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Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics

  • : 한국운동역학회
  • : 예체능분야  >  체육학
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  • : 2093-9752
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수록범위 : 2권1호(1992)~30권1호(2020) |수록논문 수 : 1,160
한국운동역학회지
30권1호(2020년 03월) 수록논문
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KCI등재

1Biomechanical Evaluation of Elbow Moment in Pitching Types according to the Throwing Speed: A Pilot Study

저자 : Chang-hyung Lee , Jin-hwan Yang , Seung-hoo Lee , Gyu-chang Lee , Jong-chul Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 1-6 (6 pages)

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Objective: The incidence rate of elbow ulnar collateral ligament injuries is dependent on the throwing speed or pitching type, especially in adolescent baseball players. However, mixed results have been reported due to a lack of controlled biomechanical analysis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the biomechanical analysis of the elbow in relation to throwing speed and pitching type.
Method: Four overhead type high-school baseball players were recruited for this study. The participants were asked to throw balls with different types of pitch and speed. While the throwing speeds were measured, each pitching moment of the elbow was recorded. Descriptive statistics, frequency analysis, mean comparison analysis, and Pearson's correlation analysis were performed in order to examine differences in peak varus and valgus moment during pitching motion in the elbow in all throwing speed and pitching types.
Results: There was no significant difference in physical characteristics, throwing speed, and momentum variability among all players. The mean varus moments were 44.38±1.55 Nm, 48.83±1.66 Nm, and 48.94±0.95 Nm, and the moment gaps between varus and valgus were 7.36±3.25 Nm, 7.44±2.02 Nm, and 7.36±2.62 Nm in fastball, curveball, and slider ball, respectively. The varus moment was higher in the curved and slider balls than in the fastballs, and there was no significant differences between the varus moments regarding the pitching type. However, the increase in valgus moment and decrease in moment gap according to throwing speed was significantly increased in the slider ball (r=0.718 and -0.591, respectively).
Conclusion: The possibility of elbow injury caused by the valgus moment or moment gap increases more rapidly in slider balls as the speed increases. Based on our results, appropriate pitching guidelines should be suggested to prevent ulnar ligament injuries, especially in adolescent baseball players.

KCI등재

2역도 인상동작 불안정성 수준에 따른 발바닥 체성감각요인 분석

저자 : Young Jin Moon

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 7-16 (10 pages)

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Objective: It is to find factors related to stability through analysis of plantar pressure factors according to the level of instability when performing Snatch.
Method: Foot pressure analysis was performed while 10 weightlifters performed 80% of the highest level of Snatch, and motion was classified and analyzed in 3 grades according to the level of instability.
Results: First, in Bad Motion, the movement distance of the pressure center in the direction of ML and AP was larger significantly in Phase 2. Second, in Phase 2, the number of zero-crossing in the AP direction was larger statistically significantly in Good Motion. Third, in the bad motion in Phase 3, the number of zero-crossing in the ML direction showed a significantly larger value. Fourth, in Phase 4, it was found that the more stable the lock out motion, the greater the activity of foot controlling in the left and right directions. Fifth, Phase 3, the greater the Maximum/Mean foot pressure value, the more stable the pulling action. Sixth, in Phase 2, the foot pressure was concentrated with a wide distribution in the midfoot and rearfoot. Seventh, the triggering number of the forefoot region was small in the last pull phase. Eighth, the number of triggers in the toe area was significantly higher during Good Motion in Phase 4.
Conclusion: Summarizing the factors of instability in Snatch, there was no significant difference in Phase 1 for each condition. In order to enhance the stability in Phase 2, the sensory control ability in the AP direction is required, and focusing the foot pressing motion with a wide distribution in the middle and rear parts increases the instability. In Phase 3, it was found that the more unstable, the more sensory control activity was performed in the ML direction, the stronger the forefoot pressing action should be performed for a stable Snatch. In Phase 4, It is important that the feet sensory control activity in ML directions and the control ability of the toes in order to have stable Lock out motion.

KCI등재

3Kinematic Comparative Analysis of Long Turns between Experienced and Inexperienced Ski Instructors

저자 : Hyun Dai Jo

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 17-25 (9 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to provide a better understanding of long turn mechanism by describing long turns after kinematic analysis and provide skiers and winter sports instructors with data through which they are able to analyze right postures for turns in skiing in a systematic, rational and scientific manner.
Method: For this, a mean difference of kinematic variables (the center of gravity (CG) displacement of distance, trajectory, velocity, angle) was verified against a total of 12 skiers (skilled and unskilled, 6 persons each), regarding motions from the up-start to down-end points for long turns.
Results: First, concerning the horizontal displacement of CG during a turn in skiing, skilled skiers were positioned on the right side at the upstart and edge-change points at a long turn. There was no difference in anteroposterior and vertical displacements. Second, in terms of CG-trajectory differences, skilled skiers revealed a significant difference during a long turn. Third, regarding skiing velocity, skilled skiers were fast at the edge-change and maximum inclination points in long turns. Fourth, there was no difference in a hip joint in terms of a lower limb joint angle. In a knee joint, a large angle was found at the up-start point among skilled skiers when they made a long turn.
Conclusion: In overall, when skilled and unskilled skiers were compared, to make a good turn, it is required to turn according to the radius of turn by reducing weight, concerning the CG displacement. Regarding the CG-trajectory differences, the edge angle should be adjusted via proper inclination angulation. In addition, a skier should be more leaned toward the inside of a turn when they make a long turn. In terms of skiing velocity, it is needed to reduce friction on snow through the edging and pivoting of the radius or turn according to curvature and controlling ski pressure. Regarding a lower limb joint angle, it is important to make an up move by increasing ankle and knee angles instead of keeping the upper body straight during an up motion.

KCI등재

4골프스윙 시 지면반력 크기와 시간 차이가 클럽헤드 속도에 미치는 영향

저자 : Byung Hoon Woo

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 27-35 (9 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of clubhead velocity through regression analysis on the magnitude and time difference of the forward-backward, medio-lateral, and vertical ground reaction peak forces generated by force plate during golf swing.
Method: 16 subjects (age: 20.5±4.2 yrs, height: 176.0±5.4 cm, weight: 77.8±5.9 kg, handy: 2.4±1.7) who is elite golf player in high school and university, participated in this study. The study method adopted three-dimensional analysis with 8 cameras and ground reaction force measurement with two force plate. The analysis variables were clubhead velocity, and ground reaction analysis variables set four events in each graph based on the peak forces commonly generated in Fx, Fy, and Fz graphs of the ground reaction data during the golf swing.
Results: As a result of analyzing the influence of ground reaction magnitude difference on clubhead velocity, the influence on clubhead velocity was ym4, zm1, xm4, zm2. The larger ym4, xm4, zm1, the faster the clubhead velocity, but the smaller the zm2, the faster the clubhead velocity. And in time difference, the influence on the clubhead velocity was in the order of xt4, zt1, zt3. The shorter xt4, zt1, zt3 showed faster clubhead velocity.
Conclusion: The left foot played a leading role in increasing the velocity of the clubhead. Although the result was caused by the interaction of the right foot and the left foot during the swing, the role of the left foot is relatively large.

KCI등재

5태권도 자유 품새에 적용하기 위한 뛰어 앞차기 착지 동작의 상해 예방 전략

저자 : Sihyun Ryu

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 37-49 (13 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury factors of Taekwondo jumping kick during landing phase according to the experience of injury and to suggest a stable landing movement applicable to free style Poomsae.
Method: The participants were non-injury group (NG), n = 5, age: 20.5±0.9 years; height: 171.6 ±3.6 cm; body weight: 65.7±4.4 kg; career: 5.0±2.7 years. Injury group (IG), n = 9, age: 21.0±0.8 years; height: 170.9±4.6 cm; body weight: 67.1±7.0 kg; career: 8.6±5.0 years. The variables are impact force, loading rate, vertical stiffness, lower limb joint angle, stability, balance, and muscle activity in the landing phase.
Results: NG was statistically larger than IG in the gluteus medius (p<.05). The impact force, loading rate and vertical stiffness decreased as the landing foot angle, the ROM of lower limb joint angle and COM displacement increased (p<.05).
Conclusion: Based on the results, it means that the landing foot angle plays an important role in the impact reduction during landing phase. It is required the training to adjust the landing foot angle.

KCI등재

6펜싱 팡트 동작 숙련도에 따른 세 그룹간의 운동학적 비교분석

저자 : Hyun Dai Jo , Ho Yeol Park

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 51-61 (11 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyse and comparison the differences of kinematic variables for Fente skill in Fencing.
Method: For this, 15 people were selected as 5 beginners with less than 2 years of experience, 5 intermediate-class people with more than 2 years and less than 4 years, and 5 experts-class people with more than 4 years. Through the comparison of Marche Fente motion according to proficiency, for the necessary time, travel distance, the kinematical factor of joint angle, one-way ANOVA was performed in order to identify differences according to variables by phase.
Results: The time required for each phase was shown to be shorter for all phases experts than for beginners and intermediates. At the horizontal displacement of the foot, the right foot left out the last phase and the experts appeared long. The left foot showed short beginners in all phases. The angle of forward lean showed that the angle of forward lean was tilted forward by the experts of all phases. There was a difference between the left and right joint angles of the lower limb, both of the ankle, knee and hip joints.
Conclusion: In overall, Beginners should quickly widen the distance of their feet when they make a Fente movement. The beginner shall tilt the upper body forward in order to increase the angle of forward lean. The beginner shall, in the last phase, have a smaller angle on the hip joint.

KCI등재

7만성요통환자를 대상으로 운동치료 및 물리치료가 통증에 미치는 효과에 대한 메타분석

저자 : Sung-kyu Kim , Bee-oh Lim

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 63-72 (10 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate meta-analysis on the effects of exercise therapy and physiotherapy on pain in korean patients with chronic low back pain.
Method: Meta-analysis was performed on the type and method of treatment. A total of 23 experimental studies were coding into 31 individual studies, into types, methods, visual analogue scale (VAS), each pre/post value of the effect size was calculated by meta-analysis.
Results: Sling exercise, stretching, thermal therapy, kinesio-taping, lumbar stabilization exercise, electrotherapy is large effect size (ES ≥ .08). In addition, big effects occurred in order of treatment period is more than 9 weeks, three times a week.
Conclusion: Our results indicated that persistent treatment of chronic back pain is the most effective method of self-sufficiency rather than temporary relief.

KCI등재

8수중걷기운동이 여성노인의 보행 및 평형능력에 미치는 영향

저자 : Ki-joo Kang , Joong-sook Lee , Jeong-ok Yang , Joon-sung Park , Ki-hoon Han

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 73-81 (9 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of aquatic walking exercise on gait and balance parameters of elderly women.
Method: 15 elderly people were recruited for this study (age: 73.20±5.19 yrs, height: 153.87± 3.36 cm, mass: 60.33±5.73 kg). All variables were measured using Gaitview AFA-50. The variables were the heel contact time ratio, gait angle, and M/P change ratio for gait patterns and ENV, REC, RMS, Total Length, TLC, Sway velocity, and Length/ENV for balance abilities. A paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test were carried out to verify the differences in the test scores after participating in the water walking program. The significance level for all statistical analyses was set to α=.05.
Results: As for the changes in their walking function after the exercise, heel contact time ratio (p<.01) showed a statistical significance, while gait angle and M/P change ratio did not reveal statistically significant differences. In the test of balance ability on both feet and with eyes opened, statistical significance was found in ENV, REC, RMS, TLC (p<.01), and sway velocity (p<.05), while the test with eyes closed showed statistical significance in length/ENV as well as ENV, REC, RMS, sway velocity (p<.01) TLC, and total length (p<.05). As for the single-leg stance balance ability, ENV and REC revealed statistically significant differences.
Conclusion: These results show that water walking is effective for improving the function of the ankle flexor muscles, providing stability to the ankle joint during walking and helping efficient walk. In addition, it is also expected to help prevent falls due to loss of balance by improving the stability of lower extremity muscles and trunk.

KCI등재

9한국형 파킨슨 환자의 역학적 기능수행지수 개발

저자 : Sunghoon Shin , Byungin Han , Chulmin Chung , Yungon Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 83-91 (9 pages)

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Objective: The study aimed to develop a functional performance index that evaluates the functional performance of Parkinson's patients, i.e., to integrate biomechanical measurements of walking, balance, muscle strength and tremor, and to use multiple linear regression with stepwise methods to identify the most suitable predictors for the progression of disease.
Method: A total of 60 subjects were tested for sub-variables of four factors: walking, balance, isometric strength and hand tremors. Potential independet variables were extracted through correlation analysis of the sub-variables and dependent variables, Hoehn & Yahr scale. And then, a stepwise multiple regression analysis using the potential independent variables was performed to identify predictor of Hoehn & Yahr scale.
Results: First, the results of the study showed that physical composition and gait had a relatively more correlated with the progression of the disease, compared to balance and hand tremor. Second, Parkinson's functional performance is characterized by dynamic pattern of walking, such as foot clearance and turning angle (TA) of walking, and a high-explained regression model is completed.
Conclusion: The study emphasized the importance of walking variables and body composition in minor pathological features compared to Parkinson's patient's balancing ability and hand tremor. Specifically, it revealed that dynamic walking patterns functionally characterize patients. The results are worth considering when assessing functional performance related to the progression of the disease at the site.

KCI등재

10경추 자세변화에 따른 성인의 족저압력 균형 및 폐활량의 차이

저자 : Ha Young Joo , Jeong Ok Yang , Joong Sook Lee

발행기관 : 한국운동역학회 간행물 : 한국운동역학회지 30권 1호 발행 연도 : 2020 페이지 : pp. 93-101 (9 pages)

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Objective: The purpose of this study was to differences of foot plantar pressure balance and lung capacity according to cervical posture in adults.
Method: The subjects consisted of 33 adults in their 20s and 50s who use M centers in B-gu and H-gu, B-City, and they measured foot plantar pressure balance and lung capacity according to cervical posture (cervical normal curvature posture, cervical flexural posture) in adults.
Results: In this study, the difference of foot plantar pressure balance according to cervical posture were analyzed. In the difference between left and right foot pressure balance. It was 1.50% increased in the cervical flexural posture than in the cervical normal curvature posture, and a statistically significant difference was observed. In the difference between the anterior and posterior foot pressure balance. It was 4.28% increased in the cervical flexural posture than in the cervical normal curvature posture, and a statistically significant difference was observed. The difference of lung capacity according to cervical posture were analyzed. In the PEF, It was 58.63 l/min decreased in the cervical flexural posture than in the cervical normal curvature posture, and a statistically significant difference was observed. In the FEV1, It was 0.15 ℓdecreased in the cervical flexural posture than in the cervical normal curvature posture, and a statistically significant difference was observed.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that had a positive effect on differences of foot plantar pressure balance and lung capacity at cervical normal curvature posture in adults. In future research, it is believed that research on the elderly who have collapsed the normal curvature posture due to aging, as well as teenagers whose normal curvature posture due to the use of smartphones, will contribute to the balance of foot pressure and improvement of the right cervical habits. In future studies, it is also believed that it will be necessary to measure lung capacity after performing exercise according to the cervical posture, thereby providing sufficient oxygen during exercise to enhance the persistence and efficiency of the movement.

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