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대한결핵 및 호흡기학회> Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases

Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases update

  • : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회
  • : 의약학분야  >  내과학
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  • : 결핵 및 호흡기 질환(~2004)→Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases(2004~)

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수록범위 : 1권1호(1954)~83권2호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 4,953
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
83권2호(2020년 04월) 수록논문
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KCI등재 SCOPUS

1Recent Advances in Molecular Basis of Lung Aging and Its Associated Diseases

저자 : Min-jong Kang

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 107-115 (9 pages)

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Aging is often viewed as a progressive decline in fitness due to cumulative deleterious alterations of biological functions in the living system. Recently, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying aging biology has significantly advanced. Interestingly, many of the pivotal molecular features of aging biology are also found to contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, for which advanced age is the most crucial risk factor. Thus, an enhanced understanding of how molecular features of aging biology are intertwined with the pathobiology of these aging-related lung disorders has paramount significance and may provide an opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics for these major unmet medical needs. To serve the purpose of integrating molecular understanding of aging biology with pulmonary medicine, in this review, recent findings obtained from the studies of aging-associated lung disorders are summarized and interpreted through the perspective of molecular biology of aging.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

2Particulate-Matter Related Respiratory Diseases

저자 : Sun Young Kyung , Sung Hwan Jeong

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 116-121 (6 pages)

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Particulate matter (PM) is suspended dust that has a diameter of <10 μm and can be inhaled by humans and deposited in the lungs, particularly the alveoli. Recent studies have shown that PM has an adverse effect on respiratory diseases. The aim of this article is to review respiratory diseases associated with PM. According to existing studies, PM is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, bronchial asthma, and several other respiratory diseases and increases the mortality rates of these diseases. Moreover, increased exposure in the high concentration of atmospheric PM is associated with the development of lung cancer. The most simple and common way to protect an individual from airborne PM is to wear a face mask that filters out PM. In areas of high concentration PM, it is recommended to wear a face mask to minimize the exposure to PM. However, the use of N95 or KF94 masks can interfere with respiration in patients with chronic respiratory diseases who exhibit low pulmonary function, leading to an increased risk of respiratory failure. Conclusionally, reduction of the total amount of PM is considered to be important factor and strengthening the national warning notification system to vulnerable patients and proper early management of exacerbated patients will be needed in the future.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

3Current Diagnosis and Management of Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

저자 : Paolo Maria Leone , Luca Richeldi

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 122-131 (10 pages)

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Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis (HP) one of the most common interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) is characterized by exposure to an inhaled inciting antigen that leads to a host immunologic reaction determining interstitial inflammation and architectural distortion. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms are unclear. The absence of international shared diagnostic guidelines and the lack of a “gold-standard” test for HP combined with the presence of several clinical and radiologic overlapping features makes it particularly challenging to differentiate HP from other ILDs, also in expert contests. Radiology is playing a more crucial role in this process; recently the headcheese sign was recognized as a more specific for chronic-HP than the extensive mosaic attenuation. Several classification proposals and diagnostic models have been advanced by different groups, with no prospective validation. Therapeutic options for HP have been limited to antigen avoidance and immunosuppressant drugs over the last decades. Several questions about this condition remain unanswered and there is a need for more studies.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

4Recent Advances in the Diagnosis and Management of Pneumocystis Pneumonia

저자 : Sadatomo Tasaka

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 132-140 (9 pages)

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In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) is a wellknown opportunistic infection and its management has been established. However, PCP is an emerging threat to immunocompromised patients without HIV infection, such as those receiving novel immunosuppressive therapeutics for malignancy, organ transplantation, or connective tissue diseases. Clinical manifestations of PCP are quite different between patients with and without HIV infections. In patients without HIV infection, PCP rapidly progresses, is difficult to diagnose correctly, and causes severe respiratory failure with a poor prognosis. High-resolution computed tomography findings are different between PCP patients with HIV infection and those without. These differences in clinical and radiological features are due to severe or dysregulated inflammatory responses that are evoked by a relatively small number of Pneumocystis organisms in patients without HIV infection. In recent years, the usefulness of polymerase chain reaction and serum β-D-glucan assay for rapid and non-invasive diagnosis of PCP has been revealed. Although corticosteroid adjunctive to anti-Pneumocystis agents has been shown to be beneficial in some populations, the optimal dose and duration remain to be determined. Recent investigations revealed that Pneumocystis colonization is prevalent and that asymptomatic carriers are at risk for developing PCP and can serve as the reservoir for the spread of Pneumocystis by airborne transmission. These findings suggest the need for chemoprophylaxis in immunocompromised patients as well as infection control measures, although the indications remain controversial. Because a variety of novel immunosuppressive therapeutics have been emerging in medical practice, further innovations in the diagnosis and treatment of PCP are needed.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

5Protocol of a Nationwide Observational Study among Patients with Nontuberculous Mycobacterium Pulmonary Disease in South Korea (NTM-KOREA)

저자 : Nakwon Kwak , Hongjo Choi , Doosoo Jeon , Byung Woo Jhun , Kyung-wook Jo , Young Ae Kang , Yong-soo Kwon , Myungsun Lee , Jeongha Mok , Tae-sun Shim , Hong-joon Shin , Jake Whang , Jae-joon Yim

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 141-146 (6 pages)

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Background: The burden of nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) pulmonary disease (PD) is increasing globally. To understand the treatment outcomes and prognosis of NTM-PD, a unified registry is needed. In this project, we aim to construct a multicenter prospective observational cohort with NTM-PD in South Korea (NTM-KOREA).
Methods: The primary objective of this study is to analyze treatment outcomes according to the species. In addition, recurrence rate, adverse events, the impact of each drug on treatment outcomes as well as the impact of characteristics of mycobacteriology will be analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the study are as follows: fulfilling the criteria for NTM-PD having one of the following etiologic organisms: Mycobacterium avium complex, M. abscessus subspecies abscessus, M. abscessus subspecies massiliense, or M. kansasii ; receiving the first treatment for NTM-PD after enrollment; age >20 years; and consenting to participate in the study. Seven institutions will participate in patient enrollment and about 500 patients are expected to be enrolled. Participants will be recruited from 1 March 2020 until 19 March 2024 and will be observed through 19 March 2029. During the follow-up period, participants' clinical course will be tracked and their clinical data as well as NTM isolates will be collected.
Conclusion: NTM-KOREA will be the first nationwide observational cohort for NTM-PD in South Korea. It will provide the information to optimize treatment modalities and will contribute to deeper understanding of the treatment outcomes and long-term prognosis of patients with NTM-PD in South Korea.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

6Reasons and Risk Factors for Readmission Following Hospitalization for Community-acquired Pneumonia in South Korea

저자 : Jong Geol Jang , June Hong Ahn

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 147-156 (10 pages)

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Background: Limited studies have been performed to assess readmission following hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in an Asian population. We evaluated the rates, reasons, and risk factors for 30-day readmission following hospitalization for CAP in the general adult population of Korea.
Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study of 1,021 patients with CAP hospitalized at Yeungnam University from March 2012 to February 2014. The primary end point was all-cause hospital readmission within 30 days following discharge after the initial hospitalization. Hospital readmission was classified as pneumonia-related or pneumonia-unrelated readmission.
Results: During the study period, 862 patients who survived to hospital discharge were eligible for inclusion and among them 72 (8.4%) were rehospitalized within 30 days. In the multivariable analysis, pneumonia-related readmission was associated with para/hemiplegia, malignancy, pneumonia severity index class ≥4 and clinical instability ≥1 at hospital discharge. Comorbidities such as chronic lung disease and chronic kidney disease, treatment failure, and decompensation of comorbidities were associated with the pneumonia-unrelated 30-day readmission rate.
Conclusion: Rehospitalizations within 30 days following discharge were frequent among patients with CAP. The risk factors for pneumonia-related and -unrelated readmission were different. Aspiration prevention, discharge at the optimal time, and close monitoring of comorbidities may reduce the frequency of readmission among patients with CAP.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

7Risk Factor and Mortality in Patients with Pulmonary Embolism Combined with Infectious Disease

저자 : Gi Dong Lee , Sunmi Ju , Ju-young Kim , Tae Hoon Kim , Jung-wan Yoo , Seung Jun Lee , Yu Ji Cho , Yi Yeong Jeong , Kyung Nyeo Jeon , Jong Deog Lee , Ho Cheol Kim

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 157-166 (10 pages)

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Background: Infectious conditions may increase the risk of venous thromboembolism. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factor for combined infectious disease and its influence on mortality in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE).
Methods: Patients with PE diagnosed based on spiral computed tomography findings of the chest were retrospectively analyzed. They were classified into two groups: patients who developed PE in the setting of infectious disease or those with PE without infection based on review of their medical charts.
Results: Of 258 patients with PE, 67 (25.9%) were considered as having PE combined with infectious disease. The sites of infections were the respiratory tract in 52 patients (77.6%), genitourinary tract in three patients (4.5%), and hepatobiliary tract in three patients (4.5%). Underlying lung disease (odds ratio [OR], 3.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.926-7.081; p<0.001), bed-ridden state (OR, 2.84; 95% CI, 1.390-5.811; p=0.004), and malignant disease (OR, 1.867; 95% CI, 1.017-3.425; p=0.044) were associated with combined infectious disease in patients with PE. In-hospital mortality was higher in patients with PE combined with infectious disease than in those with PE without infection (24.6% vs. 11.0%, p=0.006). In the multivariate analysis, combined infectious disease (OR, 4.189; 95% CI, 1.692-10.372; p=0.002) were associated with non-survivors in patients with PE.
Conclusion: A substantial portion of patients with PE has concomitant infectious disease and it may contribute a mortality in patients with PE.

KCI등재 SCOPUS

8Effect of Early Tracheostomy on Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Prolonged Acute Mechanical Ventilation: A Single-Center Study

저자 : Yewon Kang , Wanho Yoo , Youngwoong Kim , Hyo Yeong Ahn , Sang Hee Lee , Kwangha Lee

발행기관 : 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 간행물 : Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases 83권 2호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 167-175 (9 pages)

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Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of early tracheostomy on clinical outcomes in patients requiring prolonged acute mechanical ventilation (≥96 hours).
Methods: Data from 575 patients (69.4% male; median age, 68 years), hospitalized in the medical intensive care unit (ICU) of a university-affiliated tertiary care hospital March 2008-February 2017, were retrospectively evaluated. Early and late tracheostomy were designated as 2-10 days and >10 days after translaryngeal intubation, respectively.
Results: The 90-day cumulative mortality rate was 47.5% (n=273) and 258 patients (44.9%) underwent tracheostomy. In comparison with the late group (n=115), the early group (n=125) had lower 90-day mortality (31.2% vs. 47.8%, p=0.012), shorter stays in hospital and ICU, shorter ventilator length of stay (median, 43 vs. 54; 24 vs. 33; 23 vs. 28 days; all p<0.001), and a higher rate of transfer to secondary care hospitals with post-intensive care settings (67.2% vs. 43.5% p<0.001). Also, the total medical costs of the early group were lower during hospital stays than those of the late group (26,609 vs. 36,973 USD, p<0.001).
Conclusion: Early tracheostomy was associated with lower 90-day mortality, shorter ventilator length of stay and shorter lengths of stays in hospital and ICU, as well as lower hospital costs than late tracheostomy.

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