss short term (from hours to days) forecast capabilities and the limitations. Next, I will discuss long term (from years to centuries) landslide projections considering the impact of the current and the expected climate variations on landslide projections. For landslide numerosity and size characteristics, I will present existing statistics of landslide area and volume obtained from large populations of event-triggered landslides. This will be followed by an analysis of the landslide consequences, with an emphasis on the consequences to the population of Italy, including the presentation of a spatial-temporal model of societal landslide risk for Italy. I will end the presentation by offering recommendations on what I think we need to do to make significant progresses in our collective capacity to predict the hazard posed by populations of landslides, and to anticipate and mitigate their risk.

3Recent large landslide hazards in Asian countries and their background

저자 : Masahiro Chigira

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 5-5 (1 pages)

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Asia is the most landslide-susceptible area in the world, and almost every year we have been experiencing devastating landslides, which have been induced by rainstorms, earthquakes, and snowmelt alongside other complicating factors. Recent earthquakes that induced large landslides were 1999 Chi-Chi, Taiwan, 2008 Wenchuan and 2017 Jiujaigou, China, 2009 Padang, Indonesia, 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, 2011 Tohoku, 2016 Kumamoto, and 2018 Hokkaido, Japan. Rainstorms brought by typhoons and atmospheric depressions also induced many landslide disasters in most of the Asian countries.
Earthquake-induced or rain-induced catastrophic landslides cause enormous disaster because of their suddenness, large volume and high mobility. Their potential sites, therefore, must be predicted, but its methodology is not established yet. We know that those catastrophic landslides are mostly preceded by gravitational slope deformation, which can be a clue for site prediction. Here we report characteristic features and internal structures of gravitational slope deformations that precede rain-induced or earthquake-induced catastrophic landslides from case histories.
Gravitational slope deformation forms many brittle open fractures, which are the groundwater pathways so pore pressure build up does not likely occur. Our recent experience of gigantic rain-induced catastrophic landslides in accretionary complexes suggests that they had a wide crush zone with gouge at their base, which seals fractures and prohibits water leakage from the deformed rock mass. 2009 Shiaolin landslide in Taiwan by typhoon Morakot was bounded by a fault and bedding plane.
Earthquake-induced gigantic landslides, on the other hand, have somehow different geological structures of preceding gravitational deformation because it is induced by shaking rather than pore pressure build up even though preceding rainfalls have some effects on their occurrence. Typical gravitational slope deformations of them are flexural toppling, buckling, and sliding of undercut slopes. Flexural toppling of foliated rocks with rigid, massive rocks in higher elevations may be more susceptible than homogeneous rock mass probably because of shaking behavior. Buckling of parallel or underdip cataclinal slopes forms very unstable slopes; typical landslides of this type were Chiu-feng-erh-shan landslide by 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake Taiwan and Qingping landslides by 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Another type of gravitational deformations that precedes catastrophic failure during earthquakes occurs on a buttressed slope like the Madison landslide by the 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake in the USA. Earthquake-induced landslides of tephra are generally highly mobile and vary in scale from rather shallow ones to large ones as deep as hundreds of meters. They occurred recently during 2009 Padang, 2016 Kumamoto, and 2018 Hokkaido earthquakes, which showed that weathered pumice layers and a clay mineral halloysite are very susceptible to earthquake shaking.

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As the climate warms, the world is experiencing more forest fires. Following forest fires, debris flows occur very commonly when the first major rains hit an area if the vegetation is normally dry. In rain forests, there is a delay in the timing of debris flows. In the late summer of 1991 there was an extensive forest fire in the Columbia Gorge, USA, on the Oregon side of the river that was started naturally by lightning. We learned from this fire that this steep terrain underwent three basic erosion/landslide processes in the next ten years as a result of the fire. After the fire was out in the autumn, the first rains brought abundant surface erosion of burnt soil and vegetation. A lot of this ended in the streams. Second, extensive enhanced rock fall occurred in the burned area. One classic area was next to Multnomah Falls where a Brugg cable fence had to be installed to protect the trail leading to Benson Bridge from rock fall onto hikers. Third, we learned that in a period of 5-10 years after the forest fire, areas of intensive burning of the forest would produce very large debris flows. It takes 5-10 years for the roots of the trees burned to disintegrate. Seven large debris flows in 1996 at Dodson and one large one near there in 2001 are examples of this delayed debris flow generation when a “Pineapple Express” would come into the area. This is a rain forest getting over two meters of precipitation per year. This differs from dry climate forest fires where debris flows are generated with the first major storm after the fire. After the 2017 Gorge fire which also occurred on the Oregon side, but started by two teenagers, we noted the same things. First, there was extensive surface erosion for a week after the first rainfall. Also, all of the roads and trails were closed until checked for rock fall hazards. We now expect debris flows in the next 5-10 years to come down the following drainages that had extreme burning in the headwaters: Tanner Creek, Eagle Creek, Oneota Creek, and Horsetail Creek.

5Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes for Natural Disasters

저자 : Yasuaki Ichikawa

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 7-7 (1 pages)

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Energy is an essential basis of modern human life, and nuclear powers support a major part of the energy supply for many countries. It is urgently important for sustainable supply of nuclear energy to dispose the high-level nuclear wastes (HLW) generated by the nuclear power plants.
The safe disposal of HLW is planned in deep underground repositories sited several hundred meters deep. For the disaster-prone countries like Japan, the facilities of HLW disposal must be provided against the severe disasters. Especially we are discussing how to provide for the huge earthquake, like the Great East Japan Earthquake in 2011.
The barrier system which prevents radionuclide migration for a long period forms an engineered barrier system (EBS, consisting of the HLW itself, vitrified wastes or spent fuel, a metal overpack and bentonite buffer) and a natural barrier, that is, the rock mass.
Bentonite is the key material of the HLW barrier system, which retards the transport radionuclides for extremely long period. We will discuss the properties and behaviors of the bentonite buffer.

6Technical Innovation of Engineering Geology----idea and practice

저자 : Faquan Wu

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 8-8 (1 pages)

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We don't worry about theory, but we concern technology because it is lagged far behind the requirements of the industry! It is the time for the integrated innovation of technology in engineering geology since the blowout-like High-techs and Cool-techs and rich experiences of new tech applications.
An idea is to be proposed for an action on technical innovation aiming at more convenient and intelligent engineering geological work. There have been rich practices in the industry of engineering geology for different purposes, covering mapping, prospection, testing, monitoring and designing technology. Portable laboratory, non-contacting measuring and massif digitalizing; cloud calculating, process simulating and IoT based monitoring, and technical standard renovation will promote and support this industrial innovation.

7Fracture development in rock and soil by plasma blasting

저자 : Bo-an Jang

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 9-9 (1 pages)

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If high voltage and high current electricity is arc-discharged between two electrodes immerged into the water, electrical energy generates a plasma channel between two electrodes and results in high heat, a shock wave and volume increase of water by rapid evaporation. Because shock waves and volume increase fracture rock mass and soil mass like explosive, it is called the plasma blasting.
Laboratory-scale plasma blasting was applied to rock mass to investigate the possibility of using plasma blasting to fracture shale-gas-bearing rock. Specimens were fractured under uniform pressure and under three different stresses which represent the in-situ stress, and the discharge energies required for fracturing and fracture development were investigated. Multiple low-energy blasts, proppants injection and a hydraulic conductivity measurements are performed. All these results indicate that plasma blasting can be a possible method for fracturing shale gas formation. However, more researches are necessary to apply this method in shale gas development in field. Laboratory-scale plasma blasting was applied to soil mass to investigate the possibility of using plasma blasting to clean-up the oil-contamination. Fluids were well penetrated into the soil mass by plasma blasting as sphere shape. The volume of fluid penetration increased as numbers of blasts and the energy increased. This results indicates that the plasma blasting can be a possible tool for injection of cleaning agent into the oil-contaminated soil mass.

8Applications of New Remote Sensing Technology to Natural Rock Slope Stability Analysis

저자 : D Jean Hutchinson , David Bonneau , Dave Gauthier , Ioannis Farmakis , Kurri Reich , Paul-mark Difrancesco , Alex Graham , Melanie Coombs

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 15-15 (1 pages)

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Assessment of stability of natural rock slopes located above infrastructure corridors, such as railways, and highways is required in order to evaluate potential for failure, loss of infrastructure capacity, and threats to public safety. As these slopes are not engineered, natural failure processes dominate. These are difficult to assess as direct physical access is generally not possible, and monitoring data is rarely available.
A variety of remote sensing techniques from several vantage points and platforms have been deployed to evaluate rock slope stability, including LiDAR, photogrammetry, and Gigapan photography, from terrestrial and a variety of airborne platforms. Techniques have been developed to utilize both single data acquisitions as well as time sequential data sets. Analysis of data sets from different sources has proven to be useful in order to reduce loss of data due to occlusion and to provide different data types which are useful for different applications.
A number of case histories of large rock slopes in the mountainous areas of western Canada will be used to demonstrate the integration of engineering geology into the remote sensing analysis of the rock slopes. Research products include assessment of the rockmass characteristics, an assessment of block volume, analysis of slope deformation and failures leading to forecasting of potential future events, dependent on the failure mechanism.
As the database of rock slope case histories continues to build, we are moving ever closer to a more detailed understanding of rock slope failure modes, precursor events, deformation thresholds and the effect of triggering events.

9Shear Stress Relaxation Properties of Discontinuities under Different Stress and JRC

저자 : Ang Liu , Wenli Lin , Jun Zhu

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 16-16 (1 pages)

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Rock mass met in rock engineering is a complex geological material containing numerous discontinuities, the development of these discontinuities and their mechanical properties play a dominant role in the stability of engineering rock mass. The failure of the rocks under loading is not a sudden brittle failure but progressive damage after years or decades by creep and stress relaxation. However, creep test, rather than the relaxation test, is preferred in studying its time-dependent properties, hence stress relaxation behavior is rarely studied. A series of shear tests and shear relaxation tests were performed on artificial samples the discontinuity samples, which were prepared based on Barton's standard profiles with different Joint Roughness Coefficient (JRC). The relaxation behaviors of discontinuities under different stress levels and different JRC is analyzed, and its associated mechanism is discussed from crack activities and viscous deformation during stress relaxation.

10Influence of Salts on Compressibility of Loess in Heifangtai Terrace, China

저자 : Borui Lv , Ling Xu , Chongyang Gao , Dongdong Yan , Yili Wan

발행기관 : 대한지질공학회 간행물 : 대한지질공학회 학술발표논문집 2019권 2호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 17-17 (1 pages)

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Many researches had demonstrated that salts, including soluble and insoluble salts, played a considerable role on loess structure and mineral composition. It was found salts were leached out of the loess because of agricultural irrigation, in Heifangtai terrace in China, where a large number of landslides occurred. To study the effect of salts on compressibility of loess, a series of one-dimensional oedometer tests were performed. The loess washed by water or acetic acid solution, which was to avoid the interference of original salts, was powdered and reconstituted with distilled water, then the samples were immersed in NaCl solution or added a certain mass of lime and contacted with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate. Comparing the compression behavior, the results showed that the variation of compressibility of samples reconstituted by loess treated by distilled water or acid solution was indistinctive. The NaCl solution had a little effect on loess compressibility at high water content, while the NaCl solution would weaken loess compressibility at low water content, compared with samples treated by distilled water, and a threshold water content was gained. Besides, the compressibility of loess treated by adding lime was strongly improved. These findings can rich the study in microstructure of loess and are of importance to guide the geotechnical application.

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