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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

  • : 한국운동역학회
  • : 예체능분야  >  체육학
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  • : 1226-2226
  • : 2093-9752
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수록정보
수록범위 : 2권1호(1992)~29권3호(2019) |수록논문 수 : 1,140
한국운동역학회지
29권3호(2019년 09월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1태권도 품새 옆차기시 타겟 높이 변화에 따른 운동학적 분석

저자 : Ah Reum Hong , Jae Moo So

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 129-135 (7 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to present the scientific and quantitative data by finding the common points and differences of the side-kick according to the height change through the difference of the side kick motion performance according to the three target height changes and the function of the lower limbs muscle in side kick motion of Taekwondo Poomsae.
Method: For this, total 14 players were selected who were registered in Korea Taekwondo Association and skilled group 7 players who had a medal from national competition and 7 players who did not have Taekwondo experience from department of physics. 4 video cameras to the feature on side kick per target height, and the subjects' support foot was located on the ground reactor and the practice was conducted 3 times: waist, chest, and head as the target height. the basic materials were collected by using Kwon 3D XP program and the T-test was conducted to verify the statistic difference between groups (SPSS 24.0). At this time, the statistics significance level was set as .05 and the following conclusion was obtained.
Results: The lower the proficiency and the higher the height, the more the joint coordination between the hip and the knee.
Conclusion: Summary of the result shows a common point that the change of target's height makes the lower the proficiency and the higher the height, the more the joint coordination between the hip and the knee. Also, the higher the target's height became, the greater angular momentum of thighs, shanks, foot became in common.

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2드롭랜딩 동작 시 다운증후군 아동들의 수직 강성과 하지 운동학적 특성

저자 : Dohoon Koo , Hyokju Maeng , Jonghyun Yang

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 137-143 (7 pages)

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Objective: Ligament laxity and hypotonia are characteristics of Down syndrome patients. The aim of this study was to compare the landing pattern between Down syndrome patients and typically developing subjects. To compare the landing pattern, variables related to ligament laxity and hypotonia i.e. vertical stiffness and lower extremities kinematics were investigated.
Method: Five subjects with Down syndrome (age: 14.6±1.8 years, mass: 47.6±6.94 kg, height: 147.9±6.0 cm) and six able-bodied subjects (age: 13.2±0.4 years, mass: 54.7±6.7 kg, height: 160.1±9.8 cm) participated in this study.
Results: The vertical displacement of the center of mass, vertical reaction force, leg stiffness and range of ankle angle range among Down syndrome patients were significantly different than typically developing group. The youth with Down's syndrome appeared to receive greater vertical impact force at landing than normal youth.
Conclusion: The differences in the biomechanical characteristics suggest the delay in motor development among Down syndrome patients and an increased risk of injury to the lower extremity during movement execution such as drop landing.

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3노인 러너의 신체특성과 하지관절의 생체역학적 비교

저자 : Jong-bin Kim , Sunghe Ha , Sangheon Park , Sukhoon Yoon , Ji-seon Ryu , Sang-kyoon Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 145-155 (11 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the physical characteristics (bone mineral density, joint muscle strength) and running biomechanics between older adults and young adult runners to understand the changes of running strategy by aging.
Method: Bone mineral density (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry, USA) of lower lower extremity and muscle strength (Cybex Humac Norm [DEXA], CSMI, USA) were measured to identify the physical characteristics of 10 elderly (age: 67.70±3.30 yrs, height: 1.68±0.04 m, mass: 67.70±3.80 kg) and 10 young adults (age: 21.20±0.42 yrs, height: 1.73±0.06 m, mass: 72.11±4.15 kg). Running data was collected by using an instrumented treadmill (Bertec, USA) and 7 infrared cameras (Oqus 300, Qualisys, Sweden). Two-way repeated ANOVA analysis was used to analyze results at a significant level of .05 with Bonferroni post hoc analysis.
Results: Compared to the young adult group, the elderly group showed statistically significant difference in physical characteristics and in running characteristics. Elderly runners showed lower BMD and muscle strength compared with young runners (p<.05). In the running parameters, elderly runners tend to show shorter contact time and stride length compared with young runners (p<.05). In the joint angles, elderly runners showed smaller range of ankle motion compared with young runners (p<.05). Finally, elderly runners showed lower level of joint moment, joint power, and GRF compared with young runners in each running speed (p<.05).
Conclusion: The running behavior of the elderly performed periodic running was similar to many variables of young adults. However, there were noticeable differences found in the ankle joints and most kinetic variables compared with young adult runners. This discrepancy may propose that elderly runners should consider appropriate running distance and intensity in the program.

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4손 끝 온도변화가 젊은 성인의 다중 손가락 동작에 미치는 효과

저자 : Narae Shin , Dayuan Xu , Jun Kyung Song , Jaebum Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 157-166 (10 pages)

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Objective: This study examined the effects of stimulating fingertip temperature on the patterns of force sharing and stability properties during multi-finger force production tasks.
Method: 9 adult subjects (male: 3, female: 6, age: 26.11±4.01 yrs, height: 169.22±5.97 cm, weight: 61.44±11.27 kg) participated in this study. The experiment consisted of three blocks: 1) maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) task, 2) single-finger ramp task to quantify enslaving (i.e., unintended force production by non-task fingers), and 3) 12 trials of multi-finger steady-state force production task at 20% MVC. There were three temperature conditions including body-temperature (i.e., control condition), 40℃, and 43℃, and the stimulation was given to the index finger only for all experimental conditions.
Results: There were no significant differences in the MVC forces, enslaving, and the accuracy of performance during the steady-state task between the conditions. However, the share of stimulated index finger force increased with the index fingertip temperature, while the share of middle finger force decreased. Also, the coefficient of variation of both index and middle finger forces over repetitive trials increased with the index fingertip temperature. Under the framework of the uncontrolled manifold (UCM) hypothesis used to quantify indices of multi-finger synergies (i.e., stability property) stabilizing total force during the steady-state task, the two variance components within the UCM analysis increased together with the fingertip temperature, while no changes in the synergy indices between the conditions.
Conclusion: The current results showed that fingertip temperature stimulation only to index finger does not affect to muscle force production capability of multi-finger, independence of individual fingers, and force production accuracy by the involvement of all four fingers. The effect of fingertip temperature on the sharing pattern and force variation may be due to diffuse reflex effects of the induced afferent activity on alpha-motoneuronal pools. However, the unchanged stability properties may be the reflection of the active error compensation strategies by nonstimulated finger actions.

KCI등재

5런닝화의 미드솔 경도가 하지 근육의 피로와 충격력에 미치는 영향

저자 : Eonho Kim , Kyuchan Lim , Seunghyun Cho , Kikwang Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 167-172 (6 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of midsole hardness of running shoe on muscle fatigue and impact force during distance running.
Method: Ten healthy college recreational runners who were performing distance running at least three times a week participated in this experiment. They were asked to run for 15 minutes in the treadmill at 10 km/h with running shoes having three different types of midsole hardness (Soft, Medium, Hard). EMG signal and insole pressure were collected during the first and last one minute for each running trials. Data were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures.
Results: Midsole hardness did not affect the consistency of stride length. For the median frequency of the EMG signal, only VL was affected by midsole hardness; that of medium was greater than other midsoles (p<.05). The loading rate of impact forces increased by midsole hardness (p<.01).
Conclusion: Although soft midsole could attenuate impact forces at heel contact, it might have a negative effect on the fatigue of muscle which could decelerate the body after heel contact. Therefore, it is necessary to select the optimum hardness of midsole carefully for both reduction impact forces and muscle fatigue.

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6달리기 시 발의 인체측정학적 변인과 운동역학적 변인의 관계

저자 : Young Seong Lee , Jiseon Ryu

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 173-183 (11 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation coefficients between anthropometric parameters of the foot and kinetic variables during running.
Method: This study was conducted on 21 healthy young adults (age: 24.8±2.1 yes, height: 177.2 ±5.8 cm, body mass: 73.3±7.3 kg, foot length: 256.5±12.3 mm) with normal foot type and heel strike running. To measure the anthropometric parameters, radiographs were taken on the frontal and sagittal planes, and determined the length and width of each segment and the navicular height. Barefoot running was performed at a preferred velocity (3.0±0.2 m/s) and a fixed velocity (4.0 m/s) on treadmill (Bertec, USA) in order to measure the kinetic variables. The vertical impact peak force, the vertical active peak force, the braking peak force, the propulsion peak force, the vertical force at mid-stance (vertical ground reaction when the foot is fully landed in mid-stance or at the point where the weight was uniformly distributed on the foot) and the impact loading rate were calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the relationship between anthropometric variables and kinetical variables. The significance level was set to α = .05.
Results: At the preferred velocity running, the runner with longer forefoot had lower active force (r=-.448, p=.041) than the runner with short forefoot. At the fixed velocity, as the navicular height increases, the vertical force at full landing moment increases (r= .671, p= .001) and as the rearfoot length increases, the impact loading rate decreases (r=- .469, p= .032).
Conclusion: There was a statistically significant difference in the length of fore-foot and rearfoot, and navicular height. Therefore it was conclude that anthropometric properties need to be considered in the foot study. It was expected that the relationship between anthropometric parameters and kinetical variables of foot during running can be used as scientific criteria and data in various fields including performance, injury and equipment development.

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7스쿼트 시 Toe-out 각도 변화에 따른 운동역학적 변인 분석

저자 : Hyeong Kyeong Song , Jae Moo So

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 185-196 (12 pages)

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Objective: The aim of this study was to suggest correct and effective way of squat through biomechanical analysis variables on the change of the toe-out angle.
Method: 7 high school male weightlifter (age: 17.57±0.53 yrs, height: 174.0±3.93 cm, weight: 81.0±9.17 kg, 1RM: 164.29±20.7 kg) participated in this study.
Results: Angle of the hip joint at E2 was smaller than toe-out angle was in 20° than in 0° (p<.05). Angular velocity of the foot joint at E1 and E3 was quicker that in 10° than in 30° (p<.05). Anterior-posterior stability index was greater that toe-out angle was in 30° than in 0° (p<.05). In average iEMG of flexion phase, VM of right, left leg showed high activity at toe-out angle 30°. In average iEMG of flexion phase, extension phase and in peak iEMG, RF of right leg, VM and VL of left leg showed high activity at all of the toe-out angles. In average iEMG of flexion phase, extension phase and in peak iEMG, all of the muscles activity of right leg showed high in 10° and low in 0°, 30°.
Conclusion: It is judged that setting the toe-out angle 10° in squat help to efficiently use muscles and ensure stability.

KCI등재

8Effect of Modified High-heels on Metatarsal Stress in Female Workers

저자 : Kwantae Kim , Hsien-te Peng

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 29권 3호 발행 연도 : 2019 페이지 : pp. 197-204 (8 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of high-heels (HH) modification on metatarsal stress in female workers.
Method: Seven females who work in clothing stores (heights = 160.4±3.9 cm; weights = 47.4±4.1 kg; age = 31.3±11.1 yrs; HH wear career = 8±6.5 yrs) wore two types of HH (original and modified). The modified HH had been grooved with 1.5 cm radius and 0.2 cm depth around the first metatarsal area inside of the shoes using the modified shoe-last. Participants were asked to walk for 15 minutes on a treadmill and to stand for 10 minutes with original and modified HH, respectively. Kinetics data were collected by the F-scan in-shoe system. After each test, participants were asked to rate their perceived exertion using the Borg's 15-grade RPE scale and interviewed about their feeling of HH. Nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test and effect size (Cohen's d) were used to determine the difference of the variables of interest between the original and modified HH.
Results: In the present study, modified HH of the peak contact pressure of 1st metatarsal (PCP) left, PCP right, pressure time integral (PTI) left, peak pressure gradient (PPG) left during standing and PPG right during walking are greater than original HH. And even it didn't show statistically significant, the average in all pressure values of modified HH showed bigger than original HH. It surmised to be related to awkward with modified HH. Even though they said to feel the comfortable cause of big space inside of HH in the interview, they seemed to be not enough time to adapt with new HH. So their walking and standing postures were unstable.
Conclusion: Modified the fore-medial part of HH can reduce the stress in the first metatarsal head and big toe area during standing and walking.

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